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Encyclopedia > Religion in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. Christianity is the majority religion, and a wide variety of Christian churches, denominations, and sects exists. Download high resolution version (768x1044, 807 KB)South face of St. ... Download high resolution version (768x1044, 807 KB)South face of St. ... St Pauls Cathedral from the south St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, England and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Nations with state religions:  Roman Catholic Church  Protestantism  Orthodox Christianity  Islam  Sunni Islam  Shia Islam  Buddhism A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...


Apart from a period of expulsion between 1290 and 1656, there has been a Jewish minority in the United Kingdom for many centuries. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


During the 20th century, many other religions have established a presence, mainly through immigration, though also partly through the attraction of converts. Those with the most adherents are Hinduism, Sikhism, and various forms of Islam (mainly among immigrants from southern Asia). Other minority faiths include Buddhism, the Baha'i Faith, and Rastafarianism. There are also small neopagan groups, and various organizations which actively promote rationalism and secularism. Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of psychology. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or as adherents prefer to call it, the Rastafari movemant, or simply Rasta, is a religious movement that reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie I - who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ...

Contents

History

Before Christianity

Paganism in the British Isles (essentially Celtic polytheism before the conquest by the Romans) was supplemented by the arrival of Roman religion: see, for example, the Temple of Mithras, London. It had multiple deities, that varied in different regions: see, for example, Sulis and Viridios. The Anglo Saxons (or English) who invaded in 449AD practiced Germanic Paganism before their conversion, instigated by Roman missionaries in 597AD. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a term which, from a western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe consisting of Great Britain, Ireland, and a number of smaller surrounding islands and islets. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The present day location of the temple foundations. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... In ancient Celtic polytheism, Sulis (also found as Sulevis/Sulis/Sulla) was the deification of spring-water, especially of thermal spring-water, conceived as a nourishing, life-giving Mother goddess. ... Viridios, or Viridius is the supposed deified masculine spirit of verdure, in ancient Celtic polytheism. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Germanic paganism refers to the religion and mythology of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization, including Norse, Anglo-Saxon mythology, information obtained from archaeological finds and remnants of pre-Christian beliefs in the folklore of medieval and modern Germanic peoples. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


Christianity

Christianity was first introduced through the Romans (English mythology links the introduction of Christianity to Britain to the Glastonbury legend of Joseph of Arimathea) and the Romano-British population after the withdrawal of the Roman legions was mostly Christian. However the Anglo-Saxon invasions largely wiped out Christianity from the areas occupied by the Saxons - although whether this was due to conversion of the native population or ethnic cleansing of the original population is widely disputed. What is not disputed is that Anglo-Saxon England was largely pagan by the 7th century (See Anglo-Saxon polytheism). Download high resolution version (515x761, 73 KB)Image of crucifixion from the Durham Gospels. ... Download high resolution version (515x761, 73 KB)Image of crucifixion from the Durham Gospels. ... Categories: Art stubs | Illuminated manuscripts | Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... Lindisfarne Castle Lindisfarne (grid reference NU125421, ), also called Holy Island (variant spelling, Lindesfarne), is a tidal island off the north-east coast of England, which is connected to the mainland of Northumberland by a causeway and is cut off twice a day by tides — something well described by Sir Walter... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... English mythology, like the conglomerate society which it represents, with a long and elaborate history of invasion and settlement by diverse cultures, is one which has nevertheless an entirely idiosyncratic nature of its own. ... Statistics Population: 8,800 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: ST501390 Administration District: Mendip Shire county: Somerset Region: South West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Somerset Historic county: Somerset Services Police force: Avon and Somerset Police Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Western Post office... Joseph of Arimathea, according to the Gospels, was the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. ... The term Romano-British describes the romanised culture of Britannia under the rule of the Roman Empire, when Roman and Christian culture had extensively entered into the life of the native Brythonic and Pictish peoples of Britain. ... The Roman departure from Britain was nearly completed by 400. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory. ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Anglo-Saxon polytheism refers to the Migration Period Germanic paganism practiced by the Anglo-Saxons in 5th to 7th century England. ...


Ireland was converted largely by Romano-British missionaries - notably Saint Patrick at some time after the withdrawal of the Roman legions from England. Irish Christianity developed in a monastic style. Celtic missionaries from Ireland spread Celtic Christianity then came to Scotland - notably through Saint Columba and later the Kingdom of Northumbria. Many works of art and faith were inspired, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels. Saint Patrick (385-March 17, 493, see below) was a missionary and is regarded as the patron saint of Ireland (along with Saint Brigid and Saint Columba). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. ...


Augustine of Canterbury was sent by Pope Gregory I to establish an English church loyal to Rome starting in the Kingdom of Kent - which had strong links to the Franks, including the Kentish King's wife who invited Augustine to England. See History of the Church of England. Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England, one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The specifically English church originates primarily from events in the late 6th century in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent, and the mission of Saint Augustine. ...


Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum describes the history of the English church. Depiction of Bede from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493. ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman...


The Synod of Whitby in AD 664 attempted to reconcile differences of religious practice, particularly between the Celtic Church and the Roman Church. The outcome was that Cuthbert, the leader of Celtic Christianity accepted the Petrine supremacy that Augustine and Rome claimed. During the 8th century, Anglo-Saxon missionaries spread Christianity on the Continent. The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Celtic Christianity is Christianity as it was first received and practiced by communities with Celtic backgrounds that observed certain practices divergent from those in the rest of Europe. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (ca. ... Is a doctrine that states the bishop of Rome (i. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Germanic Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ...


Until the Reformation different religious practices in different countries of what is now the United Kingdom had been established; Christianity in the islands generally looked to Rome for spiritual guidance, although figures such as Stephen Langton and John Wyclif and movements such as Lollardy occasionally posed challenges to the dominance of the Rome-based hierarchy. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Stephen Langton (c. ... Wycliffe may also refer to Wycliffe Bible Translators John Wyclif (also Wycliffe or Wycliff) (c. ... John Wyclif gives his Bible translation to Lollards Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards from the late 14th century to early in the time of the English Reformation. ...


The Bible was eventually translated into vernacular languages in the United Kingdom: see, for example, Wyclif's Bible, William Tyndale, William Morgan and Welsh Bible. The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... Wyclifs Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English, that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wyclif. ... It has been suggested that The Tyndale Society be merged into this article or section. ... William Morgan (1545 - 1604) was the translator of the first version of the whole Bible into Welsh. ... The first Welsh language translation of the Bible was produced by William Morgan in 1588. ...


From the Reformation to established national churches

Due to his own dynastic difficulties, Henry VIII of England cut ties with the Papacy. When he was not granted an annulment of his marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, Henry announced himself as the supreme head of the Church in England. In Scotland the Protestant Reformation was more of a grass roots movement than an imposition by the Crown. Continuing adherence by a majority of the population to Catholicism in Ireland ensured unstable and violent relations between the nations of the isles. By the late 17th century a political settlement of religious questions had re-established stability, if not general conformism (see Act of Settlement 1701 and Act of Security). For more detail of this period see the following articles: For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ...

The English Reformation was part of a process and movement of thought which led to the breaking away of a number of Christian churches in Europe from communion with Rome. ... 1415, July 6 - Jan Hus executed as a heretic 1496 - Catherine of Aragons hand secured for Arthur, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VII 1501, October - Arthur marries Catherine 1502, April - Arthur dies of TB 1503 - Henry VII’s wife dies; considers taking Catherine, but decides to pass her... First Act of Supremacy 1534 The Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. ... The Oath of Supremacy, imposed by the Act of Supremacy 1559, provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... The Six Articles of 1539 (short title ), also called the Bloody Statute and the Bloody Whip with Six Strings, was an Act of Parliament which reaffirmed Henry VIIIs general Catholicism. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... The Prayer Book Rebellion or Western Rebellion occurred in the southwest of England in 1549. ... The Marian martyrs were Protestants executed for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England. ... During the reign of Mary I, John Strype says more than 800 English protestants fled to the continent (predominantly the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, and France) and joined with reformed churches there or formed their own congregations. ... The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I.This response was set out in two acts of parliament. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The Pope and the Queen Regnans in Excelsis was a papal bull issued on February 25, 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring Elizabeth I to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... The Vicar of Bray is a satirical song recounting the career of the Vicar of Bray and his contortions of principle in order to retain his ecclesiastic office despite the changes in the Established Church through the course of several English monarchs. ... The Covenanters are a radical Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. ... Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ... The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written by Calvinistic Baptists in England to give a formal expression of the Reformed and Protestant Christian faith with an obvious Baptist perspective. ... The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II of Englands attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists in his realms, by suspending the execution of the penal laws that punished recusants from the Church of England. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. ... The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... Over the course of English parliamentary history there were a number of acts of uniformity. ... The Conventicle Act of 1664, 16 Charles II c. ... The Five Mile Act, 17 Charles II c. ... The Nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican Church in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, over whether William of Orange could legally be recognized as King of England. ...

England

The Church of England became the established church in England. It regards itself as in continuity with the pre-Reformation state Catholic church, but has been a distinct Anglican church since the settlement under Elizabeth I (with some disruption during the 17th-century Commonwealth period). The Queen is formally Supreme Governor of the Church of England, but it is in practice governed by the General Synod, under the authority of Parliament. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO ( English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Republic  - Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell [of Commonwealth]    - by Rump_Parliament AD May 19, 1649  Area    - Total 130,395 km²   50,346 sq mi  Currency Pound sterling... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The General Synod is the title of the governing body of some church organizations. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ...


Scotland
Main article: Religion in Scotland
John Knox was the leading Scottish religious reformer of the 16th century
John Knox was the leading Scottish religious reformer of the 16th century

The Church of Scotland is recognised in law (by the Church of Scotland Act 1921) as the national church in Scotland, but is not an established church and is independent of state control in matters spiritual. The Church of Scotland is a Reformed church, with a Presbyterian system of ecclesiastical polity as determined in 1690. Although the Queen is an ordinary member of the Church of Scotland, she is represented at the General Assembly by her Lord High Commissioner. For more information on the history of the Reformation in Scotland, see also John Knox, Jenny Geddes, Book of Common Order, and Bishops' Wars. We dont have an article called Religion in Scotland Start this article Search for Religion in Scotland in. ... Image File history File links JohnKnox. ... Image File history File links JohnKnox. ... John Knox (1514?–1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who took the lead in reforming the Church in Scotland along Calvinist lines. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland Act 1921 is an Act of the British Parliament, passed in 1921. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ... John Knox (1514?–1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who took the lead in reforming the Church in Scotland along Calvinist lines. ... Riot against use of prescribed prayer book The legendary Jenny Geddes famously threw her stool at the head of the minister in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, beginning a riot which led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms that included the English Civil War. ... 16th Century The Book of Common Order, sometimes called The Order of Geneva or Knoxs Liturgy, is a directory for public worship in the Reformed Church in Scotland. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...


The Scottish Reformation was more influenced by Calvinism than in England, with the adoption of the Westminster Confession. Divisions within Presbyterianism (see Disruption of 1843) in Scotland have led to the setting up of other denominations: Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... In one sense the Free Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of the national Church of Scotland as it was reformed in 1560. ...

The second largest church in Scotland in terms of membership is the Roman Catholic Church. The indigenous Scottish Episcopal Church (which is part of the Anglican communion), is a relatively small denomination and not established. This article concerns the Free Church of Scotland 1843-1900, for the Free Church of Scotland existing from 1900 to the present day see Free Church of Scotland (post 1900). ... St. ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ... The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (1847-1900) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Wales

The Welsh Church Act 1914 provided for the disestablishment of the Anglican Church in Wales, but did not come into operation until 1920. Since then there has been no established church in Wales. The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom under which the Welsh part of the Church of England was separated and disestablished. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ...


Beside the Roman Catholic Church (Eglwys Catholig Rufeinig) and the Church in Wales (Eglwys yng Nghymru), which both have less than 5 % of the population as members, the largest religious societies are the Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru) with 34,819 (2004) members and 1 % of the population as members and the Union of Welsh Independents (Undeb yr Annibynwyr Cymraeg) as well as the Baptist Union of Wales (Undeb Bedyddwyr Cymru) with about 1 % of the population as members each. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... The Presbyterian church of Wales (Welsh: Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Baptist Union of Wales (Undeb Bedydd wyr Cymru) is a fellowship of Baptist churches in Wales. ...


Northern Ireland

The Anglican Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1871 by the Irish Church Disestablishment Act. (The Republic of Ireland subsequently seceded from the United Kingdom.) Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Irish Church Disestablishment Act was the United Kingdom legislation whereby William Gladstones administration disestablished the Church of Ireland, disassociating it from the state and as such removing the rule that tithes had to be paid to a church that commanded the adherence of a minority of the population...


The vast majority of the population of Northern Ireland identifies with one of two different political groups, unionists and nationalists. Both sides of the community are often described by their predominant religious attachments; Unionists are predominantly Protestant, while nationalists are predominantly Catholic. Although the Protestant population is larger numerically than the Catholic population, the Roman Catholic Church forms the largest denomination. The largest Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church in Ireland and the smaller Anglican (Episcopalian) Church of Ireland. One of the best known denominations is the Free Presbyterian Church, led by its Moderator Ian Paisley. In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Free Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian denomination founded and moderated by the cleric and politician, Ian Paisley¹. Most of its membership live in Ulster. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Roman Catholicism

Saint Chad's Cathedral in Birmingham was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in England after the Reformation and is one of only three minor basilicas in England (the others being Downside Abbey and Corpus Christi Priory)
Saint Chad's Cathedral in Birmingham was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in England after the Reformation and is one of only three minor basilicas in England (the others being Downside Abbey and Corpus Christi Priory)

Relations between adherents of Protestantism and the Roman Catholic Church have at times been difficult (see Papist and Popery). Roman Catholics who clung to their faith in the face of persecution were called recusants. Following Catholic Emancipation in the late 18th and early 19th century (which met violent opposition in the Gordon Riots) the Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain re-established a hierarchy in 1850. However, Anglican and Roman Catholic worship has often been similar in many parishes: see Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x2161, 686 KB) Summary RC Cathedral of St Chad, Birmingham, England, photographed by me 10th May 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1738x2161, 686 KB) Summary RC Cathedral of St Chad, Birmingham, England, photographed by me 10th May 2006. ... Saint Chads Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Province of Birmingham, England, a province of the Catholic Church in Great Britain. ... The Basilica of St. ... Saint Gregorys Abbey, commonly known as Downside Abbey, is a Benedictine monastery of the English Benedictine Congregation. ... Corpus Christi Priory is a Roman Catholic Premonstratensian monastery and basilica in Miles Platting, Manchester, England. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups currently within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Papist is a slur referring to Roman Catholics. It was coined during the English Reformation to indicate one who believed in Papal supremacy over all Christians. ... Historically, the words popery and popish have been used as derogatory terms for Roman Catholicism and Roman Catholic, respectively. ... Throughout English history, Recusancy was generally synonymous with nonconformism. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gordon Riots is a term used to refer to a number of events in a predominantly Protestant religious uprising in London aimed against the Roman Catholic Relief Act, 1778, relieving his Majestys subjects, of the Catholic Religion, from certain penalties and disabilities imposed upon them during the reign... The Catholic Church in Great Britain is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, sometimes known as the Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual government and teaching of the Pope and Catholic Bishops throughout the world. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ...


Some problems of sectarianism still remain, particularly in Northern Ireland. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sectarian violence. ... Motto: [citation needed] (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, NI Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair...


For more detail on Roman Catholic history in England, see Roman Catholicism in Great Britain and English Roman Catholic parish histories. The Catholic Church in Great Britain is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual government and teaching of the Pope and Catholic Bishops throughout the world. ... After the Reformation the Roman Catholic Church in England went underground to avoid persecution. ...


Other Christian denominations

Other traditions of Christianity have a long history. There has been a strain of Nonconformism or Dissent traceable back to Lollardry. For more information on some of these groupings, especially those that came to prominence during the religious ferment of the 16th and 17th centuries, see English Dissenters. Non conformism is the term of KKK ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


Britain provided a place of refuge for Huguenots fleeing religious persecution in France. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Many parts of the British Isles developed a strong tradition of Methodism from the 18th century onwards. For more information, see: Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

Orthodoxy has more recently been re-introduced to the United Kingdom by Cypriot, Russian and other immigrants (see, for example, Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh and Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas), but increasing numbers of British converts are joining formerly ethnically-based congregations. For meanings of this word with its more common spelling, see connection (disambiguation). ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... The Countess of Huntingdons Connexion is a small evangelical Church, founded in the late 18th century. ... The Welsh Methodist revival of the 18th century was one of the most significant religious and social movements in the history of Wales. ... The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival was the largest full scale Christian Revival of Wales of the 20th century. ... The Methodist Church of Great Britain or British Methodist Church is the largest Wesleyan / Methodist body in the United Kingdom, with congregations across Great Britain and the Isle of Man. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which claims to be the direct continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh (19 June 1914 - 4 August 2003), Metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... The Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas in Liverpool, built 1871. ...


Russian Orthodox parishes may fall under the jurisdiction of: The United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland contain various Russian Orthodox groups. ...

Greek Orthodox parishes fall under the jurisdiction of: The Diocese of Sourozh is the Russian Orthodox Churchs diocese in Great Britain and Ireland. ... The Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe is an exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriatchate of Russian Orthodox tradition, based in Paris, and having parishes throughout Europe, mainly centered in France. ...

Among other denominations are: List of Ecumenical Patriarchate Greek Orthodox Archbishops of Thyateira and Great Britain Athenagoras Kavadas (1951-1962) Athenagoras Kokkinakis (1963-1979) Methodios Fouyias (1979-1988) Gregorios Theocharous Categories: Eastern Orthodoxy ...

Baptist Union of Great Britain - the oldest and largest national association of Great Britain. ... The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom. ... Britain Yearly Meeting is the umbrella body for the Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man). ... Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is an evangelical Christian denomination founded in 1865 by one time Methodist minister William Booth. ...

Saints

Traditionally, saints have often been venerated locally, nationally and internationally. This is often reflected in British toponymy. General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... British toponymy (relating to the mainland and islands closely linked to it including the Shetland Islands, the Orkney Islands, and the Channel Islands) is the study of place names, their origins and the trends associated with naming places in specific regional areas. ...


Patron saints: In several forms of the church of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ...

Many municipalities and regions preserve traditions of their own saints. See, for example, Cornish Saints and Saint Swithun. Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas, manly, brave), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. ... The Flag of Saint David. ... Saint Patrick (385-March 17, 493, see below) was a missionary and is regarded as the patron saint of Ireland (along with Saint Brigid and Saint Columba). ... This is a list of saints connected with Cornwall Saint Austell Saint Blaze Saint Breaca Saint Constantine Saint Erc Saint Gerren Geraint of Dumnonia Saint Just Saint Keyne Saint Levan Saint Marwenna Saint Menfre Saint Meriasek Saint Morwenna Saint Ouine Saint Petroc Saint Piran St. ... St. ...


Wales is particularly noted for naming places after either local or well-known saints - all places beginning in Llan e.g. Llanbedr - St Peter (Pedr); Llanfihangel - St Michael (Mihangel); Llanarmon - St Garmon. Because of the relatively small number of saints' names used, places names are often suffixed by their locality e.g. Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr, Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn, Llanfihangel-y-Pennant.


Saint Alban was, according to tradition, the first Christian martyr in Britain. Other martyrs, such as the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, have also been canonised. Saint Alban was the first Christian martyr in Britain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales are a group of Christian martyrs who were canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI to represent the Catholics martyred in England and Wales between 1535 and 1679. ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ...

Ruins of a former nunnery in Iona
Ruins of a former nunnery in Iona

Pilgrimages were an important religious, social and economic activity in pre-Reformation Britain. The shrine of Thomas Becket attracted particularly large numbers of pilgrims, as recounted in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Some local pilgrimages have been revived; see, for example, the shrines of Walsingham. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) Subject Nunnery, Isle of Iona, Scotland Photographer Hartmut Josi Bennöhr (user:josi / de:user:josi) Source fotographed in July 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Religion in the United Kingdom ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) Subject Nunnery, Isle of Iona, Scotland Photographer Hartmut Josi Bennöhr (user:josi / de:user:josi) Source fotographed in July 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Religion in the United Kingdom ... Iona village viewed from a short distance offshore. ... For other uses of the word pilgrimage, see Pilgrimage (disambiguation). ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... Map sources for Walsingham at grid reference TF934368 This refers to the town, for other uses see Walsingham (disambiguation) Walsingham (full name Little Walsingham) is a small market town (population 864) in Norfolk, England, famed for its religious shrines in honour of the Virgin Mary. ...


Religion and modern politics

The strength of nonconformism among workers in the newly-industrialised towns of the Industrial Revolution gave rise, in large measure, to the development of Christian socialism in the United Kingdom. The Labour Party arose from a nonconformist background, whereas the Church of England has sometimes been nicknamed "the Conservative Party at prayer". Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two things as being interconnected, perhaps because one derives from the other. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ...


As religious disabilities were relaxed in the 19th century, politics was opened up to people of different faiths or none (see Charles Bradlaugh). However, the Church of England still maintains a constitutional position in the legislature: see Lord Spiritual. Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 _ 30 January 1891) was a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ...


The debate over the role of the churches in the constitution was perennial in British politics:

In modern times, however, the religious faith, or lack of it, of a politician is viewed as an entirely personal matter for that politician. Indeed, unlike in the United States, the electorate tends to view a politician expressing excessive religiosity with suspicion. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Look up Antidisestablish. ... Disestablishmentarianism nowadays relates to the Church of England in the United Kingdom and related views on its establishment as an established church. ... The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 was an English Act of Parliament, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England. ... The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom under which the Welsh part of the Church of England was separated and disestablished. ...


Secularism and tolerance

The Neasden Temple is the second largest temple of Hinduism in Europe.
Enlarge
The Neasden Temple is the second largest temple of Hinduism in Europe.

Despite its Christian tradition, the number of churchgoers fell over the last half of the 20th century. Society in the United Kingdom is markedly more secular than in the past. The National Secular Society is among bodies aiming to reduce the influence of religion. According to the 2001 census, however, 71.6% of population declared themselves to be "Christian", a further 2.7% as Muslim and 1% as Hindu. Only 15.5% said they had "no religion" and 7.3% did not reply to the question. [1] The problem with interpreting these results is that they do not reveal the intensity of religious belief or non-belief. See also Status of religious freedom in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2223x1631, 1493 KB) Photograph taken by wikipedia user CGP, Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Hinduism Neasden Neasden Temple User:CGP Hindu temple ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2223x1631, 1493 KB) Photograph taken by wikipedia user CGP, Colin Gregory Palmer in 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Hinduism Neasden Neasden Temple User:CGP Hindu temple ... // The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir is a Hindu temple in Neasden, in the London Borough of Brent in north-west London. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an ancient Greek Doric temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of the Earth. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ... The National Secular Society is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes secularism. ... While the legal structures of the United Kingdom do not satisfy the legal definition of freedom of religion, the United Kingdom is a signatory to Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights which provides a right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. ...


Until 1944 there was no requirement for state schools in England and Wales to provide religious education or worship, although most did so. The Education Act 1944 introduced a requirement for a daily act of collective worship and for religious education but did not define what was allowable under these terms. The act contained provisions to allow parents to withdraw their children from these activities and for teachers to refuse to participate. The Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a further requirement that the majority of collective worship be "wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character". In recent years schools have increasingly failed to comply with the collective worship rules - in 2004 David Bell, the Chief Inspector of Schools said that "at present more than three-quarters of schools fail to meet this requirement." [2] Religious studies is still an obligatory subject in the curriculum, but tends to aim at providing an understanding of the main faiths of the world than at instilling a strictly Christian viewpoint. The Education Act 1944 changed the education system for secondary schools in England and Wales. ... The Education Reform Act of 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of Education legislation since the 1944 Butler Education Act. ...


Ecumenical rapprochement has gradually developed between Christian denominations. The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ...


However, some religious tensions still exist. See, for example, The Satanic Verses (novel), and Sectarianism in Glasgow. The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdies fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. ... In Glasgow, sectarian rivalry between Roman Catholics and Protestants still exists in certain sectors of the population[citation needed], largely as a result of mass immigration to the city from Ireland in the 19th century[citation needed]. The large majority of Roman Catholics are of Irish origin, although a few...


As of 2004, consultation on proposals to update the blasphemy law in the United Kingdom are ongoing. The Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 made it an offence to incite hatred against a person on the grounds of their religion. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 2006 c. ...


There being no strict separation of church and state in the United Kingdom, public officials may in general display religious symbols in the course of their duties - for example, turbans. School uniform codes are generally drawn up flexibly enough to accommodate religious dress. Chaplains are provided in the armed forces (see Royal Army Chaplains' Department) and in prisons. The separation of church and state is a political doctrine which states that the institutions of the state or national government should be kept separate from those of religious institutions. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The turban (Arabic: ‎, ‘imāmä; Turkish: tülbent; Persian: دلبنت, dulband) is a headdress, of Asian origin, consisting of a long scarf wound round the head or an inner hat. ... Several hundred students in uniform during an assembly at Nan Hua High School in Singapore. ... A chaplain is typically a member of the clergy serving a group of people who are not organized as a mission or church; lay chaplains are also found in some settings such as universities. ... RAChD camp flag The Royal Army Chaplains Department (RAChD) is an all-officer corps that provides ordained clergy to minister to the British Army. ...


Judaism

Until the 20th century Judaism was the only noticeable non-Christian religion (see, for example: History of the Jews in England), having first appeared (at least in historical records) during the Norman Conquest of 1066. In fact, from 1290 to 1656, Judaism did not officially exist in England due to an outright expulsion in 1290 and official restrictions that were not lifted until 1656 (though historical records show that some Jews did come back to England during the early part of the 17th century prior to the lifting of the restriction). In addition, the Jewish community has historically suffered expulsions, official restrictions and discrimination, and outbreaks of communal violence (see History of anti-Semitism); however, in the 19th and 20th centuries, British society was considered more tolerant of Jews than most other European nations, especially the ones from Germany and eastern Europe. The Jewish population of the UK peaked in the late 1940s at around 400,000, but has since declined through emigration and intermarriage to around 250,000; some community leaders have expressed concern that the Jewish community could disappear by the end of the 21st century if current trends continue. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ...


Results of a ten-month inquiry into anti-Semitism in Britain will be delivered by three members of Parliament to Downing Street on September 7, 2006. According to The Guardian the report is likely to criticize calls to boycott academics working in Israel and blast "left-wing activists as well as Muslim extremists for using criticism of Israel as 'a pretext' for spreading hatred against British Jews". Israel must be handed immunity from censure in case British Jews suffer from the fallout.[3] September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Other faiths

More recently, immigration has led to the introduction of other religions that are popular amongst ethnic minorities, such as Islam (see Islam in the United Kingdom), Hinduism (see Hinduism in the United Kingdom), Sikhism (see Sikhism in the United Kingdom), and Buddhism, as well as Pentecostal and Charismatic Christian movements. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 849 KB) Picture of the London Central Mosque from the sidewalk right outside of Regents Park in London, England General Information Width: 1600 pixels Height: 1200 pixels Horizontal Resolution: 180 dpi Vertical Resolution: 180 dpi Bit Depth: 24 Frame Count... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 849 KB) Picture of the London Central Mosque from the sidewalk right outside of Regents Park in London, England General Information Width: 1600 pixels Height: 1200 pixels Horizontal Resolution: 180 dpi Vertical Resolution: 180 dpi Bit Depth: 24 Frame Count... The London Central Mosque as viewed from Regents Park The London Central Mosque is a large mosque located near the Baker Street Underground station and Regents Park in the London Borough of Westminster. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... London Central Mosque in London off Regents Park Jamia Masjid, example of a typical small mosque in East Ham // History Islam is generally thought of as being a recent arrival in the United Kingdom, but there has been contact for many centuries. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... There are over 0. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... // According to Sikhs in UKMost of Britains 500,000 Sikhs have their origins in immigration either from the Punjab in Northwest India in the 1950s and 60s, or from East Africa slightly later. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of psychology. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain Pentecostal beliefs—specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ...


Religious diversity has led Charles, Prince of Wales to muse publicly on the desirability of being Defender of Faith rather than Defender of the Faith. He commented in 1994 that, "I personally would rather see it (his future role) as Defender of Faith, not the Faith" [4]. The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ...

A group of English neo-druids.

Religions claiming pre-Christian British origins, such as Wicca and Neo-druidism, retain some followers, although following many centuries of official persecution they are understandably practised rather discreetly. In October 2004 a Royal Navy technician, Chris Cranmer, attracted media attention by registering as a Satanist. A spokesman for the Royal Navy said: "We are an equal opportunities employer and we don't stop anybody from having their own religious values." Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The pentagram within a circle, is a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, who often call it a pentacle. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... LaVeyan Satanism is a religion based upon the philosophy of Dr. Anton Szandor LaVey as outlined in The Satanic Bible and other works. ...


Monasticism

Ancient monasticism in the British Isles spread Christianity to the furthest parts of the archipelago, but the Reformation led to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Catholic monastic communities have since been re-established, and there are also many Anglican communities, and some Orthodox ones. Religious communities of Hindus and Buddhists also exist. The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe consisting of Great Britain, Ireland, and a number of smaller surrounding islands and islets. ... The Dissolution of the Monasteries, referred to by Roman Catholic writers as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process during the English Reformation by which King Henry VIII confiscated the property of the monastic institutions in England between 1538 and 1541. ...

Abbeys and priories in Scotland is a link page to any abbey, priory, friary or other religious house in Scotland Abbreviations and Key The sites listed are ruins unless indicated thus:- Trusteeship denoted as follows:- (HS) = Historic Scotland (NTS) = National Trust for Scotland (CS) = Church of Scotland Other abbreviations:- Aberdeen... Abbeys and priories in Wales is a link page for any abbey, priory, friary or other religious house in Wales. ... Abbeys and priories in England is a link page for any abbey, priory, friary or other monastic religious house in England. ... Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland is a link page for any abbey, priory, friary or other religious house in Northern Ireland Abbreviations and Key The sites listed are ruins unless indicated thus:- Trusteeship denoted as follows:- NM = National Monument Other abbreviations:- County Antrim County Armagh County Derry Derry: possible...

Religious leaders

Lambeth Palace is the official residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in London
Lambeth Palace is the official residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in London

Lambeth Palace by C Ford 6th March 04. ... Lambeth Palace by C Ford 6th March 04. ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... // An official residence is the residence at which heads of state, heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially reside. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... This page lists Bishops and Archbishops in the Church of England, the Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church of Ireland Archbishops in the Church of England Archbishop of Canterbury Archbishop of York Bishops in the Church of England Bishop of Bath and Wells Bishop of Birmingham... The standard of the Moderator The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role, held for 12 months. ... The Primus, styled The Most Revd the Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church, is the presiding bishop of the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... The standard of the Archbishop of Westminster The Archbishop of Westminster heads the Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster, England. ... Primate of All Ireland is the title held by the Archbishop of Armagh. ... The Province of Wales in the Anglican Communion was created in 1920, as the Church in Wales, independent from the Church of England (of which the four Welsh dioceses had previously been part). ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... List of Chief Rabbis (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Categories: Lists of office-holders | Religion in the United Kingdom | Judaism ... The Board of Deputies of British Jews is the main representative body of British Jewry. ...

Notable places of worship

The crooked spire of the Church of Saint Mary and All Saints in Chesterfield
The crooked spire of the Church of Saint Mary and All Saints in Chesterfield

The varied religious and ethnic history of the United Kingdom has left a wide range of buildings - churches, cathedrals, chapels, chapels of ease, synagogues, mosques and temples - across the home nations. Besides its spiritual importance, the religious architecture of the United Kingdom includes buildings of importance to the tourism industry and local pride. As a result of the Reformation, the ancient cathedrals remained in the possession of the then-established churches, while most Roman Catholic churches date from Victorian times or are of more recent construction (curiously, in Liverpool the ultra-modern design Roman Catholic cathedral was actually completed before the more traditional design of the Anglican cathedral, whose construction took most of the twentieth century). Changing social and demographic profiles mean that in some areas redundant religious buildings are being converted to secular purposes. In other locations, new places of worship are being established. Here is a selection of articles on notable places of worship in the United Kingdom: Download high resolution version (194x721, 23 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (194x721, 23 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Chesterfield is a historic market town and local government district in Derbyshire, a county in England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... A chapel of ease is a church building other than the main church of a parish which is more accessible to some parishoners than the main church. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an ancient Greek Doric temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral steps The south elevation and main entrance to the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, a Roman Catholic cathedral in Liverpool, has the official name of Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King. ... North elevation of Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. ...

A list of the cathedrals, former cathedrals and intended cathedrals in the United Kingdom and its dependencies. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often considered one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... York Minster Close The southwest tower of York Minster Inside York Minster The interior of the tower York Minster is an imposing Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. ... // The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir is a Hindu temple in Neasden, in the London Borough of Brent in north-west London. ... Finsbury Park Mosque Finsbury Park mosque in Finsbury Park, London, England was built c. ... Victoria Park Mosque is the main mosque of Manchester, England. ... Methodist Central Hall, London Westminster Central Hall, Westminster Methodist Hall or Methodist Central Hall Westminster is a building in London, England. ... Metropolitan Tabernacle The Metropolitan Tabernacle is a large Reformed Baptist church in the Elephant and Castle in London. ... Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street The interior of Westminster Cathedral Westminster Cathedral is the motherchurch of the Roman Catholic faithful of the Archdiocese of Westminster and the metropolitan church of the Westminster Province, located at 42 Francis Street SW1 in the City of Westminster in London, England. ... Crathie Kirk Crathie Kirk is a small Church of Scotland parish church in the Scottish village of Crathie, best known for being the regular place of worship of the British Royal Family when they are holidaying at nearby Balmoral Castle. ... Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral is a Church of Scotland cathedral in Glasgow. ...

Statistics

In the 2001 census data, people were asked about their beliefs.


Religions in England and Wales, 2001

Religion England %ge Wales %ge
Christian 35,251,244 71.7 2,087,242 71.9
No religion 7,171,332 14.6 537,935 18.5
Muslim 1,524,887 3.1 21,739 0.7
Hindu 546,982 1.1 5,439 0.2
Sikh 327,343 0.7 2,015 0.1
Jewish 257,671 0.5 2,256 0.1
Buddhist 139,046 0.3 5,407 0.2
Any other religion 143,811 0.3 6,909 0.2
Religion not stated 3,776,515 7.7 234,143 8.1

The 2001 UK census also included responses from 390,127 people (or 0.7% of the population of England and Wales) who gave their religion as the parody religion, Jedi. A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A recent parody religion, Pastafarianism was created in 2005 to protest a decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to allow intelligent design to be taught in science classes alongside evolution. ... The Jedi census phenomenon was a grassroots movement in 2001 for citizens in a few English-speaking countries to record their religion as Jedi or Jedi Knight (after the fictitious religious order of Force-attuned knights in the Star Wars films) on the national census. ...


A survey[5] in 2002 found average weekly attendance at Anglican churches in England varied between 4.0% of the population in the diocese of Hereford, down to just 1.4% in Birmingham. Church attendance at Christmas in some dioceses was up to three times the average for the rest of the year. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Statistics Population: 50,154 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SO515405 Administration District: Herefordshire Region: West Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Herefordshire Historic county: Herefordshire Services Police force: West Mercia Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: West Midlands Post office and telephone Post town: HEREFORD Postal... The city from above Centenary Square. ... Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that marks the traditional birthdate of Jesus of Nazareth. ...


A 2004 YouGov poll found that 44 per cent of UK citizens believe in God, while 35 per cent do not [6]. The disparity between the census data and the YouGov data has been put down to a phenomenon described as "cultural Christianity", whereby many who do not believe in God still identify with the religion they were bought up as, or the religion of their parents. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Religions in Northern Ireland, 2001

Denomination Adherents %ge
Presbyterian Church in Ireland 348,742 20.7
Church of Ireland 257,788 15.3
Methodist Church in Ireland 59,173 3.5
Other Christian (Including Christian Related) 102,221 6.1
(Total non-catholic Christian) 767,924 45.6
Catholic 678,462 40.3
Other Religions and Philosophies 5,028 0.3
No Religion or Religion not Stated 233,853 13.8

Source: UK 2001 Census. Modern logo of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI) has a membership of 300,000 people in 650 congregations across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, though the bulk of the membership is in Northern Ireland. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Modern logo of the Methodist Church in Ireland The Methodist Church in Ireland has approximately 80,000 members across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


Religions in Scotland, 2001

Religion/Denomination Current religion %ge Religion of upbringing %ge
Church of Scotland 2,146,251 42.4 2,392,601 47.3
No Religion 1,394,460 27.5 887,221 17.5
Roman Catholic 803,732 15.9 859,503 17.5
Other Christian 344,562 6.8 424,221 8.4
Islam 42,557 0.8 42,264 0.8
Buddhism 6,830 0.1 4,704 0.1
Sikhism 6,572 0.1 6,821 0.1
Judaism 6,448 0.1 7,446 0.1
Hinduism 5,564 0.1 5,921 0.1
Other Religion 26,974 0.5 8,447 0.2
Religion not stated 278,061 5.5 422,862 8.4
Base/Total 5,062,011 100 5,062,011 100

Source: UK 2001 census, General Register Office for Scotland, [7] The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a life-enhancing system of psychology. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Logo of the General Register Office General Register Office for Scotland is a government agency, accountable to Scottish ministers, that administers the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions, and is responsible for the statutes relating to the formalities of marriage and conduct of civil marriage. ...


See also

Modern-day Birminghams cultural diversity is reflected in the wide variety of religious beliefs of its citizens. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Greenbelt festival is the largest Christian arts and music festival in the world, taking place annually in England during the last bank holiday weekend in August. ... The multi-coloured camouflage jacket (right) is often worn as a Jesus Army uniform in street proselytism The Jesus Army is the outreach ministry of the Jesus Fellowship Church, an evangelical Christian movement based in the United Kingdom. ... The Lords Day Observance Society is a pressure group founded in 1831 in the United Kingdom that lobbies for no work on Sunday, which they feel to be the Christian sabbath, in accordance with the fourth of the Ten Commandments spelled out in the Old Testament. ... The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) is an unincorporated association founded in 1997 with the following aims: To promote co-operation, consensus and unity on Muslim affairs in the UK. To encourage and strengthen all existing efforts being made for the benefit of the Muslim community. ... The concealed entrance to a Priest Hole in Partingdale House, Middlesex (to right of drawing) A priest hole is the term given to hiding places for priests built into many of the principal Middle Ages Roman Catholic houses of England. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ "Criticism of Israel Is not 'anti-Semitism'", 2006-09-05 publisher=Arab News.
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ [5]
  7. ^ The Registrar General's 2001 Census Report to the Scottish Parliament (Excel). See also Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census: Summary Report

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... ArabNews is the leading English language source of news presented from an Arab perspective. ...

External links

Christian churches

The Ecumenical Patriarchate is the patriarchate of the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... The Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe is an exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriatchate of Russian Orthodox tradition, based in Paris, and having parishes throughout Europe, mainly centered in France. ...

Islam

Hinduism

Buddhism

  • The Buddhist Society

Sikhism

  • The Network of Sikh Organisations UK

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