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Encyclopedia > Religious persecution
Religious discrimination
and persecution
By victimized group:

African religions · Atheists
Bahá'ís · Buddhists · Cathars
Religion in China · Christians
Hellenistic religions · Hindus · Jews
Mormons · Muslims · Neopagans
Rastafari · Sikhs
Soviet Union policy towards religions
Zoroastrians Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or do not believe. ... Contrary to popular belief, the Africans enslaved to build the economic foundation of America were not Christians. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... A Converted British Family sheltering a Christian Priest from the Persecution of the Druids, an imaginary scene of persecution by druids in ancient Britain painted by William Holman Hunt. ... The Hellenistic religion at the time of the Constantinian shift consisted mainly of two main currents, the official Roman imperial cult various Mystery religions Christianity grew gradually in Rome and the Roman empire. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow was demolished by Soviet authorities in 1931 to make way for the Palace of Soviets. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ...

By strategy:

Anti-clericalism · Censorship
Genocide · Forced conversion
War · Discrimination · Fascism
Intolerance · Police · Terrorism
Violence · State atheism · Abuse
Segregation Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative non-spiritual consequences. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or do not believe. ... Religion and neo-fascism refers to the relationship between neo-fascism and religion. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... State atheism is the official rejection of religion in all forms by a government in favor of atheism. ... The term Spiritual abuse was coined in the late twentieth century to refer to abusive or aberrational practices identified in the behavior and teachings of some churches, spiritual and religious organizations and groups. ... Religious segregation involves the separation of people on the basis of religion. ...

By perpetrating group:

Christians · Jews · Muslims
Governments Christians have at times persecuted non-Christians or adherents of other Christian denominations on the basis of conflicts in their religious beliefs. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Historical events

Dechristianisation in the French Revolution
Revolt in the Vendee · Cristero War
Red Terror · Red terror (Spain)
Cultural Revolution · Reign of Terror
Khmer Rouge · Pontic tragedy · Kulturkampf
Armenian Genocide · Assyrian Genocide
History of Communist Albania
The Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801. ... During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, or Wars in the Vendée, was the largest internal counter-revolution to the new Republic. ... The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... The Red Terror was a campaign of mass arrests and deportations targeted against counterrevolutionaries in Russia during the Russian Civil War. ... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about ten months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor as of the early 20th Century (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911). ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... From 1945 until 1992 Albania had a Communist government. ...

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Part of a series of articles on
Discrimination
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Racism is a belief or doctrine that differences in physical appearance between people (such as those upon which the concept of race is based) determine cultural or individual achievement, and usually involve the idea that ones own race is superior. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms

Social
Heterosexism · Homophobia · Transphobia · Biphobia · Ableism · Sizeism · Heightism · Adultism · Gerontophobia · Misogyny · Misandry · Lookism · Classism · Elitism Heterosexism is a predisposition towards heterosexual people, which some see as biased against lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, transgender or intersexed, people among others. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or...

Against cultures:

Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks Anti-Arabism is prejudice or hostility against Arabs. ... Anti-Catalanism is the collective name given to various political attitudes in Spain. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Anti-Europeanism is opposition or hostility toward the governments, culture, or people of the countries of Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility toward the government, culture, or people of Quebec, that is French-Canadians, English Quebecers and people from other origins. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... Serbs rule ...

Against beliefs:

Atheists · Bahá'ís · Catholics · Christians · Hindus · Jews · Mormons · Muslims · Neopagans · Protestants · Many atheists have experienced discrimination, mainly from religious entities. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice... Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Ku Klux Klan Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism · Ephebiphobia Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually murder, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... Race war is a slang term referring to developing hostilities between ethnic groups divided on the basis of race. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... The Black Legend (Spanish: La Leyenda Negra) is the depiction of Spain and Spaniards as bloodthirsty and cruel, intolerant, greedy and fanatical; which has almost nothing to do with reality. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ...

Movements

Discriminatory
Hate groups · Aryanism · Ku Klux Klan · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Kahanism · Supremacism
Anti-discriminatory
Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights
Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Speaking: US-born Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach party in the Knesset. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with the impact of cultural, political, and economic practices and inequalities on discrimination against women. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Inclusion is a term used by activist people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that human beings should freely, openly and happily accommodate any other human being that happens to be differently-abled without question or qualification of any kind. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [2] and autistic liberation movement [3]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Policies

Discriminatory
Affirmative action · Apartheid · Internment · Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Racial quota · Redlining · Reparations · Reservation · Forced busing
Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration
Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... Segregation means separation. ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up emancipation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Nuremberg Laws
Anti-discriminatory
List of anti-discrimination acts Miscegenation is an archaic term invented in 1863 to describe people of different human races (usually one European and one African) producing offspring; the use of this term is invariably restricted to those who believe that the category race is meaningful when applied to human beings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Isolationism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination which primarily occurs in the United States. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diversity (business). ... Multiculturalism is the idea that modern societies should embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal social status. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Disability... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ...

WikiProject Discrimination
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Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


In a secular state, claims of religious persecution are effectively a demand of the fulfilment of Freedom of religion and Religious pluralism. In a non-secular state, they are laments about the intolerance of the state religion and the demand for Religious toleration or disestablishment. Map showing secular states highlighted in blue A secular state is a state or country that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs or practices, and has no state religion or equivalent. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Often it is the alleged persecution of individuals within a group in the attempt to maintain their religion identity, or the exercise of power by an individual or organization that causes members of a religious group to suffer. Persecution in this case may refer to unwarranted arrest, false imprisonment, beatings, torture, unjustified execution, denial of benefits, and denial of civil rights and liberties and especially other acts of violence, such as war, torture, and ethnic cleansing[citation needed].It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or incitement to hate among other things. Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ...


Not only theorists of secularization (who presume a decline of religiosity in general) would willingly assume that religious persecution is a thing of the past. However, with the rise of fundamentalism and religiously related terrorism this assumption has become even more controversial. Indeed, in many countries of the world today, religious persecution is a human rights problem. Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ... Fundamentalism originally referred to a movement in North American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism (see below, History), stressing that the Bible is literally inerrant, not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Contents

Reasons for religious persecution

The descriptive use of the term Religious persecution, applied to different periods in history, is rather difficult. For the obvious reason of the overabundance of material, contemporary historians generally avoid to write books on the whole of human history.


In a western context our now common rejection of religious persecution originated in 17th century England. Therefore it seems appropriate to focus on that period, if one wants to know why religious persecution has happened. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


The most ambitious chronicle of that time is W.K.Jordans magnum opus The Development of Religious Toleration in England, 1558-1660 (four volumes, published 1932-1940). Jordan wrote as the thread of fascism rose in Europe, and this work is seen as a defence of the fragile values of humanism and tolerance.[1] Wilbur Kitchener (W.K.) Jordan (1902-1980) was a historian of sixteenth and seventeenth century Britain and the fourth President of Radcliffe College (1943-1960). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ...


From the 1640s onwards a vigorous debate about religious persecution took place in England. "The debate over persecution and toleration was a debate about what the civil magistrate ought to do about dissent."[2] Persecution meant that the state was committed to secure religious uniformity by coercive measures. There actually is a statement by Roger L'Estrange: "That which you call persecution, I translate Uniformity".[3] Events and Trends The personal union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal ends due to a revolution in the latter (1640). ... Roger LEstrange (1616–1704) was an English pamphleteer and author, and staunch defender of royalist claims. ...


The following reasons for which religious persecution has happened are taken from a recent important study on the field.


Civil and ecclesiastical intolerance

Main article: Religious intolerance

Ecclesiastical tolerance concerned the degree of diversity tolerated within a particular church.[4] In a secular state, ecclesiastical intolerance generally does not lead to religious persecution, since in a secular state a church usually does not have the power to enforce its beliefs (dogmas) on its members. Of course, in modern civil law any member of an organisation has the right to quit. However, secularization, understood as the separation of church and state, is a modern phenomenon. Before this process, people could hold a view similar to that of the Anglican theologian Richard Hooker: "there is not any man of the Church of England but the same man is also a member of the commonwealth; nor any man a member of the commonwealth, which is not also of the Church of England."[5] Thus Christian theologians like Joseph Hall could reason from the ecclesiastical intolerance of the early Christian church in the New Testament to the civil intolerance of the Christian state.[6] Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Map showing secular states highlighted in blue A secular state is a state or country that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs or practices, and has no state religion or equivalent. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... Civil law or Continental law or Romano-Germanic law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Joseph Hall Joseph Hall (July 1, 1574 - September 8, 1656), English bishop and satirist, was born at Bristow park, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, on the 1st of July 1574. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Persecution for heresy and blasphemy

Main article: Heresy
Main article: Blasphemy

In Protestant England six people were executed for heresy or blasphemy during the reign of Elizabeth I of England, and two more in 1612 under James I of England.[7] Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...


See also: Christian heresy, Heresy in Orthodox Judaism The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... Heresy (Heberw: Kefira) in Orthodox Judaism is defined as which depart from the traditional Jewish principles of faith to be heretical. ...


Persecution for political reasons

More than 300 Roman Catholics were put to death by English governments between 1535 and 1681 for treason, thus for secular than religious offences.[8] In 1570, Pope Pius V had issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis, which absolved Catholics from their obligations to the government.[9] This dramatically worsened the situation of the Catholics in England. English governments continued to fear Popish Plot; Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Saint Pius V, né Antonio Ghislieri, from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri (January 17, 1504 – May 1, 1572) was pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. ... The Pope and the Queen Regnans in Excelsis was a papal bull issued on February 25, 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring Elizabeth I to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ...


Historical persecution

Out of Egypt came monotheistic Judaism under Moses, its prophet. Among the Ten Commandments of the new religion was one that forbade the worship of any other god than its one true God. When Imperial Rome extended its reach to their area, various conflicts arose. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Out of Judaism came Christianity, which because it was strictly monotheistic and also encouraged conversion was a much more powerful threat to the established pantheistic order than had been Judaism. The Jewish exemption from the requirement to participate in public cults was lifted and the anti-monotheistic religious persecution of the Christians began under Nero. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68)[2], born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ...


By the eighth century Christianity had attained a clear ascendancy in Europe and neighboring regions and a period of consolidation began marked by the pursuit of heretics and various other forms of monotheistic religious persecution. Christian monotheistic religious persecution perhaps reached its apex with the Inquisition. Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Meanwhile south and east of the Christian empires yet another monotheist religion had arisen: Islam. Generally following the Jewish tradition of tolerance towards non-believers provided they maintained the outward habits of believers, Muslims spread across northern Africa, the Middle East, northern India, and adjoining regions. Those who actively oppose Islam or try to persuade people in their community not to convert to Islam may face persecution or death threats (which may even be carried out). At times, attempts at peaceful persuasion against Islam have led to persecution. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

See also: Historical persecution by Christians, Historical persecution by Muslims, Persecution of Ancient Greek religion

Christians have at times persecuted non-Christians or adherents of other Christian denominations on the basis of conflicts in their religious beliefs. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ...

Present Period

Since the 18th century there have been many occasions where religious persecution has occurred.


Bahá'ís in Iran

Main article: Persecution of Bahá'ís

Bahá'ís and various third party entities such as the United Nations, Amnesty International, the European Union, the United States and peer-reviewed academic literature have stated that the members of the Bahá'í community in Iran, the nation of origin of the Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world, have been subjected to unwarranted arrests, false imprisonment, beatings, torture, unjustified executions, confiscation and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá'í community, denial of employment, denial of government benefits, denial of civil rights and liberties, and denial of access to higher education. The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


More recently, in the later months of 2005, an intensive anti-Bahá'í campaign was conducted by Iranian newspapers and radio stations. The state-run and influential Kayhan newspaper, whose managing editor is appointed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei [1], ran nearly three dozen articles defaming the Bahá'í Faith. The articles, which make use of fake historical documents, engage in a distortion of history to falsely describe Bahá'í moral principles in a manner that would be offensive to Muslims, thus inducing feelings of suspicion, distrust and hatred to members of the Bahá'í community in Iran. [2]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A managing editor is a senior member of a publications management team. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ...


Furthermore, a confidential letter sent on October 29, 2005 by the Chairman of the Command Headquarters of the Armed Forced in Iran states that the Supereme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei has instructed the Command Headquarters to identify people who adhere to the Bahá'í Faith and to monitor their activiters and gather any and all information about the members of the Bahá'í Faith. The letter was brought to the attention of the international community by Asma Jahangir, the Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on freedom of religion or belief, in a March 20, 2006 press release [3]. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the former UN Commission on Human Rights to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to human rights problems. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the press release the Special Rapporteur states that she "is highly concerned by information she has received concerning the treatment of members of the Bahá'í community in Iran." She further states that "The Special Rapporteur is concerned that this latest development indicates that the situation with regard to religious minorities in Iran is, in fact, deteriorating." [4].


Judaism

Main article: anti-Semitism

The most infamous case of anti-Semitism in the 20th century was the Holocaust, a systematic mass murder of millions of European Jews by the Nazis. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


Christianity

It is estimated that over 1.5 million Christians have been killed by the Janjaweed, the Arab Muslim militia, and even suspected Islamists in northern Sudan since 1984. A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The weed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ...


United States and Islam

Some people believe that both the United States[citation needed] and Al-Qaeda are involved in religious persecution. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States have been suspected by religious figures of happening because of America's relative secularity; though, it should be noted that Al Qaida never once in their public statements used that as a justification for 9/11 or any other attack. The reasons Al Qaida give for their attacks are the presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia, the location of Islam's holy sites, which they consider sacrilege, the occupation of Muslim territory, and American financial support of Israel. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Christian churches have been bombed in Pakistan and there have been attempted attacks on churches elsewhere. Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Istanbul in Turkey etc have been attacked, mainly because these governments are seen by the extremists to be collaborating with foreign non-Islamic powers. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


On the other hand, shortly after September 11 there was a sharp increase of Islamophobia in the United States and the United Kingdom, where Muslims are sometimes attacked in public or even killed [5]. The 21st century "War on terror" was at one point referred to as a "crusade" until the Muslim understanding of the term was pointed out, and abuses by American soldiers during the invasion of Iraq in 2003 (e.g. the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse) made some Muslims felt that they were being persecuted, therefore giving rise to anti-American feelings, coordinated attacks by extremist Islamic groups and insurgency in the Middle East. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Ku Klux Klan Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... {{{mWf}}} Caution: This article contains several potentially morbid photographs that depict nude, abused, and deceased persons. ... Anti-American sentiment is a hostility towards or disapproval of the government, culture, history, and/or people of the United States of America. ... Extremism is the act of taking a belief, political view or ideology to its most literal extreme. ... The US government and media was using the term insurgent as early as 1899 to describe rebels during the Philippine-American War, here Filipinos described as insurgents at the time lie in a trench after being executed by US forces. ...


United States and Mormonism

Main article: anti-Mormon

Since the organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the Mormons) in the early 19th century, it has experienced persecution. [citation needed] The small religious community was forcefully driven from state to state, and in Missouri the Mormons were massacred in their camps, under the extermination order signed by Governor Lilburn Boggs in 1838. Included in this order was the statement, "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary." Some incidents that occurred under this order were the murder of at least eighteen Mormon men at Haun's Mill, the dismemberment of an elderly Mormon man with a corn cutter, and the murder of 10-year-old Sardius Smith.[citations needed] The murderer of Sardius Smith later boasted, quote, "Nits will make lice, and if he had lived he would have become a Mormon." An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Hauns Mill massacre was an event in the history of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


After the Mormons were driven from Missouri, they regrouped in Illinois where the founder Joseph Smith, Jr., and his brother Hyrum Smith were murdered in Carthage Jail. The two men were being held in the prison under false charges [citation needed] for the express purpose of making them vulnerable to the Carthage Greys [citation needed], a known anti-Mormon militant group, who were ordered by Governor Ford to guard Joseph and his brother. Predictably, they stormed the jail, and Joseph and Hyrum lost in a gun battle. The Mormons were then driven from Illinois as well. They migrated to Utah to escape the persecutions, and settled in the Salt Lake Valley, under the leadership of Brigham Young. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Hyrum Smith Hyrum Smith (February 9, 1800—June 27, 1844) was the older brother of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Carthage Jail, located in Carthage, Illinois, was the location of the martyrdom of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Salt Lake Valley from space. ... See also, Brigham Young University Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


People's Republic of China

The government of People's Republic of China in mainland China has banned the spiritual group Falun Gong and conducted massive crackdown of the group, including using torture and "re-education" camp to force the adherents to abandon Falun Gong. There are reports indicating that the PRC has engaged in organ harvesting from live Falun Gong adherents, among other human rights abuses. Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... On 9 March 2006, allegations were made of organ harvesting on living Falun Gong practitioners at the Sujiatun detention compound, an alleged labor camp and part of the China Traditional Medicine Thrombosis Treatment Center, [1] a joint-venture with Malaysian healthcare company Contry Heights Health Sanctuary and subject to oversight... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


United States and Native Americans

Religious persecution and discrimination have been an official part of U.S. governmental policies and law regarding Native Americans. For example, traditional indigenous ceremonies such as the Sun Dance and Ghost Dance were officially outlawed in the late 1800s. This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ... Though perhaps not a Sun Dance, John White depicted a Native American dance he witnessed in the 1500s. ... The Ghost Dance by the Ogalala Lakota at Pine Ridge. ...


In modern times, charges of religious persecution by the U.S. government against Native Americans continue. These charges have largely centered on the eagle feather law which governs the possession of eagle feathers for religious use, the use of ceremonial peyote, and the repatriation of Native American human remains and cultrual and religious objects found in museums and private collections. There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... Genera Several, see below. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...


The eagle feather law, which governs the possession and religious use of eagle feathers, was officially written to protect then dwindling eagle populations while still protecting traditional Native American spiritual and religious customs, of which the use of eagles are central. The eagle feather law later met charges of promoting racial and religious discrimination due to the law’s provision authorizing the possession of eagle feathers to members of only one ethnic group, Native Americans, and forbidding Native Americans from including non-Native Americans in indigenous customs involving eagle feathers — a common modern practice dating back to the early 1500s. There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ...


Peyote, a spineless cactus found in the desert southwest and Mexico, is a commonly used in certain traditions of Native American religion and spirituality, most notably in the Native American Church. Prior to the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) in 1978, and as amended in 1994, the religious use of peyote was not afforded legal protection. This resulted in the arrest of many Native Americans and non-Native Americans participating in traditional indigenous religion and spirituality. Many individuals today encounter harassment and persecution by their employers for ingesting peyote while participating in the Native American Church due to the cactus containing the psychotropic mescaline, a controlled substance. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Native Americans often hold strong personal and spiritual connections to their ancestors and often believe that their remains should rest undisturbed. This has often placed Native Americans at odds with archaeologists who have often dug on Native American burial grounds and other sites considered sacred, often removing artifacts and human remains – an act considered sacrilegious by many Native Americans. For years, Native American communities decried the removal of ancestral human remains and cultural and religious objects, charging such activities as acts of genocide, religious persecution, and discrimination. Many Native Americans called on the government, museums, and private collectors for the return of remains and sensitive objects for reburial. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), which gained passage in 1990, established a means for Native Americans to request the return or "repatriation" of human remains and other sensitive cultural, religious, and funery items held by federal agencies and federally assisted museums and institutions. Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (or NAGPRA) is a United States federal law passed in 1990 requiring that Native Americans cultural items be returned to their respective peoples if and when they have been excavated, and allows archeological teams a short time for analysis before the remains...


Quotes

  • "I have come from a country where people are hanged if they talk." — Leonhard Euler
  • "Religious persecution has come about because others are too afraid to learn about something new..." — Zachary Jensen
  • "No orthodox church ever had power that it did not endeavor to make people think its way by force and flame. And yet every church that ever was established commenced in the minority, and while it was in the minority advocated free speech -- every one. John Calvin, the founder of the Presbyterian Church, while he lived in France, wrote a book on religious toleration in order to show that all men had an equal right to think; and yet that man afterward, clothed in a little authority, forgot all his sentiments about religious liberty, and had poor Serviettes burned at the stake, for differing with him on a question that neither of them knew anything about. In the minority, Calvin advocated toleration -- in the majority, he practiced murder." — Robert Green Ingersoll.[10]

Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Michael Servetus. ... Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 - July 21, 1899) was an American political leader and orator, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism. ...

Literature

  • John Coffey (2000), Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558-1689, Studies in modern History, Pearson Education

References

  1. ^ Coffey 2000, 2
  2. ^ Coffey 2000, 11
  3. ^ quoted after Coffey (2000), 27
  4. ^ John Coffey (2000), p. 12
  5. ^ The Works of Richard Hooker, II, p. 485; quoted after: John Coffey (2000), p. 33
  6. ^ John Coffey (2000), p. 33
  7. ^ John Coffey (2000), p. 26
  8. ^ John Coffey (2000), p. 26
  9. ^ John Coffey (2000), p. 85
  10. ^ Trial of C.B. Reynolds for Blasphemy, Closing Argument by Robert G. Ingersoll, from The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll, Vol XI., p. 55-117

NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...

See also

Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Opposition to cults and new religious movements (NRMs) comes from several sources with diverse concerns. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Religious violence is a term whose use is generally very imprecise. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Religious Persecution: Shades of Grey - Copyright © 2000 by Team C005706, ThinkQuest (361 words)
Sometimes religious persecution is clearly an abuse of power as in the case of the Holocaust, where one specific group was targeted for annihilation.
Other times, religious persecution is more of a struggle between different groups to maintain their religious or cultural identities which can create religious conflicts.
Religious persecution is the persecution of individuals within a group in the struggle to maintain their religious identity, or the abuse of power by an individual or organization that causes members of a religious group to suffer.
Religious exclusivity in the Christian Scriptures (New Testament) (1254 words)
Much of the public believes that the numerically most common religiously motivated homicides are probably by underground Satanic cults who kidnap infants and children for abuse and ritual murder.
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Religiously motivated genocide and crimes against humanity in the former Yugoslavia are being effectively controlled by peace keepers.
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