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Encyclopedia > Rembrandt
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn

Self portrait by Rembrandt, detail (1661).
Birth name Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Born July 15, 1606(1606-07-15)
Leiden, Netherlands
Died October 4, 1669 (aged 63)
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Field Painting, Printmaking

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history.[1] His contributions to art came in a period that historians call the Dutch Golden Age. The term Rembrandt has several possible uses: Rembrandt van Rijn was a famous 17th Century Dutch painter. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... Medieval Art Main article: Medieval art Art during Medieval times was almost exclusively concerned with Christianity. ... The present-day territory of the Netherlands has been inhabited since the paleolithic. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, his later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardship. Yet his drawings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high[2] and for twenty years he taught nearly every important Dutch painter.[3] Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. The self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.[4] Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ... Self Portrait is a 1970 double album by Bob Dylan. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


In both painting and printmaking he exhibited a complete knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of the Jewish population of Amsterdam.[5] Of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization."[6] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Life

Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, etching and burin, 1630.
Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, etching and burin, 1630.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on July 15, 1606 in Leiden, the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritsz van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdr van Zuytbrouck. [7] His family was quite well-to-do; his father was a miller and his mother was a baker's daughter. As a boy he attended Latin school and was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh, with whom he spent three years. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the famous painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou.[8] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Pieter Lastman (1583 - 1633) was a painter from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Magdelana by Jan Lievens Jan Lievens (1607–1674) was a painter and an excellent visual artist from Leiden. ... Gerhard Douw (spelling variants Gerard, Gerrit, Dou, Dow) (April 7, 1613–February 9, 1675) was a Dutch painter. ...


In 1629 Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, the father of Christiaan Huygens (a famous Dutch mathematician and physicist), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of the Hague. As a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646.[9] Constantijn Huygens (September 4, 1596 - March 28, 1687) was a Dutch poet and composer, Secretary to two Princes, and the father of Christiaan Huygens. ... Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: ) (April 14, 1629 – July 8, 1698), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ...


At the end of 1631, Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, then rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, and began to practise as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburg, and in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburg.[10] Saskia came from a good family: her father had been lawyer and burgemeester (mayor) of Leeuwarden. When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. They were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of his relatives. In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and a member of the local guild of painters. He also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck.[11] The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632), painted by Rembrandt while at Hendrick van Uylenburghs studio Hendrick van Uylenburgh (ca. ... Saskia van Uylenburg (1612 - June 14, 1642) was the wife of Rembrandt van Rijn. ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 116. ... Sint Annaparochie is the principal and largest town of the municipality of Het Bildt in Friesland, the Netherlands. ... Ferdinand Bol (born in June 24, 1616 in Dordrecht - died August 24, 1680 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. ... Landscape Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck (January 25, 1615 - February 2, 1660) was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age. ...

Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburg, ca. 1635.
Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburg, ca. 1635.

In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat. In 1639, they moved to a prominent house (now the Rembrandt House Museum) in the Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter; the mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a primary cause for later financial difficulties.[11] It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes.[12] Although they were by now affluent, the couple suffered several personal setbacks; their son Rumbartus died two months after his birth in 1635 and their daughter Cornelia died at just 3 weeks of age in 1638. In 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month. Only their fourth child, Titus, who was born in 1641, survived into adulthood. Saskia died in 1642 soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. Rembrandt's drawings of her on her sick and death bed are among his most moving works.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saskia van Uylenburg (1612 - June 14, 1642) was the wife of Rembrandt van Rijn. ... The Rembrandt House Museum [1] is a house in the Reguliersbreestraat in Amsterdam not far from the new townhall, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years. ... The Rembrandthuis museum, home to the painter Rembrandt from 1639 to 1656 Coordinates: The Jodenbreestraat (Jewish Broad Street) is a street in the centre of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Guilder is the English translation of gulden, (old) Dutch for golden. The gulden originated as a gold coin (hence the name) but has been a common name for a silver or base metal coin for some centuries. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Portrait of Titus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) Titus van Rijn (Amsterdam 22 September 1641 - 1668) was the fourth and only surviving child of Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn and Saskia van Uylenburgh. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


During Saskia's illness, Geertje Dircx was hired as Titus' caretaker and nurse and probably also became Rembrandt's lover. She would later charge Rembrandt with breach of promise and was awarded alimony of 200 guilders a year.[11] Rembrandt worked to have her committed for twelve years to an asylum or poorhouse (called a "bridewell") at Gouda, after learning Geertje had pawned jewelry that had once belonged to Saskia, and which Rembrandt had given her. Danae, 1636 - although Saskia was the original model, Rembrandt later changed the face to that of Geertje Geertje Dircx (sometime between 1610 and 1615, in Edam - ?) was a model and lover of Rembrandt and the wetnurse to his son Titus. ...


In the late 1640s Rembrandt began a relationship with the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been his maid. In 1654 they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje a summons from the Reformed church to answer the charge "that she had committed the acts of a whore with Rembrandt the painter". She admitted this and was banned from receiving communion. Rembrandt was not summoned to appear for the Church council because he was not a member of the Reformed church.[14] The two were considered legally wed under common law, but Rembrandt had not married Henrickje, so as not to lose access to a trust set up for Titus in his mother's will.[13] Rembrandt, Hendrickje as Sarah Statue of Hendrickje Stoffels in the marketplace at Bredevoort Hendrikje Stoffels, bathing in a river, 1654, oil on panel, 61. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ...

Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660.
Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660.

Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying art (including bidding up his own work), prints (often used in his paintings) and rarities, which probably caused a court arrangement to avoid his bankruptcy in 1656, by selling most of his paintings and large collection of antiquities. The sale list survives and gives us a good insight into his collections, which apart from Old Master paintings and drawings included busts of the Roman Emperors, suits of Japanese armour among many objects from Asia, and collections of natural history and minerals; the prices realized in the sales in 1657 and 1658 were disappointing.[15] He also had to sell his house and his printing-press and move to more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht in 1660.[16] The authorities and his creditors were generally accommodating to him, except for the Amsterdam painters' guild, who introduced a new rule that no one in Rembrandt's circumstances could trade as a painter. To get round this, Hendrickje and Titus set up a business as art-dealers in 1660, with Rembrandt as an employee.[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2435, 368 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Titus in Mönchkleider Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 79,5 × 68 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de: Rijksmuseum Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2435, 368 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Titus in Mönchkleider Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 79,5 × 68 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de: Rijksmuseum Other... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... An Old Master (or old master) is one of the great European painters who lived 1500 through 1800, or a painting by one of these painters. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ...


In 1661 he (or rather the new business) was contracted to complete work for the newly built city hall, but only after Govert Flinck, the artist previously commissioned died without beginning to paint. The resulting work, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis, was rejected and returned to the painter; the surviving fragment has been significantly cut down in size.[18] It was around this time that Rembrandt took on his last apprentice, Aert de Gelder. In 1662 he was still fulfilling major commissions for portraits and other works.[19] When Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany visited Amsterdam in 1667, he visited Rembrandt at his house.[20] Landscape Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck (January 25, 1615 - February 2, 1660) was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age. ... The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis is a 1661-62 painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt, which was originally the largest he ever painted, at around five by five metres in the shape of a lunette. ... Aert de Gelder (Oct. ... Cosimo III de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 August 1642 – 31 October 1723) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1670 to 1723. ...


Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje, who died in 1663, and Titus, who died in 1668, leaving a baby daughter. Rembrandt died within a year of his son, on October 4, 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Westerkerk.[21] is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... View of the Prinsengracht canal by night showing the Westerkerk on the far right and the Anne Frank house just right of the centre The Westerkerk is a church in Amsterdam, finished in 1638 after a design by Hendrick de Keyser. ...


Works

Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee, 1633. Oil on canvas.
Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee, 1633. Oil on canvas.

In a letter to Huyghens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from die meeste ende di naetuereelste beweechgelickheijt. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive." Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual as has no other painter in Western art.[22] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (792x1000, 290 KB) العربية | Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (792x1000, 290 KB) العربية | Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other...


Earlier 20th century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced over 600 paintings, nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings.[23] More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, have winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings.[24] His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes drypoint, have a much more stable total of slightly under 300.[25] It is likely he made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed.[26] For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal (or diamond) point. ...


At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group.[27] Many show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630's, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly-weathered face.[28] Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used...


Among the more prominent characteristics of his work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means.[29] Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family — his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje — often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes. For other use of the term, see Chiaroscuro (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Prometheus Being Chained by Vulcan by Dirck van Baburen (1623) Oil on canvas, 202 x 184 cm. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Periods, themes and styles

The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work is considered to be "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of baroque painting."
The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work is considered to be "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of baroque painting."[30]

Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterful interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail.[31] Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early 'smooth' manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late 'rough' treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself.[32] Image File history File links Rembrandt_Abduction_of_Europa. ... Image File history File links Rembrandt_Abduction_of_Europa. ... Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, circa 1869. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


A parallel development may be seen in his skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones.[33]


It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625-1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well.[34] Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies, half-length figures not intended as specific portraits.[34] In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame.[34] In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio, works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter.[35] Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success.
A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success.

During his early years in Amsterdam (1632-1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format (The Blinding of Samson, 1636, Belshazzar's Feast, c. 1635), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens.[36] With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632).[37] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1196x1600, 121 KB) Rembrandt, Portret van Haesje v. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1196x1600, 121 KB) Rembrandt, Portret van Haesje v. ... Rembrandt. ... Jacob de Gheyn III, also known as Jacob III de Gheyn, is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt. ... The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ...


By the late 1630s, Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641, The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In 1642 he painted the The Night Watch, his largest work and the most notable of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works.[38] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637-47).[39] At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes.[40] In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.

Self Portrait, 1658, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits".
Self Portrait, 1658, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits".[41]

In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Paintings increased in size, colours became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings.[42] The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusionistic and highly individual manner.[43] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2622, 396 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rembrandt ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2622, 396 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rembrandt ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ...


In later years, biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, ca. 1666)--- in love, in life, and before God .[44][45] The Jewish Bride (Dutch: Het Joodse bruidje) is a 17th century painting by Rembrandt. ...


Etchings

The Hundred Guilder Print, c.1647-1649, etching.
The Hundred Guilder Print, c.1647-1649, etching.

Rembrandt produced etchings for most of his career, from 1626 to 1660, when he was forced to sell his printing-press and virtually abandoned etching. Only the troubled year of 1649 produced no dated work.[46] He took easily to etching and, though he also learned to use a burin and partly engraved many plates, the freedom of etching technique was fundamental to his work. He was very closely involved in the whole process of printmaking, and must have printed at least early examples of his etchings himself. At first he used a style based on drawing, but soon moved to one based on painting, using a mass of lines and numerous bitings with the acid to achieve different strengths of line. Towards the end of the 1630s, he reacted against this manner and moved to a simpler style, with fewer bitings.[47] He worked on the so-called Hundred Guilder Print in stages throughout the 1640s, and it was the "critical work in the middle of his career", from which his final etching style began to emerge.[48] Although the print only survives in two states, the first very rare, evidence of much reworking can be seen underneath the final print and many drawings survive for elements of it.[49] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1145, 448 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Hundred Guilder Print Etching, drypoint, burin, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1145, 448 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Hundred Guilder Print Etching, drypoint, burin, c. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... In lithic reduction, a burin is a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans may have used for engraving or for carving wood or bone. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt. ...

The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt, 1653, State III of IV
The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt, 1653, State III of IV

In the mature works of the 1650s, Rembrandt was more ready to improvise on the plate and large prints typically survive in several states, up to eleven, often radically changed. He now uses hatching to create his dark areas, which often take up much of the plate. He also experimented with the effects of printing on different kinds of paper, including Japanese paper, which he used frequently, and on vellum. He began to use "surface tone," leaving a thin film of ink on parts of the plate instead of wiping it completely clean to print each impression. He made more use of drypoint, exploiting, especially in landscapes, the rich fuzzy burr that this technique gives to the first few impressions.[50] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1392, 603 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Three Crosses Drypoint and burin, 1653 15 1/8 x 17 5/8 inches (38. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1392, 603 KB) Rembrandt (1606-1669) The Three Crosses Drypoint and burin, 1653 15 1/8 x 17 5/8 inches (38. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt. ... For the emergence of young from an egg, see Egg (biology). ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ... Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal (or diamond) point. ...


His prints have similar subjects to his paintings, although the twenty-seven self-portraits are relatively more common, and portraits of other people less so. There are forty-six landscapes, mostly small, which largely set the course for the graphic treatment of landscape until the end of the 19th century. One third of his etchings are of religious subjects, many treated with a homely simplicity, whilst others are his most monumental prints. A few erotic, or just obscene, compositions have no equivalent in his paintings.[51] He owned, until forced to sell it, a magnificent collection of prints by other artists, and many borrowings and influences in his work can be traced to artists as diverse as Mantegna, Raphael, Hercules Segers, and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Hercules Segers, Town with four towers, c. ... Painting by Castiglione Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (c. ...


Museum collections

In the Netherlands, the most notable collection of Rembrandt's work is at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum, including De Nachtwacht (The Night Watch) and De Joodse bruid (The Jewish Bride). Many of his self-portraits are held in The Hague's Mauritshuis. His home, preserved as the Rembrandt House Museum in Amsterdam, displays many examples of his etchings; all major print rooms have the majority of these, although a number exist in only a handful of impressions (copies). The best collections of his paintings in other countries can be found in the National Gallery, London, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, New York City, Washington, D.C., The Louvre and Kassel.[52] The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hague redirects here. ... Mauritshuis The Mauritshuis is a museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ... The Rembrandt House Museum [1] is a house in the Reguliersbreestraat in Amsterdam not far from the new townhall, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... The Gemäldegalerie is an art gallery in Berlin, Germany. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Aerial view of the the Museum at Zwinger Palace The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Picture Gallery) is an art gallery locate in the Zwinger Palace and Semper Building in Dresden, Germany. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ...


Rembrandt as a symbol

While Rembrandt was already famous during his life, his fame was greatly enhanced during the 19th century. The Netherlands looked for national heroes and symbols. The Belgians had Rubens, so the Dutch embraced Rembrandt. To French artists in this revolutionary century, Rembrandt embodied democracy and republican sentiment—the opposite of Rubens, the leader of the Flemish school, who had worked for royalty and aristocracy. This Rembrandt persona, McQueen says, conflated his biography and his art. He had lived for many years in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam; he had depicted beggars and the urban poor, which was seen as evidence of his sympathy for different social groups. His bankruptcy led many people to feel empathy for him as an outsider. The critics “made more of Rembrandt as a social outcast, misunderstood in his own time. They held him up as an example to the French realists. [2] (McQueen, A. 2003 The Rise of the Cult of Rembrandt) Later (1890), Langbehn published "Rembrandt as Educator" [Rembrandt als Erzieher]. The book praised the Dutch artist Rembrandt as the quintessence of the “southern German race.” During the second world war, the Nazis tried to exploit Rembrandt as a collective symbol, pointing to the Germanic roots. For example, the occupying Nazi regime organized a Rembrandt opera (1944) and a cultural week with Rembrandt in the spotlight. (e.g. http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/26839761/)


Selected works

Jacob de Gheyn III, also known as Jacob III de Gheyn, is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt. ... Dulwich Picture Gallery is an art gallery in Dulwich, London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ... Mauritshuis The Mauritshuis is a museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ... Hague redirects here. ... Artemisia Receiving Mausolus Ashes (also known as Sophonisba Receiving the Poisoned Cup) is a painting by the Dutch master Rembrandt. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Landgrave (Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a title (mostly) used in the Holy Roman Empire and later on by its former territories, comparable to a count, who had feudal duty directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Rembrandt. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Prodigal Son in the Tavern is a painting by the Dutch master Rembrandt. ... The Gemäldegalerie is one of the worlds leading collections of European art from the 13th to 18th century. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Danaë is Rembrandts painting from the collection of Pierre Crozat which from the 18th century resides in the Hermitage Museum, St. ... The Winter Palace overlooks the Neva River. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rijksmuseum Rembrandt van Rijn: The Night Watch 1642 Johannes Vermeer: Milkmaid 1658-1660 Frans Hals: Portrait of a Young Couple The Rijksmuseum (IPA: ; Dutch for National Museum) is a national museum of the Netherlands, located in Amsterdam on the Museumplein. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... The Mill is a painting by Dutch baroque artist Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ahasveros and Haman to the feast of Esther, Rembrandt (1660), 73x94cm, Pushkin museum. ... Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev (1847-1913) The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts (Russian: Музей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in the Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis is a 1661-62 oil painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt, which was originally the largest he ever painted, at around five by five metres in the shape of a lunette. ... Swedish Nationalmuseum, seen across the water from the Royal Castle in Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. By his name, it can be told that he (or one of his male ancestors) was made a Roman citizen (and thus, the tribe a Roman vassal) by either Augustus Caesar or Caligula. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Jewish Bride (Dutch: Het Joodse bruidje) is a 17th century painting by Rembrandt. ...

Night Watch

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Rembrandt painted The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq between 1640 and 1642. This picture was called the Nacht Wacht by the Dutch and the Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because, upon its discovery, the picture was so dimmed and defaced by time that it was almost indistinguishable and it looked quite like a night scene. After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day — a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (750x625, 38 KB)Image from the official Rijksmuseum website. ... Download high resolution version (750x625, 38 KB)Image from the official Rijksmuseum website. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ...


The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen, the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission (what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate). Contrary to years of speculation, the work was hailed as a success from the beginning. Parts of the canvas were cut off to make the painting fit on the designated wall when it was moved to Amsterdam town hall in 1715. The painting now hangs in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, where it occupies the entire rear wall of the largest gallery.[53] The Rijksmuseum Amsterdam or Rijksmuseum (English: State Museum) is a Dutch national museum in Amsterdam, located on the Museumplein. ...


Expert assessments

The Polish Rider - A Lisowczyk on horseback. The subject of much discussion. It is possible that the person depicted was Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński (1632-1690)
The Polish Rider - A Lisowczyk on horseback. The subject of much discussion. It is possible that the person depicted was Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński (1632-1690)

In 1968 the Rembrandt Research Project was started under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research; it was initially expected to last a highly optimistic ten years. Art historians teamed up with experts from other fields to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt, using all methods available, including state-of-the-art technical diagnostics, and to compile a complete new catalogue raisonné of his paintings. As a result of their findings, many paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt have been removed from their list, although others have been added back.[54] Many of those removed are now thought to be the work of his students. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1004x842, 147 KB) The Polish Rider by Rembradt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1004x842, 147 KB) The Polish Rider by Rembradt. ... Lisowczyk - painting by Juliusz Kossak, circa 1860-65, a copy of Rembrandts famous painting. ... Kanclerz (Polish for Chancellor, from latin:castellanus) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. ... Marcjan Aleksander OgiÅ„ski on a horseback (c. ... A catalogue raisonné is a monograph containing a complete list of an artists works, or their works produced in a particular media or time period. ...


One example of activity is The Polish Rider, in New York's Frick Collection. Its authenticity had been questioned years before by several scholars, led by Julius Held. Many, including Dr. Josua Bruyn of the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project, attributed the painting to one of Rembrandt's closest and most talented pupils, Willem Drost, about whom little is known. The Frick Museum itself never changed its own attribution, the label still reading "Rembrandt" and not "attributed to" or "school of". More recent opinion has shifted in favor of the Frick, with Simon Schama in his 1999 book 'Rembrandt's Eyes', and a Rembrandt Project scholar, Ernst van de Wetering (Melbourne Symposium, 1997) both arguing for attribution to the master. Many scholars feel that the execution is uneven, and favour different attributions for different parts of the work.[55] Frick Collection Holbeins portrait of Thomas More is one of the highlights of the Frick Collection. ... Willem Drost (1633 - 1659) was a Dutch Baroque painter and printmaker. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ...

Man in a Golden helmet, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, now accepted as not by the master.
Man in a Golden helmet, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, now accepted as not by the master.

Another painting, Pilate Washing His Hands, is also of questionable attribution. Critical opinion of this picture has varied since 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. Scholars have since dated the painting to the 1660s and assigned it to an anonymous pupil, possibly Arent de Gelder. The composition bears superficial resemblance to mature works by Rembrandt but lacks the master's command of illumination and modeling.[56] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1813 × 2441 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1813 × 2441 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ...


The attribution and re-attribution work is ongoing. In 2005 four oil paintings previously attributed to Rembrandt's students were reclassified as the work of Rembrandt himself: Study of an Old Man in Profile and Study of an Old Man with a Beard from a US private collection, Study of a Weeping Woman, owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts, and Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet, painted in 1640.[3] The Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA), originally named the Detroit Museum of Art, has one of the largest, most significant art collections in the United States. ...


Rembrandt's own studio practice is a major factor in the difficulty of attribution, since, like many masters before him, he encouraged his students to copy his paintings, sometimes finishing or retouching them to be sold as originals, and sometimes selling them as authorized copies. Additionally, his style proved easy enough for his most talented students to emulate. Further complicating matters is the uneven quality of some of Rembrandt's own work, and his frequent stylistic evolutions and experiments.[57] As well, there were later imitations of his work, and restorations which so seriously damaged the original works that they are no longer recognizable.[58] It is highly likely that there will never be universal agreement as to what does and what does not constitute a genuine Rembrandt.


Name and Signature

Rembrandt's house in Amsterdam, now the Rembrandt House Museum
Rembrandt's house in Amsterdam, now the Rembrandt House Museum

"Rembrandt" is a modification of the spelling of the artist's first name that he introduced in 1633. Roughly speaking, his earliest signatures (ca. 1625) consisted of an initial "R", or the monogram "RH" (for Rembrant Harmenszoon; i.e. "son of Harmen"), and starting in 1629, "RHL" (the "L" stood, presumably, for Leiden). In 1632, he used this monogram early in the year, then added his patronymic to it, "RHL-van Rijn", but replaced this form in that same year and began using his first name alone with its original spelling, "Rembrant". In 1633 he added a "d", and maintained this form consistently from then on, proving that this minor change had a meaning for him (whatever it might have been). This change is purely visual; it does not change the way his name is pronounced. Curiously enough, despite the large number of paintings and etchings signed with this modified first name, most of their documents that mentioned him during his lifetime retained the original "Rembrant" spelling. (Note: the rough chronology of signature forms above applies to the paintings, and to a lesser degree to the etchings; from 1632, presumably, there is only one etching signed "RHL-v. Rijn," the large-format "Raising of Lazarus," B 73).[59] His practice of signing his work with his first name, later followed by Vincent van Gogh, was probably inspired by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo who, then as now, were referred to by their first names alone.[60] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The Rembrandt House Museum [1] is a house in the Reguliersbreestraat in Amsterdam not far from the new townhall, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


Optical theory

An article published in 2004[61], by Margaret S. Livingstone, professor of neurobiology at Harvard Medical School, suggests that Rembrandt, whose eyes failed to align correctly, suffered from stereo blindness. This conclusion was made after studying 36 of Rembrandt's self-portraits. Because he could not form a normal binocular vision, his brain automatically switched to one eye for many visual tasks. This disability could have helped him to flatten images he saw, and then put it onto the two-dimensional canvas. In Livingstone's words, this could have been a gift to a great painter like him, "Art teachers often instruct students to close one eye in order to flatten what they see. Therefore, stereo blindness might not be a handicap — and might even be an asset — for some artists." However, among Rembrandt's greatest talents was an ability to create the illusion of full volume, the perception of which requires healthy stereoptic vision. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Stereoblindness (also stereo blindness) is the inability to see in 3D using stereo vision, resulting in the sufferers inability to perceive stereoscopic depth. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Dimension (from Latin measured out) is, in essence, the number of degrees of freedom available for movement in a space. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stereopsis is a process in visual perception leading to perception of the depth or distance of objects. ...


Gallery

Self-portraits

Other works

Notes

  1. ^ Gombrich, p. 420.
  2. ^ Gombrich, p. 427.
  3. ^ Clark, p. 203.
  4. ^ Gombrich, p. 420.
  5. ^ Clark, pp. 203-4.
  6. ^ Clark, p. 205.
  7. ^ Bull, et al, p. 28.
  8. ^ Slive has a comprehensive biography, p.55 ff.
  9. ^ Slive, pp. 60, 65
  10. ^ Slive, pp. 60-61
  11. ^ a b c Bull, et al, p. 28
  12. ^ Adams, p. 660
  13. ^ a b Slive, p. 71
  14. ^ Slive, p.82
  15. ^ Slive, p. 84
  16. ^ Schwarz, p. 12. The sale was in 1658, but was agreed with two years for him to vacate.
  17. ^ Clark, 1974 p. 105
  18. ^ Clark 1974, pp. 60-61
  19. ^ Bull, et al, page 29.
  20. ^ Clark 1978, p. 34
  21. ^ Slive, p. 83
  22. ^ Hughes, p. 6
  23. ^ Art of Northern Europe, Institute for the Study of Western Civilization.
  24. ^ Useful totals of the figures from various different oeuvre catalogues, often divided into classes along the lines of: "very likely authentic", "possibly authentic" and "unlikely to be authentic" are given at the Online Rembrandt catalouge
  25. ^ Two hundred years ago Bartsch listed 375. More recent catalogues have added three (two in unique impressions) and excluded enough to reach totals as follows: Schwartz, pp. 6, 289; Münz 1952, p. 279, Boon 1963, pp. 287 Print Council of America - but Schwarz total quoted does not tally with the book.
  26. ^ It is not possible to give a total, as a new wave of scholarship on Rembrandt drawings is still in progress - analysis of the Berlin collection for an exhibition in 2006/7 has produced a probable drop from 130 sheets there to about 60.Codart The British Museum is due to publish a new catalogue after a similar exercise.
  27. ^ White and Buvelot 1999, p. 10.
  28. ^ While the popular interpretation is that these paintings represent a personal and introspective journey, it is possible that they were painted to satisfy a market for self-portraits by prominent artists. Van de Wetering, p. 290.
  29. ^ Bull, et al, pp. 11-13.
  30. ^ Clough, p. 23
  31. ^ van der Wetering, p. 268.
  32. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 160, 190.
  33. ^ Ackley, p. 14.
  34. ^ a b c van de Wetering, p. 284.
  35. ^ van de Wetering, page 285.
  36. ^ van de Wetering, p. 287.
  37. ^ van de Wetering, p. 286.
  38. ^ van de Wetering, p. 288.
  39. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 163-5.
  40. ^ van de Wetering, p. 289.
  41. ^ Clark 1978, p. 28
  42. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 155-165.
  43. ^ van de Wetering, pp. 157-8, 190.
  44. ^ "In Rembrandt's (late) great portraits we feel face to face with real people, we sense their warmth, their need for sympathy and also their loneliness and suffering. Those keen and steady eyes that we know so well from Rembrandt's self-portraits must have been able to look straight into the human heart." Gombrich, p. 423.
  45. ^ "It (The Jewish Bride) is a picture of grown-up love, a marvelous amalgam of richness, tenderness, and trust... the heads which, in their truth, have a spiritual glow that painters influenced by the classical tradition could never achieve." Clark, p. 206.
  46. ^ Schwartz, 1994, pp. 8-12
  47. ^ White 1969, pp. 5-6
  48. ^ White 1969, p. 6
  49. ^ White 1969, pp. 6, 9-10
  50. ^ White, 1969 pp. 6-7
  51. ^ See Strauss, where the works are divided by subject, following Bartsch.
  52. ^ Clark 1974, pp. 147-50. See the catalogue in Further reading for the location of all accepted Rembrandts
  53. ^ As of October 2007, the main galleries remain closed for renovations, planned until 2010 but the Rembrandts are being shown in a nearby adjacent part of the building according to the Rijksmuseum website.
  54. ^ See the pdf Preface on the Project website
  55. ^ See "Further Battles for the 'Lisowczyk' (Polish Rider) by Rembrandt" Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Artibus et Historiae, Vol. 21, No. 41 (2000), pp. 197-205. Also New York Times story. There is a book on the subject:Responses to Rembrandt; Who painted the Polish Rider? by Anthony Bailey (New York, 1993)
  56. ^ [1] The Metropolitan Museum of Art: European Paintings
  57. ^ "...Rembrandt was not always the perfectly consistent, logical Dutchman he was originally anticipated to be." Ackley, p. 13.
  58. ^ van de Wetering, p. x.
  59. ^ Chronology of his signatures (pdf) with examples
  60. ^ Slive, p. 60
  61. ^ The New England Journal of Medicine, September 16, 2004

Johann Adam Bernhard von Bartsch (1757 - 1821, both Vienna) was an Austrian scholar and artist. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ...

References

  • Ackley, Clifford, et al, Rembrandt's Journey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2004. ISBN 0-87846-677-0
  • Adams, Laurie Schneider (1999). Art Across Time. Volume II. McGraw-Hill College, New York, NY. 
  • Bull, Duncan, et al, Rembrandt-Caravaggio, Rijksmuseum, 2006.
  • Clark, Kenneth, Civilisation, Harper & Row, 1969.
  • Clark, Kenneth, An Introduction to Rembrandt, 1978, London, John Murray/Readers Union, 1978
  • Clough, Shepard B. (1975). European History in a World Perspective. D.C. Heath and Company, Los Lexington, MA. ISBN 0-669-85555-3. 
  • Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-x
  • Hughes, Robert (2006), "The God of Realism", The New York Review of Books (Rea S. Hederman) 53 (6)
  • The Complete Etchings of Rembrandt Reproduced in Original Size, Gary Schwartz (editor). New York: Dover, 1988. ISBN 0-486-28181-7
  • Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 1600-1800, Yale UP, 1995,ISBN 0300074514
  • van de Wetering, Ernst, Rembrandt: The Painter at Work, Amsterdam University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22668-2
  • Rembrandt by himself (Christopher White - Editor, Quentin Buvelot - Editor) National Gallery Co Ltd [1999]
  • Christopher White, The Late Etchings of Rembrandt, 1969, British Museum/Lund Humphries, London

Kenneth Clark presenting the BBC TV series Civilisation. ... Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ... Ernst van de Wetering, PhD (born 1938) is a Dutch art historian considered the worlds foremost expert on Rembrandt and his work. ...

Further reading

  • Catalogue raisonné: Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project:
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings - Volume I, which deals with works from Rembrandt’s early years in Leiden (1629-1631), 1982
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings - Volume II: 1631-1634. Bruyn, J., Haak, B. (et al.), Band 2, 1986, ISBN 978-90-247-3339-2
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings - Volume III, 1635-1642. Bruyn, J., Haak, B., Levie, S.H., van Thiel, P.J.J., van de Wetering, E. (Ed. Hrsg.), Band 3, 1990, ISBN 978-90-247-3781-9
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings - Volume IV. Ernst van de Wetering, Karin Groen et al. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands (NL). ISBN 1-4020-3280-3. p. 692. (Self-Portraits)
  • Rembrandt. Images and metaphors, Christian Tumpel (editor), Haus Books London 2006 ISBN 13: 978-1-904950-92-9
  • Graaff, Arthur E.A.J. and Michiel V. Roscam Abbing (2006). Rembrandt for Dummies. Addison Wesley. ISBN 90-430-1280. 
  • Van De Wetering, Ernst (2004) (2nd paperback printing). The Painter At Work. University of California Press,Berkley and Los Angeles. University of California Press, London, England. By arrangement with Amsterdam University Press. ISBN O-520-22668-2.

A catalogue raisonné is a monograph containing a complete list of an artists works, or their works produced in a particular media or time period. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME van Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rembrandt
SHORT DESCRIPTION Painter
DATE OF BIRTH July 15, 1606
PLACE OF BIRTH Leiden, Netherlands
DATE OF DEATH October 4, 1669
PLACE OF DEATH Amsterdam, Netherlands

  Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Jim Grover is a famous instructor in World War II combatives and defensive shooting tactics. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Rembrandt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2586 words)
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 or 1607– October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters in European art history and the most important in Dutch history.
In 1629 Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman and poet Constantijn Huygens, the father of Christiaan Huygens (a famous Dutch mathematician and physicist), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of the Hague.
Rembrandt died soon after his son, on October 4, 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Westerkerk.
Rembrandt (5165 words)
Rembrandt puts a high value on the picture, which he says had been painted "with much care and zeal", but he is willing to take what the prince thinks proper; while to Huygens he sends a large picture as a present for his trouble in carrying through the business.
Rembrandt touched no side of art without setting his mark on it, whether in still life, as in his dead birds or the "Slaughtered Ox" of the Louvre (with its repetitions at Glasgow and Budapest), or in his drawings of elephants and lions, all of which are instinct with life.
Rembrandt returns to the simplest gamut of color, but shows his skill in the use of it, leaving on the spectator an impression of absolute enjoyment of the result, unconscious of the means.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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