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Encyclopedia > Religious fascism
This article is part of the
Neo-fascism series.

This series is linked to the Politics and Elections series This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...

Definition
Definitions of fascism
What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties of Neo-fascism


Neo-Nazism
Neofascism and religion
Crypto-fascism
Neo-Nazi groups of the United States
The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... There have been several neo-Nazi groups in the United States. ...


Origins of Neo-fascism


Fascism
Nazism
Clerical fascism
Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ...


Neo-fascist political parties and movements


American Nazi Party
Aryan Nations
British Movement
British National Party
Creativity Movement
Deutsche Reichspartei
Hrisi Avgi (Greece)
International Third Position
Italian Social Movement
National Alliance
National Renaissance Party
National Social Front
National Socialist Front
National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party
National Socialist Movement (United States)
National Socialist Party of America
Noua Dreaptă (Romania)
November 9th Society
Official National Front
Russian National Unity
Social Action
Socialist Reich Party
Union Movement
World Union of National Socialists
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aryan Nations (AN) is an American anti-government, anti-Semitic white nationalist group. ... The British Movement was a British neo-Nazi group. ... This article is about the modern party. ... The Creativity Movement is a racialist, and White-supremacist organization that advocates a White Religion called Creativity. ... Deutsche Reichspartei (German Empire Party) was a right-wing party, founded in 1950 from the previous Deutsche Rechtspartei (German Rights party), which had been set up in Pomerania in 1946 and had five members in the first German Parliament. ... Hrisi Avgis logo, featuring a meander pattern. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a United Kingdom group formed by the Italian Roberto Fiore and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in the Third Positionist British National Front in the early 1980s. ... The Italian Social Movement (Movimento sociale italiano ) (MSI) was a neo-Fascist party formed 1946 in the post-World War II period by supporters of the executed dictator Benito Mussolini under the lead of Giorgio Almirante. ... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ... National Renaissance Party was an American neo-fascist group lead by James Hartung Madole. ... Fronte Sociale Nazionale is an Italian far right political party. ... // About the party The National Socialist Front (Swedish: Nationalsocialistisk Front), also known as the NSF, is Swedens greatest national socialistic political party. ... The Logo of the National Socialist Japanese Workers Party The National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party are a Japanese political party who campaign on a platform of National Socialism. ... This article refers to the American National Socialist Movement; for other organizations see National Socialist Movement. ... National Socialist Party of America leader Frank Collin (seated) announces the groups intention to march through Skokie, Illinois The National Socialist Party of America was an extremist Chicago based neo-Nazi organization founded in 1970 by Frank Collin shortly after he left the National Socialist White Peoples Party. ... A political sticker displaying the Celtic cross and the words identitate naţională, revoluţie spirituală (national identity, spiritual revolution). ... Kevin Quinn The November 9th Society is an authoritarian British organisation that espouses National Socialism and supposedly white supremacist goups found in the prominant USA and other countries. ... The Official National Front was the leading movement within the British National Front during the 1980s and stood opposed to the Flag Group. ... The ABC of a Russian Nationalist book by A. Barkashov Russian National Unity (Всероссийское общественное патриотическое движение Русское Национальное Единство or All-Russian civic patriotic movement Russkoye Natsionalnoye Edinstvo) is a nationalistic political party and paramilitary organization based in Russia and operating in states with Russian-speaking populations. ... Azione Sociale (Social Action), previously known as Libertà di Azione (Freedom of Action), is an Italian extremely-conservative and neo-fascist political party, led by Alessandra Mussolini, and a splinter group from Alleanza Nazionale. ... The Socialist Reich Party (German: Sozialistische Reichspartei) was a German political party founded in the aftermath of the Second World War, in 1949, as an openly National Socialist and Hitler-admiring split from the Deutsche Rechtspartei. ... The Union Movement was an extreme right wing political party founded in Britain by Oswald Mosley. ... The World Union of National Socialists was an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe. ...


Relevant Lists


List of fascists
This is a list of persons who self-identify as fascists or adherents to a variant of fascism or related ideology (e. ...


Related Subjects


Anti-fascism
Fascist symbolism
Holocaust denial
Nazi punk
Nazi-Skinheads
Political Soldier
Roman salute
Strasserism
Third Position
White nationalism
White Power
Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Two Punk Front members (1978). ... Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 1980s. ... Political Soldier was a political group within Britains National Front, centred on young radicals Nick Griffin, Patrick Harrington and Derek Holland, that began to emerge in the late 1970s with new destinations in mind for the movement. ... The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... Strasserism refers to the strand of neo-Nazism that calls for socialism to be initiated alongside nationalism. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... White Power is an ideology and a political slogan describing the views of white supremacists. ...

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 
Religion in government

This article is part of
a Theocracy series This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Religion and neo-fascism refers to the relationship between neo-fascism and religion. The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Christian anarchism is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... Christian communism is a form of religious communism centered around Christianity. ... Christian Democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Constitutional theocracy is a form of government in which within the context of a modern democracy a particular religion is granted a central role in the legal and political system. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Hindu Rāshtra (Hindi : हिन्दू राष्ट्र, approx. ... The Imamate was the state built up by the imams of Dagestan during the early and middle of the nineteenth century in the Eastern Caucasus, especially in Chechnya and Dagestan, to fight against the invasion of the Russian Empire. ... An Imperial cult is a cult were an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors, are worshipped as (semi-)gods or deities Ancient Rome In the Roman Empire the Imperial cult was the worship of the Roman emperor as a god. ... Islam Hadhari (Arabic الإسلام الحضاري) or Civilizational Islam is a theory of government based on the principles of Islam as derived from the Quran. ... There are two main types that people may term Islamic democracy: A democratic state where the majority of the population are Muslim, or which attempts to reconcile Islam with a secular, democratic state. ... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... Map of the Papal States. ... This article contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... The Roman Curia - usually (but simplistically) called the Vatican - is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... For other uses, see Vilayat-e Faqih. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ...


Some scholars, using the term neo-fascism in its narrow sense, consider certain contemporary religious movements and groups to represent forms of clerical or theocratic neofascism, including Christian Identity in the United States; some militant forms of politicized Islamic fundamentalism; some militant forms of Jewish nationalism; Hindu nationalism in India (Sangh Parivar); and a variety of pagan alternative religions. Clericalism is the application of the formal, church-based, leadership or opinion of ordained clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import. ... Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion and the government are allied. ... Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a religious ideology which advocates literalistic interpretations of the sacred texts of Islam, Sharia law, and an Islamic State. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu nation, and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... The Sangh Parivar is a loose family of organizations, which promote the ideology of Hindutva. ... Heathen redirects here. ...


Many people of faith feel that comparing their religion to ideologies such as Nazism or other forms of fascism is very offensive. However, the holy books and texts of many major world religions can be read to support the idea of divine right monarchy and absolute monarchy in forms that are theocratic, theonomic, or totalitarian. National Socialism redirects here. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Definition of fascism

Main article: Fascism

The term fascism was first used in Italy during the 1920s, and like Nazism, its meaning came to refer to a type of union of right wing concepts of authoritarian political controls with capitalism and welfare state economic policies. The term neo-fascism is used to describe fascist movements active after World War II. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ...


Modern colloquial usage of the word sometimes extends the definition of the terms fascism and neo-fascism and Neo-Nazism to refer to any totalitarian worldview, regardless of its political ideology. Although the assertion that religious fundamentalists and militants are fascists can often be understood as hyperbole, (see Fascist (epithet), some scholars have used the term when discussing certain religious movements. This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Look up hyperbole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with fascism (epithet). ...


Fascism and Religion

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, authoritarian ideals saw a resurgence in the context of political upheavals across Eurasia, typically anti-aristocratic socio-political revolutions promoting ideologies that were rooted in social and economic idealism. The grim reality of warfare corrupted these idealistic notions, and the ethnic-rooted conflicts of World War I and World War II arose from the political circumstances brought about by internal societal battles, usually between left-wing revolutionaries and right-wing traditionalists. Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is a landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²) and Oceania (9,000,000 km²). Eurasia is composed of the traditional continents... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry that asserts that everything we experience is of a mental nature. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In addition to the authoritarian political model, most scholars classify fascism as an extreme right ideology, along with ethnic-populist movements that call for increased traditionalism. In the context of civil conflicts, the demand for increased traditionalism typically promotes ethnocentrism, and in extreme cases this ethnic unity resulted in the persecution of those not within the chosen ethnic group. Religion has often been an aspect of ethnicity, whose moral foundation and message may grow corrupted by the societal acceptance of convergence between political and religious populism. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... The term far-right refers to the relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Between the two world wars, there were three forms of fascism: Italian economic corporatism; German racial nationalist Nazism; and clerical fascist movements such as the Romanian Iron Guard and the Croatian Ustashi. Since WWII, neofascists have reinterpreted fascist ideology and strategy in various ways to fit new circumstances."[1] National Socialism redirects here. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ...


In the context of social conflict in which religious figures and institutions come under partisan influence, religion often becomes a political tool by which principled authority is replaced by authoritarian violence. Early fascism was a mixture of syndicalist notions with Hegelian or idealistic theories of the state. Both early and later fascists viewed the state as an organic entity rather than as an institution to protect collective and individual rights. Fascists often defined themselves in opposition to laissez-faire capitalism, socialism, Marxism, and democracy. Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ...


During World War II, Karl Popper described fascism as different from Hegelianism, which was bound to a specific "traditional religious form" (Lutheran Christianity in Frederick William's Prussia).[2] Popper suggests that in fascism, religion is usually replaced by a form of evolutionist materialism: "Thus the formula of the fascist brew is in all countries the same: Hegel plus a dash of nineteenth-century materialism (especially Darwinism in the somewhat crude form given to it by Haeckel)."[3] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... // Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... The Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order in 1237; the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order around 1455 After the partition of the 2nd Peace of Thorn in 1466 The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ...


He argues that as a consequence of the popularity of Marxism in the first half of the 20th century, traditional fascism is not endorsing any specific religion. He wrote that while Marxism is seen as atheistic, fascism is not necessarily atheistic; usually only agnostic: The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without and gnosis, knowledge, translating to unknowable) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities—is unknown or (possibly) inherently unknowable. ...

...fascism has not much use for an open appeal to the supernatural. Not that it is necessarily atheistic or lacking in mystical or religious elements. But the spread of agnosticism through Marxism led to a situation in which no political creed aiming at popularity among the working class could bind itself to any of the traditional religious forms.[3]

Later scholarship took several different approaches. Roger Griffin argues that Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ...

Fascism is best defined as a revolutionary form of nationalism, one that sets out to be a political, social and ethical revolution, welding the 'people' into a dynamic national community under new elites infused with heroic values. The core myth that inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement of purifying, cathartic national rebirth (palingenesis) can stem the tide of decadence. [4]

This concept of fascism as palingenesis is complementary with the idea of James Rhodes that fascism is a form of apocalyptic millenarianism — and with the work of Emilio Gentile, who argues that fascism is a form of "political religion" that involves the "sacralization of politics."[5] Palingenesis (from Greek palin-, again, + genesis, becoming, birth), is a term used in philosophy, theology, and biology. ...


Roger Eatwell sees a complex relationship between fascism and religion, noting that "Religions…involve some form of belief in a supernatural being(s). However, this misses a point that all modern ideologies exhibit dimensions of religions." Eatwell questions "liberal historiography's demonization of fascism as an un-intellectual creed...." According to Eatwell:

"A more fruitful way of distinguishing between ideology and religion is to adapt Søren Kierkegaard's view that the essence of a religion is not the persuasion of the truth of the doctrine, but a leap of faith to accept a view which is inherently absurd.... Fascism’s essential syncretism meant that it was possible to find forms, which overtly married ideology and religion - for example, in the Iron Guard, or among a limited number of Italian and German clerics (though most failed to see the radicalism at the core of fascism). Moreover, there were aspects of fascism, which were absurd - especially the belief of some Nazis that there was an international Jewish conspiracy against Germany, which encouraged a belief in apocalyptic holy war against the Jew. However, most fascists were not driven by such affective sentiments. Indeed, there is nothing absurd about the core ideology of generic fascism – namely the quest to forge a holistic nation and create a radical syncretic Third Way state." "Reflections on Fascism and Religion".

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA:  ; 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian, generally recognized as the first existentialist philosopher. ...

Christianity in the United States

The linking of Christianity with fascism or neo-fascism has generated debate among scholars and in the media; and some consider it offensive to Christians. Stanley Kurtz called comparisons of the Christian Right with fascism an ill-advised attack on conservative Christians: Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ...

The most disturbing part of the Harper’s cover story (the one by Chris Hedges) was the attempt to link Christian conservatives with Hitler and fascism. Once we acknowledge the similarity between conservative Christians and fascists, Hedges appears to suggest, we can confront Christian evil by setting aside 'the old polite rules of democracy. [8] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Calling some portion of the Christian Right fascist has become an increasingly popular tendency in the political left, including the Christian Left. Reverend Rich Lang of the Trinity United Methodist Church of Seattle gave a sermon titled "George Bush and the Rise of Christian Fascism", in which he said, "I want to flesh out the ideology of the Christian Fascism that Mr. Bush articulates. It is a form of Christianity that is the mirror opposite of what Jesus embodied.".[citation needed] This article is about the current denomination in the United States. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Christian fascism or Christofascism are terms used by some leftists and libertarians to describe what they see as an emerging proto-fascism and possible Theocracy in the United States.[6] Advocates of this view include Carl Davidson, who has written an essay, "Globalization, Theocracy and the New Fascism: Taking the Right's Rise to Power Seriously[7] Leftism redirects here. ... In English-speaking countries, libertarianism usually refers to a political philosophy maintaining that every person is the absolute owner of their own life and should be free to do whatever they wish with their person or property, as long as they respect the liberty of others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


More extreme than the Christian Right are two movements where there is more scholarly support for charges of neo-fascism: Christian Identity and Christian Reconstructionism. There are versions of the Christian Identity movement that adopt openly neo-Nazi ideologies. Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ...


Some scholars consider Christian Reconstructionism a quasi-fascist movement because it is explicitly opposed to religious liberty and human rights. Chip Berlet and Lyons have witten that the movement is a "new form of clerical fascist politics."(Right-Wing Populism in America, p. 249) Karen Armstrong sees a potential for fascism in Christian Reconstructionism, and claims that the system of dominion envisaged by Christian Reconstructionist theologians R. J. Rushdoony and Gary North is totalitarian: "There is no room for any other view or policy, no democratic tolerance for rival parties, no individual freedom." (Armstrong, Battle for God, pp. 361-362) Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... Dominionism is a trend in Protestant Christian evangelicalism and fundamentalism, primarily, though not exclusively, in the United States, that seeks to establish specific political policies based on religious beliefs. ... Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ... Gary North For the bisexual rights activist, see Gary North (journalist) Gary North is a writer and publisher from the Christian Reconstruction movement. ...


Islam

See also: Mohammad_Amin_al-Husayni#Nazi ties and activities during World War II and Hama Massacre
Religious persecution
By persecuting group:
By strategy:
By targeted group:
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Some commentators and politicians use the terms Islamofascism or Islamic fascism to describe militant Islamic fundamentalists such as the Taliban, al Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah. Critics of such comparisons to fascism say that that political ideologies in the Middle East derived from fascism — such as the Kataeb Party, the Baath party, and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) — have been explicitly secular, and usually violently opposed to Islamism. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Conflicts between Christians and non-Christians have at times resulted in the persecution by Christians of non-Christians. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative consequences not just in the afterlife but in this life too, ranging from job loss, social isolation to incarceration, torture, or death. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or dont believe. ... Religious intolerance is intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs, generally against anothers religious beliefs. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government-authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law in which governments are either directly controlled by or significantly under... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... Spiritual abuse is the name given to what many critics consider abusive practices in churches, and spiritual and religious organizations and groups. ... Contrary to popular belief, the Africans enslaved to build the economic foundation of America were not Christians. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... First Christians in Kiev by Vasily Perov; Christians worshipping secretly in fear of persecution Christians have experienced persecution from both non-Christians and from other Christians during the history of Christianity. ... Many adherents of Germanic paganism have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Persecution of Pagans includes the loss of human rights under the law or through individual hate crimes for people who practise or who might be thought to practise paganism. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ... Islamofascism is a controversial neologism suggesting an association of the ideological or operational characteristics of certain modern Islamist movements with European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. ... Armed Taliban in pickup truck in Herat, July 2001. ... Al-Qaeda or al-Qaida or al-Qaida ( , trans. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... Baath Party symbol Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Bath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb al-Ba`ṯ al-`ArabÄ« al-IÅ¡tirāki) was founded in 1947 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) is a nationalist political party in Syria and Lebanon. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ...


They point out that those fascistic groups have drawn their strongest support from minority groups in the Arab world who feared the consequences of an Islamist government. Those movements have tended to have their strongest Muslim support from religious minorities like the Sunni Arabs of Iraq or the Alawites of Syria. The founders of the SSNP and the Kataeb were all Christians, and the founders of the Baath Party were Christian and Sunni. For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms Alawī and Alevi, although they share...


Some commentators, such as Daniel Pipes, say they only use comparisons to facism when describing a small number of militant Islamist zealots and terrorist.[citation needed] In 2001, Christopher Hitchens wrote, "[T]he bombers of Manhattan represent fascism with an Islamic face, and there's no point in any euphemism about it. What they abominate about "the West," to put it in a phrase, is not what Western liberals don't like and can't defend about their own system, but what they do like about it and must defend: its emancipated women, its scientific inquiry, its separation of religion from the state."[8] Robert S. Wistrich has described Islamic fascism as adopting a totalitarian mindset, a hatred of the West, fanatical extremism, repression of women, loathing of Jews, a firm belief in conspiracy theories, and dreams of global hegemony.[9] Daniel Pipes Daniel Pipes, Ph. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Christopher Hitchens Christopher Eric Hitchens (born in Portsmouth, England, April 13, 1949) is an author, journalist and literary critic. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ...


In late 2005, President George W. Bush and other high United States government officials began to use the terms Islamo-fascism or Islamic fascism, and suggested that opposing militant Islamic terrorism was similar to opposing the Nazis during World War II.[10] [11] [12] This created storm of controversy as supporters and opponents debated these contentions.[13] [14] [15] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


Although the concept of clerical fascism originated in reference to Roman and Orthodox Catholicism, some scholars apply it in Islamic contexts. Walter Laqueur discusses fascistic influences on militant Islam in his book Fascism: Past, Present, Future.[citation needed] Some writers claim that certain strands of Wahhabi or Salafi Islam display some of the signifiers of fascism or totalitarianism.[16][17] [18] Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism, Whahhabism) is an Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...


Some commentators have compared groups such as Muslim Brotherhood and similar movements in Sunni Islam inspired by the writings of Sayyid Qutb to fascism, and some have use the term neo-fascism to describe all highly politicized strains of Islam, including Shi'a radicalism as practiced in Iran, where the government practices partial control of the economy, nationalism and leader worship.[citation needed] J. Sakai has suggested that some middle class Islamists have formed groups that can be called fascist.[19] Muslim Brotherhood symbol. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: ) (Arabic: ‎; 9 October 1906[1] – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian intellectual author, and Islamist associated with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Academic Roger Griffin believes the word fascist is being stretched too far when applied to "so-called fundamentalist or terrorist forms of traditional religion (i.e. scripture or sacred text based with a strong sense of orthodoxy or orthodoxies rooted in traditional institutions and teachings)."[citation needed] However, he concedes that the United States has seen the emergence of hybrids of political religion and fascism in such phenomena as the Nation of Islam and Christian Identity, and that Bin Laden's al Qaeda network may represent such a hybrid. He is unhappy with the term clerical fascism, and says that "in this case we are rather dealing with a variety of 'fascistized clericalism.'"[citation needed] Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ...


Judaism and Zionism

Because Jews suffered their worst persecution in modern times during the Holocaust carried out by German Nazis and their fascist allies, the conflation of Judaism with fascism raises hackles well beyond the conflation of other religions with fascism. This article is becoming very long. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


Some find it difficult to disentangle religion from nationalism in relation to this group because there is a strong correlation between the religion Judaism with what has historically been viewed as a people, a nation, or even a race — the Jews. Another reason is that a substantial portion of the world's Jews are citizens of Israel and/or are supporters of the (largely secular) ideology of Zionism. Except in the case of an explicitly religious movement, it is difficult to say whether a particular Israeli political movement is Jewish in the sense of the religion or of the people. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...


The terms Judeofascism and Zionazism are political epithets. Those who use the terms sometimes say they are referring only to certain groups or individuals alleged to have fascist or totalitarian tendencies. Critics of these terms argue that they are merely used to smear Jews or Zionists, and to inflame public sentiments, with the highly negative connotations. These terms are sometimes used as an expression of anti-semitism, and often wrongly conflate the religion, Judaism, with Zionism, the state of Israel, Israeli government policies, and Jews around the world (and with United States foreign policy). [9] [10] Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


Vladimir Jabotinsky, the founder of the right-wing "Revisionist" momvement within Zionism was influenced by Italian fascism, but this movement was thoroughly secular. Religiously inspired Zionism in that period (e.g. Ahad Ha-am, Rav Kook, Martin Buber) tended to be anti-authoritarian and more concerned with cultural renewal focused on a Jewish homeland, rather than on building a Jewish state, and has little or no connection to fascism. More recently, however, some scholars have pointed to what they consider fascistic elements in the Israeli Kach and Kahane Chai parties, as well as in certain Israeli settler movements and their supporters in the United States. Both political parties were outlawed under Israeli anti-terrorism laws in 1994. Kach had already been banned from electoral politics for "incitement to racism" against Arabs. Their leaders have advocated policies of "transfer" that would forcibly expel Arabs from Israel proper — and even from territories under Israeli control. Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Asher Ginsberg (1856 - 1927), also known by the pen name Ahad Haam (Hebrew: one of the people, compare with L.L. Zamenhofs Unuel), was one of the great pre-state Zionist thinkers. ... Abraham Isaac Kook (1864 - 1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founder of the (now) Religious Zionist Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav, and a renowned Torah scholar. ... Martin Buber pictured late in life. ... Kach was an extremist right-wing Israeli party led by Meir Kahane. ... Kach was an extremist right-wing Israeli party led by Meir Kahane. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories...


Hinduism in India

Some critics of Hindu nationalism in India view elements of the Hindutva ideology as fascist.[20] Romila Thapar and Himani Bannerji have used the terms "Indian fascism" and "Hindu fascism" to describe the ideology of the Sangh Parivar. This kind of criticism is primarily made by politicians and academics who are sympathetic to Marxist ideologies.[21] Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu nation, and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Romila Thapar (born 1931) is a Indian Marxist historian [1] whose principal area of study is Ancient India. ... Himani Bannerji is a well respected writer and academic and teaches in the Department of Sociology at York University. ... The Sangh Parivar is a loose family of organizations, which promote the ideology of Hindutva. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Social scientist Prabhat Patnaik has written that the Hindutva movement as it has emerged is "classically fascist in class support, methods and programme"[22] Patnaik bases this argument on the following "ingredients" of classical fascism present in Hindutva: the attempt to create a unified homogeneous majority under the concept of "the Hindus"; a sense of grievance against past injustice; a sense of cultural superiority; an interpretation of history according to this sense of grievance and superiority; a rejection of rational arguments against this interpretation; and an appeal to the majority based on race and masculinity. Prabhat Patnaik is an Indian social scientist. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The term race serves to distinguish between populations or groups of people based on different sets of characteristics which is commonly determined through social conventions. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Prominent organizations labelled as fascist or heavily influenced by fascism include the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) religious movement, and the related Bharatiya Janata Party, which ruled India's government from the period of 1998-2004. Sadashiv Golwalkar, head of the RSS from 1940-1973, wrote the following about the German stand against Jews, before World War II: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu organization in India known for its grass roots work. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is one of the two major national political parties in India. ... M S Golwalkar Madhavrao Sadashivrao Golwalkar, popularly known as Guruji was the second sarasanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, was born on 19 February 1906 at Ramtek near Nagpur, Maharashtra. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

German national pride has now become the topic of the day. To keep up purity of the nation and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races, the Jews. National pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it is for races and cultures having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into a united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindustan to learn and profit by." ("We or our nationhood defined" 1938, p.37) In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ...

However, this does not imply that Golwalkar was a Nazi or anti-semite.This is evidenced by Golwalkar's wholesale condemnation of antisemitism in his works: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

"The Christians committed all sorts of atrocities on the Jews by giving them the label “Killers of Christ”. Hitler is not an exception but a culmination of the 2000-year long oppression of the Jews by the Christians." Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...

[23]


Koenraad Elst explains that Golwalkar's text mentions "racial purity" as Germany's concern but does not "make a plea" for it, and that he never described Hitler as "a source of inspiration.That alleged Golwalkar quotations turn out to be excerpted from the invective of his critics, is symptomatic of Hindutva-watching in general: first-hand information is spurned in favour of hostile second-hand claims made by unscrupled commentators. In most journalistic and academic publications on Hindutva, the number of direct quotations is tiny in comparison with quotations from secondary, hostile sources... If we do not just focus on the selected quotation (as we are led to do by those who made the selection in the first place), but read the whole book, we find that Golwalkar is definitely not asking the Hindus to emulate Nazi Germany."[24] Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ...


Elst further argues that the statement made was more a reactionary response to the ethnic separatism of the Muslim League made during that period when Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to segregate Muslims from Hindus on the basis of the Two Nation Theory.[25]He further asserts that Hindutva groups have largely renounced the book where such quotes were made, including Golwalkar himself. It hasn't been published since 1948 and that basically, it is a tool to vilify/ harass those who subscribe to Hindutva.[26][27] Nawab Khwaja Salimullah Khan, Founder of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح)  (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Two-Nation theory is the basis of creation of todays Pakistan. ...


In fact, Hindutva groups are overwhelmingly supportive of the Jewish State of Israel, including Savarkar himself, who supported Israel during its formation[28].Golwalkar supported Israel in his statement: The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

"The Jews had maintained their race, religion, culture and language; and all they wanted was their natural territory to complete their Nationality"[29]

In contrast, other critics of Hindu nationalism base their criticisms on accusations of communalism rather than using "Fascism" as a political epithet.[30] In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ...


Some scholars contend that the traditional meaning of the term fascism does not apply to Hindutva groups — and that analysis of such groups must be performed without the use of politically loaded terminology.[31][32][33]. Other peer-reviewed scholars such as Yvette Rosser[34] argue that to describe Hindu nationalism as fascist evokes double standards against Hindus in political and academic discourse, is part of an attempt to conflate political Hindutva with the religion of Hinduism, and is part of a systemic anti-Hindu bias in western academia and scholarship.[21] For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anti-Hindu leaflet launched by fundamentalist Christian churches Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against Hinduism, Hindus and Indian or Hindu culture. ...


The description of Hindutva as fascist has been particularly condemned by pro-Hindutva authors such as Koenraad Elst who claim that the ideology of Hindutva meets none of the characteristics of other fascist ideologies. Claims that Hindutva social service organisations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh are "fascist" have been disputed by academics such as Vincent Kundukulam [35] [36]. Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu organization in India known for its grass roots work. ...


In addition, accusations of "fascism" in the Hindutva movement coming from the left wing parties and western academics such as Christoffe Jaffrelot (who argues that Hindutva draws on the cultural nationalism of Bluntschli, rather than the racial nationalism of the Nazis themselves) have been criticized by former professor of political philosophy[37] and Times of India commentator Jyotirmaya Sharma as a "simplistic transference has done great injustice to our knowledge of Hindu nationalist politics"[38]. Nobel Laureate V.S. Naipaul also expressly rejects allegations of Fascism and views the rise of Hindutva as a welcome, broader civilizational resurgence of India[39]. Johann Kaspar Bluntschli (Zurich, March 7, 1808 – October 21, 1881 in Karlsruhe) was a Swiss jurist and politician, the son of a soap and candle manufacturer. ... The Common Man featured on a commemorative stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th Anniversary of the Times of India - 1988. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Sir V.S. Naipaul Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (born August 17, 1932), better known as V. S. Naipaul, is a British novelist of Hindu heritage and East Indian ethnicity from Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean, which was then a British colony. ...


Academics Chetan Bhatt and Parita Mukta reject the identification of Hindutva with fascism, because of Hindutva's embrace of cultural rather than racial nationalism, because of its "distinctively Indian" character, and because of "the RSS’s disavowal of the seizure of state power in preference for long-term cultural labour in civil society". They instead describe Hindutva as a form of "revolutionary conservatism" or "ethnic absolutism".[40]. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Paganism

Paganism, pantheism, Odinism, and related groups generally have nothing to do with fascism, white supremacy or antisemitism. However, a few followers of these Pagan belief systems are white supremacists or neo-Nazis.[41] Many Asatru and other Pagan websites post disclaimers denouncing hate. [42] Heathen redirects here. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Reconstructions of the traditions of Germanic paganism began with 19th century Romanticism. ... satr , also known as Odinism, describes a number of attempts to reconstruct the indigenous religions of Northern Europe. ...


However, examples of groups in which fascism and Paganism intersect include the White Order of Thule and the Creativity Movement (formerly the World Church of the Creator). Members of the White Order of Thule practice a form of Odinism or Asatru. Wotan is one of the many names for the Norse god Odin, and in fascist and white supremacist circles the word WOTAN is also used as an acronym for "Will Of The Aryan Nations." [43] The White Order of Thule (WOT), created in the mid-1990s, was a loosely knit group of individuals who believed in the superiority of the Aryan race as represented by Norse, Viking and other ancient Nordic cultures. ... The Creativity Movement is a racialist, and White-supremacist organization that advocates a White Religion called Creativity. ... A god of the Anglo-Saxon /Early English tribes brought with them from continental Europe, around the 5th and 6th centuries until conversion to Christianity in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. Woden is the carrier-off of the dead, but not necessarily with the attributes of his Norse equivalent... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ...


See also

Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Kach was an extremist right-wing Israeli party led by Meir Kahane. ... Kach was an extremist right-wing Israeli party led by Meir Kahane. ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... This article is about Nazism (National Socialism), in relation to other concepts. ... There have been several neo-Nazi groups in the United States. ... The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (Hindi: , English: ), also known as the Sangh or the RSS, is a Hindu organization in India known for its grass roots work. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The White Order of Thule (WOT), created in the mid-1990s, was a loosely knit group of individuals who believed in the superiority of the Aryan race as represented by Norse, Viking and other ancient Nordic cultures. ...

Christianity

Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... The Creativity Movement is a racialist, and White-supremacist organization that advocates a White Religion called Creativity. ... Dominionism is a trend in Protestant Christian evangelicalism and fundamentalism, primarily, though not exclusively, in the United States, that seeks to establish specific political policies based on religious beliefs. ... See Dominion (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word Dominion. ... German Christians was formed in 1932 and led by Ludwig Mueller. ... The Protestant Reich Church was formed by Adolf Hitler in 1933, by merging 29 regional churches into one church. ...

Islam

Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... The phrase Islamic fundamentalism is primarily used in the West to describe Islamist groups. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... There are two main types that people may term Islamic democracy: A democratic state where the majority of the population are Muslim, or which attempts to reconcile Islam with a secular, democratic state. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Islamofascism is a controversial neologism suggesting an association of the ideological or operational characteristics of certain modern Islamist movements with European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Chip Berlet, 2003, adapted in "Terminology: Use with Caution." Fascism. Vol. 5, Critical Concepts in Political Science, Roger Griffin and Matthew Feldman, eds. New York, NY: Routledge. [1]
  2. ^ Popper, Karl. The Open Society and its Enemies. Diverse editions since 1945, e.g. 2002: Routledge - ISBN 0-415-28236-5 (both volumes in one band). See: Volume II: The High Tide of Prophecy, Section: The Rise of Oracular Philosophy, Chapter 12: Hegel and The New Tribalism, subsections II and III.
  3. ^ a b Popper, Karl. The Open Society and its Enemies. Diverse editions since 1945, e.g. 2002: Routledge - ISBN 0-415-28236-5 (both volumes in one band). See: Volume II: The High Tide of Prophecy, Section: The Rise of Oracular Philosophy, Chapter 12: Hegel and The New Tribalism, subsection V.
  4. ^ Roger Griffin, 1991, The Nature of Fascism, New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, p. xi)
  5. ^ Chip Berlet. (2004) Christian Identity: The Apocalyptic Style, Political Religion, Palingenesis and Neo-Fascism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, Vol. 5, No. 3, (Winter), special issue on Fascism as a Totalitarian Movement.
  6. ^ Laurence W. Britt, Fascism Anyone?, Free Inquiry magazine, Council for Secular Humanism, Volume 23, Number 2. Web page updated July 25, 2004. Accessed November 9, 2006.
  7. ^ Carl Davidson.Globalization, Theocracy and the New Fascism: Taking the Right's Rise to Power Seriously, paper was delivered at the 4th Annual GSA meeting in Knoxville, TN, May 13-15 2005. Accessed November 9, 2006 on PORTSIDE listserv archives, dated May 16, 2005.
  8. ^ http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20011008&s=hitchens
  9. ^ http://www.science.co.il/Arab-Israeli-conflict/Articles/Wistrich-2001-11-16.asp
  10. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/10/20051006-2.html
  11. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/11/20051119-5.html
  12. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/08/20060810-3.html
  13. ^ Tom Regan Experts, pundits debate use of 'Islamo-fascist', Christian Science Monitor, August 31, 2006. Accessed online 4 September 2006.
  14. ^ Lisa Miller Escalation in Terminology When President Bush described a war against ‘Islamic fascists,’ some American Muslims became very angry. Newsweek Online, August 12, 2006. Accessed online 4 September 2006
  15. ^ Daoud Kuttab Drop "Islamo-Fascist" Rhetoric, Post Global (Washington Post), August 29, 2006. Accessed online 4 September 2006.
  16. ^ http://www.publiceye.org/frontpage/911/Islam/rosenfeld2001.html
  17. ^ http://www.merip.org/mer/mer221/221_abu_el_fadl.html
  18. ^ http://www.mille.org/cmshome/wessladen.html
  19. ^ http://www.kersplebedeb.com/mystuff/books/fascism/shock.html
  20. ^ eg. Partha Banergee
  21. ^ a b Puzzling Dimensions and Theoretical Knots in my Graduate School Research, Yvette Rosser
  22. ^ "The Fascism of Our Times" Social Scientist VOl 21 No.3-4, 1993, p.69[2]
  23. ^ MS Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Jagarana Prakashana, Bangalore, 1966, p.210
  24. ^ Was Guru Golwalkar a Nazi? by Koenraad Elst
  25. ^ Was Guru Golwalkar a Nazi? by Koenraad Elst
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ [4]
  28. ^ Hindu-Zion
  29. ^ Elst, Koenraad (2001). The Saffron Swastika: The Notion of "Hindu Fascism" (in English). Voice of India. ISBN 8185990697. 
  30. ^ K. N. Panikar (March-April 1993). "Culture and Communalism" (in English). Social Scientist 21 (3/4): 24-31. 
  31. ^ RSS neither Nationalist nor Fascist, Indian Christian priest's research concludes
  32. ^ RSS neither nationalist nor fascist, says Christian priest after research,The Indian Express
  33. ^ Walter K. Andersen, Shridhar D. Damle (May 1989). "The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 503: 156-157. 
  34. ^ Credentials of Yvette Rosser [5], [6]
  35. ^ Christian Post
  36. ^ [7]
  37. ^ Profile, Jyotirmaya Sharma
  38. ^ Hindu Nationalist Politics,J. Sharma Times of India
  39. ^ Naipaul V.S. India, a million Mutinies now, Penguin 1992 ISBN:0140156801
  40. ^ Ethnic and Racial Studies Volume 23 Number 3 May 2000 pp. 407–441 ISSN 0141-9870 print/ISSN 1466-4356 online
  41. ^ Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1997. Radical Religion in America, Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.
  42. ^ See, for example, the Heathens Against Hate banner campaign, accessed January 5, 2007
  43. ^ Berlet, Chip. "White Order of Thule" and "Other Groups and Movements" accessed January 5, 2007

Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... The Saffron Swastika: This book was published by Koenraad Elst in 2001. ...

Bibliography

General

  • Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine.
  • Cohn, Norman. [1957] 1970. The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages. Revised and expanded. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellwood, Robert. 2000. "Nazism as a Millennialist Movement." In Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases, ed. Catherine Wessinger, 241-260. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
  • Gentile, Emilio, The Sacralization of Politics in Fascist Italy, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1994.
  • "Fascism, "Totalitarianism and Political Religion: Definitions and Critical Reflections on Criticism of an Interpretation," Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, special issue on Fascism as a Totalitarian Movement, 2004, vol. 5, no.3, pp. 351–56.
  • Jurgensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey. 1997. Radical Religion in America, Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.
  • Rhodes, J. M. 1980. The Hitler movement: A modern millenarian revolution. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press / Stanford Univ.
  • Robbins, T., and S. J. Palmer, eds. 1997. Millennium, messiahs, and mayhem. New York: Routledge.

Christianity

  • Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine.
  • Clarkson, Frederick. 1997. Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage. ISBN 1-56751-088-4
  • Gorenberg, Gershom. 2000. The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. New York: The Free Press.
  • Barkun, Michael. 1994. Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. ISBN 0-8078-4451-9
  • Stanley R. Barrett, Is God a Racist?: The Right Wing in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987).

Islam

  • 2001. "Jihad and Martyrdom Operations as Apocalyptic Events." Paper presented at the Fifth Annual Center for Millennial Studies Conference, Boston University, November.
  • 2002. "America, the Second ‘Ad: The Perception of the United States in Modern Muslim Apocalyptic Literature." Yale Center for International and Area Studies Publications 5:150-93.
  • Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine.
  • Cook, David. 1996. "Muslim Apocalyptic and Jihad." Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 20:66-104.
  • Esposito, John L. 2002. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gorenberg, Gershom. 2000. The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. New York: The Free Press.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1996. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rashid, Ahmed. 2001. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven: Yale Nota Bene.
  • Wistrich, Robert S. 2002. "The New Islamic Fascism", in Partisan Review 69 (1), pp32-34 or Jerusalem Post 16 November 2001. Online (payment required)
  • Horowitz, David, "Unholy Alliance:Radical Islam and the American Left", Regnery Publishing ISBN 089526076X

November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Judaism

  • Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God. New York: Ballantine.
  • Gorenberg, Gershom. 2000. The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. New York: The Free Press.
  • Robert I. Friedman, The False Prophet: Rabbi Meir Kahane From FBI Informant to Knesset Member, (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Lawrence Hill Books, 1990);
  • Robert I. Friedman, Zealots for Zion: Inside Israel's West Bank Settlement Movement (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994);
  • Raphael Mergui and Philippe Simonnot, Israel's Ayatollahs: Meir Kahane and the Far Right in Israel (London: Saqi Books, 1987);
  • Michael Karpin and Ina Friedman, Murder in the Name of God: The Plot to Kill Yitzhak Rabin (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 1998).

Hinduism

  • Andersen, Walter K. 1998. "Bharatiya Janata Party: Searching for the Hindu Nationalist Face." Pp. 219-232 in The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies, Hans-Georg Betz and Stefan Immerfall, eds., New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Walter K Andersen, Shridhar Damie. Brotherhood in Saffron: Rashtriya Swayarnsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism (Westview special studies on South and Southeast Asia) 1987 ISBN 0813373581
  • Banerjee, Partha. 1998. In the Belly of the Beast: The Hindu Supremacist RSS and BJP of India. Delhi: Ajanta.
  • Tapan Basu Khaki Shorts: Saffron Flags 1993 Orient Longman ISBN 0863113834
  • Elst, Koenraad. Decolonizing the Hindu Mind. Ideological Development of Hindu Revivalism. Rupa, Delhi 2001.
  • Elst, Koenraad. "The Saffron Swastika. The Notion of 'Hindu Fascism'." Voice of India, Delhi 2001. [11] [12]
  • Embree, Ainslie T. 1994. "The Function of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: To Define the Hindu Nation." Pp. 617-652 in Accounting for Fundamentalisms, The Fundamentalism Project 4, Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Golwalkar, A Bunch of thoughts
  • Hansen, Thomas Blom. 1999. The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Review
  • Rajesh Tembarai Krishnamachari "Decline of the Left in India", South Asia Analysis Group
  • Sheshadri H. V.; Shri Guruji, A Life Sketch; Jalandhar, 2006
  • Smith, David James, Hinduism and Modernity P189, Blackwell Publishing ISBN 0-631-20862-3
  • Sarkar, Tanika, and Urvashi Butalia, eds. 1995. Women and the Hindu Right. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar. Hindutva. Bharati Sahitya Sadan, Delhi 1989 (1923).

M S Golwalkar Madhavrao Sadashivrao Golwalkar, popularly known as Guruji was the second sarasanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, was born on 19 February 1906 at Ramtek near Nagpur, Maharashtra. ... South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) is a non-profit non-commercial think tank based in India. ...

Paganism

  • Gardell, Mattia. 2003. Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
  • Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press.

External links

General

Judaism Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was a British author and journalist. ...

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