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Encyclopedia > Religion in Indonesia
Indonesia religions map

Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. It is stated in the first principle of the state ideology, Pancasila: "belief in the one and only God". A number of different religions are practiced in Indonesia and their collective influence on the country's political, economical and cultural life is significant.[1] As of 1998, approximately 88% of Indonesia's 222 million people are Muslims, 5% are Protestant, 3% are Catholic, 2% are Hindu, 1% are Buddhist, and 1% follow other religions.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x688, 269 KB) Summary The map of religions in Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x688, 269 KB) Summary The map of religions in Indonesia. ... Symbol of Indonesias Pancasila Pancasila, pronounced Panchaseela, is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


The Indonesian Constitution states "every person shall be free to choose and to practice the religion of his/her choice" and "guarantees all persons the freedom of worship, each according to his/her own religion or belief".[3] The government, however, officially only recognises six religions, namely Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism.[4][5] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Indonesia The Constitution of Indonesia (Indonesian: Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD 45) is the basis for the government of the Indonesia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


With many different religions practised in Indonesia, conflicts between believers are often unavoidable. Moreover, Indonesia's political leadership has played an important role in the relations between groups, both positively and negatively, including the Dutch East Indies' Transmigration Program, which has caused a number of conflicts in the eastern region of the country.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ...

Contents

History

The Silk Road, connecting India and Indonesia

Historically, immigration has been a major contributor to the diversity of religion and culture within the country with immigration from India, China, Portugal, Arabian, and Netherlands.[7] However, these aspects have changed since some modifications have been made to suit the Indonesian culture. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1223x794, 366 KB) // Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1223x794, 366 KB) // Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Before the arrival of the Abrahamic faiths of Christianity and Islam, the popular belief systems in the region were thoroughly influenced by Dharmic religious philosophy through Hinduism and Buddhism. These religions were brought to Indonesia around the second and fourth centuries, respectively, when Indian traders arrived on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, bringing their religion. Hinduism started to develop in Java in the fifth century AD with Brahmanist cults worshipping Siva. The traders also established Buddhism in Indonesia which developed further in the following century and a numbr of Hindu and Buddhist influenced kingdoms were established, such as Kutai, Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Sailendra.[8] The world's largest Buddhist monument, Borobudur, was built by the Kingdom of Sailendra and around the same time, the Hindu monument Prambanan was also built. The peak of Hindu-Javanese civilisation was the Majapahit Empire in the fourteenth century, described as a golden age in Indonesian history.[9] An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... The word Dharmic is an adjective of the word Dharma. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... This article is about the Java island. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ...


Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the fourteenth century.[7] Coming from Gujarat, India, Islam spread through the west coast of Sumatra and then developed to the east in Java. This period also saw kingdoms established but this time with Muslim influence, namely Demak, Pajang, Mataram and Banten. By the end of the fifteenth century, 20 Islam-based kingdoms had been established, reflecting the domination of Islam in Indonesia. The evidence available on the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia is reliant on tombstones and scattered evidence. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Demak is a main town in Central Java, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


The Portuguese introduced Catholicism to Indonesia, notably to the island of Flores and to what was to become East Timor.[10] Protestantism was first introduced by the Dutch in the sixteenth century with Calvinist and Lutheran influences. Animist areas in eastern Indonesia, on the other hand, were the main focus Dutch conversion efforts, including Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Papua and Kalimantan. Later, Christianity spread from the coastal ports of Borneo and missionaries arrived among the Torajans on Sulawesi. Parts of Sumatra were also targeted, most notably the Batak people, who are predominantly Protestant today.[11] Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Categories: Islands of Indonesia | Southeast Asia geography stubs | Indonesia geography stubs ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ...


Significant changes in religion aspect also happened during the New Order era.[12] Between 1964 and 1965, the tension between the Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia or PKI) and the Indonesian government, along with some organisations, resulted in the worst mass murders of the twentieth century.[13] Following the incident, the New Order government had tried to suppress the supporters of PKI, by applying a policy that everyone must choose a religion, since PKI supporters were mostly atheists.[12] As a result, every Indonesian citizen was required to carry personal identification cards indicating their religion. The policy resulted in a mass religion conversions, topped by conversions to Protestantism and Catholicism (Christianity).[12] The same situation happened with Indonesians with Chinese ethnicity, who mostly were Confucianists. Because Confucianism was not one of the state recognised religions, many Chinese Indonesians were also converted to Christianity.[12] This article is about the alternative rock/electronic band New Order. ... The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: YìndùníxÄ«yà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ...


State recognised religions

Islam

The Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
Main article: Islam in Indonesia

Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country, with 88 percent of its citizens identifying as Muslim.[14] Traditionally, Muslims have been concentrated in the more populous western islands of Indonesia such as Java and Sumatra. In less populous eastern islands, the Muslim population is proportionally lower.[15] Around 99 percent of Indonesian Muslims are Sunnis. The remaining two million are Shias (over 1 per cent), who are concentrated in Aceh province.[16] Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta, Indonesia is the largest mosque in Southeast Asia. ... Banda Acehs Grand Mosque. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ...


The history of Islam in Indonesia is complex and reflects the richness and diversity of Indonesian cultures.[15] In the 12th century many predominantly Muslim traders from India arrived on the island of Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan where the religion flourished between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The dominant Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of the time, such as Majapahit and Sriwijaya, were in decline and the numerous Hindus and Buddhists mostly converted to Islam, although a smaller number, as in the notable case of Hindus immigrating to Bali, moved off Java and Sumatra.[15] Islam in Indonesia is in many cases less meticulously practiced in comparison to Islam in, for example, in the Middle East region.[17] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Politically, parties based on moderate and tolerant Islamic interpretations have had significant, but not dominant success in the national parliamentary elections in 1999 and 2004. Hardline Islamist parties, however, have had little electoral success and their bases of support remain. One form of Islam, known as neofundamentalist,[18] adapted for new ways of thinking about the relationship between Islam, politics and society. Nonetheless, a number of fundamentalist groups have been established, including the Majelis Mujahiden (MMI) and their alleged associates Jamaah Islamiyah (JI).[18] The Islamist Justice and Prosperous Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera or PKS) has a different point of view from the neofundamentalists, notably the anti-Semitic views and anti-Western conspiracy theories of some of its members.[18] Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Jemaah Islamiyah, sometimes rendered Jemaah Islamiah, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ...


Christianity

The Government of Indonesia officially recognizes the two main Christian divisions in Indonesia, Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, as two separate religions. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Protestantism

Main article: Protestants in Indonesia

Protestantism arrived in Indonesia during the Dutch East Indies (VOC) colonisation, around the sixteenth century. VOC policy to ban Catholicism significantly increased the percentage of Protestant believers in Indonesia.[11] Missionary efforts for the most part did not extend to Java or other already predominantly Muslim areas.[19] The religion has expanded considerably in the 20th century, marked by the arrival of European missionaries in some parts of the country, such as Western New Guinea and Lesser Sunda Islands.[20] Following the 1965 coup, all non-religious people were recognised as Atheist, and hence did not receive a balanced treatment compared to the rest of the citizens.[20] As a result, Protestant churches experienced a significant growth of members, partly due to the uncomfortable feeling towards the political aspirations of Islamic parties. 5% of the population of Indonesia are Protestant (1998). ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonization). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


Protestants form a significant minority in some parts of the country. For example, on the island of Sulawesi, 17% of the citizens are Protestants, particularly in Tana Toraja and Central Sulawesi. Furthermore, up to 65% of the Torajan population is Protestant. In some parts of the country, entire villages belong to a distinct denomination, such as Adventist, Lutheran, Presbyterian or Salvation Army (Bala Keselamatan) depending on the success of missionary activity.[21] Indonesia has two Protestant-majority provinces, which are Papua and North Sulawesi, with 60% and 64% of the total population consecutively.[22] In Papua, the faith is most widely practiced among the native Papuan population. In North Sulawesi, the Minahasan population centered around Manado converted to Christianity in the nineteenth century.[23] Today most of the population native to North Sulawesi practice some form of Protestantism, while transmigrants from Java and Madura practice Islam. As of 2006, 6% of the total citizens of Indonesia are Protestants.[24] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Carved wooden Torajan art - each panel is a stylised representation of a wish for goodwill of some form. ... Map of Central Sulawesi province within Indonesia Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah) is one of Indonesias provinces located in the heart of Sulawesi Island. ... A village is a human settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Adventist is also commonly used as an abbreviation for Seventh-day Adventist. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Map showing North Sulawesi province in Indonesia North Sulawesi or Sulawesi Utara is a province of Indonesia. ... The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ...


Roman Catholicism

Cathedral in Jakarta

Catholicism arrived in Indonesia during the Portuguese arrival with spice trading.[20] Many Portuguese had the goal of spreading Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, starting with Maluku islands in 1534. Between 1546 and 1547, the pioneer Christian missionary, Francis Xavier, visited the islands and baptised several thousand locals.[25] Catholicism in Indonesia refers to Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, where it is one of the five approved religions. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (584x778, 50 KB) Image: Cathedral in Jakarta Photographer: RR Ukirsari Manggalani Brodjokaloso Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (584x778, 50 KB) Image: Cathedral in Jakarta Photographer: RR Ukirsari Manggalani Brodjokaloso Source: http://www. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ...


During the Dutch East Indies (VOC) era, the number of Roman Catholicism practitioners fell significantly, due to VOC policy to ban the religion. The most significant result was on the island of Flores and East Timor, where VOC concentrated. Moreover, Roman Catholic priests were sent to prisons or punished and replaced by Protestant priests from the Netherlands.[20] One Roman Catholic priest was executed for celebrating Mass in a prison during Jan Pieterszoon Coen's tenure as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... For an explanation of the specific reforms of the Second Vatican Council, see Mass of Paul VI. For the Mass of the Council of Trent, see Tridentine Mass. ... Jan Pieterszoon Coen Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. ... The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and the recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1945. ...


As of 2006, 3% of all Indonesians are Catholics, slightly lower than the total number of Protestants. The pracitioners mostly live in Papua and Flores. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


On September 22, 2006, there was a massive strike by Catholics, concentrated mainly on Flores Island following the execution of three Roman Catholic men.[26] Fabianus Tibo, Marinus Riwu, and Dominggus da Silva were convicted in 2001 of leading a Christian militia which killed at least 70 Muslims in 2000. However, human rights groups had questioned the fairness of the trial: claiming that although the three participated in the militia, they were not the leaders.[26] is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Hinduism

Main article: Hinduism in Indonesia
Balinese Hindu woman placing daily offerings on her family shrine

Hindu culture and religion arrived in the Indonesian archipelago in the first century, later coinciding with the arrival of Buddhism,[27] resulting in a number of Hinduism-Buddhism empires such as Kutai, Mataram and Majapahit. The Prambanan Temple complex was built during the era of Hindu Mataram, during the Sanjaya dynasty. The greatest Hindu empire ever flourished in Indonesian archipelago was Majapahit empire. The age of Hindu-Buddhist empires lasted until the sixteenth century, when the archipelago's Islamic empires began to expand. This period, known as the Hindu-Indonesia period, lasted for sixteen full centuries.[28] The influence of Hinduism and classical India remain defining traits of Indonesian culture; the Indian concept of the god-king still shapes Indonesian concepts of leadership and the use of Sanskrit in courtly literature and adaptations of Indian mythology such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Hinduism in Indonesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (474x663, 197 KB) Balinese Hindu woman places daily offering on her shrine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (474x663, 197 KB) Balinese Hindu woman places daily offering on her shrine. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali. ... A God-king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Hinduism in Indonesia takes on a tone distinct from other parts of the world.[29] For instance, Hinduism in Indonesia, formally referred as Agama Hindu Dharma, never applied the caste system. Another example is that the Hindu religious epics, the Mahabharata (Great Battle of the Descendants of Bharata) and the Ramayana (The Travels of Rama), became enduring traditions among Indonesian believers, expressed in shadow puppet (wayang) and dance performances. Hinduism has also formed differently in Java regions, which were more heavily influenced by their own version of Islam, known as Islam Abangan or Islam Kejawen.[30] Agama Hindu Dharma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... A puppet is a representational object, usually but not always depicting a human character, used in play or a presentation. ... This article is about the Java island. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Abangan form a large majorty of the Javanese Muslims. ...


All practitioners of Agama Hindu Dharma share many common beliefs, mostly the Five Points of Philosophy: the Panca Srada.[31] These include the belief in one Almighty God, belief in the souls and spirits and karma or the belief in the law of reciprocal actions. Rather than belief on cycles of rebirth and reincarnation, Hinduism in Indonesia is concerned more with a myriad of local and ancestral spirits. In addition, the religion focuses more on art and ritual rather than scriptures, laws and beliefs.[29] This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The official number of Hindu practitioners is 6.5 million (2006), [32] making up about 1.8% of all Indonesians, and currently giving Indonesia the fourth largest number of Hindus in the world. This number is disputed by the representative of Hinduism in Indonesia, the Parisada Hindu Dharma. The PHDI gives an estimate of 18 million. [33] Of this number, 93% of the practitioners are located in Bali, the majority of the population of which is Hindu. Besides Bali, Sumatra, Java, Lombok and Kalimantan island also have significant Hindu populations. Central Kalimantan is 15.8% Hindu. Parisada Hindu Dharma was a major reform movement and society [1] that assisted in the revival of Hinduism in Indonesia . ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... This article is about the Java island. ... Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ...


Buddhism

Buddhist pilgrims performing their rituals at Borobudur
Main article: Buddhism in Indonesia

Buddhism is the second oldest religion in Indonesia, arriving around the sixth century.[34] The history of Buddhism in Indonesia is closely related to the history of Hinduism, as a number of empires based on Buddhist culture were established around the same period. Indonesian archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful Buddhist empires such as Sailendra dynasty, Srivijaya and Mataram Empires. The arrival of Buddhism was started with the trading activity that began in the early of first century on the Silk Road between Indonesia and India.[35] According to some Chinese source, a Chinese traveler monk on his journey to India, has witnessed the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya based on Sumatra. The empire also served as a Buddhist learning center in the region. A number of historical heritages can be found in Indonesia, including the Borobudur Temple in Yogyakarta and statues or prasasti (inscriptions) from the earlier history of Buddhist empires. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 233 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Religion in Indonesia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 233 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Religion in Indonesia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Among the five official religions of Indonesia, according to the state ideology of Pancasila Under Suharto, Buddhism is the oldest one (with Hinduhism). ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is a province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ...


Following the downfall of President Sukarno in the mid-1960s, Pancasila was reasserted as the official Indonesian policy on religion to only recognise monotheism .[36] As a result, founder of Perbuddhi (Indonesian Buddhists Organisation), Bhikku Ashin Jinarakkhita, proposed that there was a single supreme deity, Sang Hyang Adi Buddha. He was also backed up with the history behind the Indonesian version of Buddhism in ancient Javanese texts, and the shape of the Borobudur Temple. The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... Symbol of Indonesias Pancasila Pancasila, (pronounced ), is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... This article focuses on the concept of singular, monotheistic God. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ...


According to the 1990 national census, slightly more than 1% of the total citizens of Indonesia are Buddhists, which takes up about 1.8 million people.[34] Most Buddhists are concentrated in Jakarta, although other provinces such as Riau, North Sumatra and West Kalimantan also have a significant number of practitioners. However, these totals are likely high, due to the fact that practitioners of Confucianism and Taoism, which are not considered official religions of Indonesia, referred to themselves as Buddhists on the census.[34] Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Confucianism

Confucian Temple in Bojonegoro, East Java.

Confucianism originated from China mainland and brought by Chinese merchants and immigrants. It is estimated as late as the 3rd century AD that the Chinese arrived in Nusantara archipelago.[4] Unlike other religions, Confucianism evolved more into loose individual practices and belief in the code of conduct, rather than a well-organized community religion, or way of life or social movement. It was not until the early of 1900s that Confucianists formed an organization, called Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) in Batavia (now Jakarta).[4] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 769 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 769 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Motto: Bojonegoro Bangkit (Rise Bojonegoro) Location of Bojonegoro in East Java Coordinates: 07. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Nusantara was taken from an oath by Gajah Mada written on a Javanese old manuscript of Negarakertagama. ... Look up Code of Conduct in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Things called code of conduct or Code of Conduct include: code of conduct — a set of rules to guide behaviour and decisions Code of Conduct — a 2001 movie starring Kevin Bacon Code of Conduct — a book by Kirstine Smith that... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, Confucianism in Indonesia was affected by several political turmoils and has been used for some political interests. In 1965, Sukarno issued Presidential Decree No. 1/Pn.Ps/1965, in which there be six religions embraced by the Indonesian people, including Confucianism.[4] Earlier in 1961, the Association of Khung Chiao Hui Indonesia (PKCHI), a Confucianist organization, declared that Confucianism is a religion and Confucius is their prophet. Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ...


In 1967, Sukarno was replaced by Suharto, marking the New Order era. Under Suharto rule, the anti-China policy was applied to gain political support from the people, especially after the fall of Indonesian Communist Party, which is claimed to have been backed by China.[4] Suharto issued the controversial Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967, which practically banned Chinese culture, expression of Chinese belief, Chinese celebrations and festivities, as well as forcing many Chinese to change their name. However, Suharto knew how to handle Chinese Indonesian community that formed only 3% of the population, but gained a disproportionately large share of wealth and dominant influence in many key sectors of economy.[37] Yet, in the same year, Suharto addressed "The Confucian religion deserves a decent place in this country," in front of the PKCHI national convention.[4] Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... This article is about the alternative rock/electronic band New Order. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... Communist Party of Indonesia (Partai Komunis Indonesia), was founded in 1920 in Semarang, as the successor of the Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging (ISDV, Indian Social Democratic Association). ... Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ...


In 1969, Statute No. 5/1969 was passed and it re-iterated the official six religions from the 1967 presidential decree. However, it was different in practice. In 1978, the Minister of Home Affairs issued its directive that there are only five religions, excluding Confucianism.[4] On 27 January 1979, a presidential cabinet meeting took place and it firmly decided that Confucianism is not a religion. Another Minister of Home Affairs was issued in 1990 re-iterating about five official religions in Indonesia. The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ...


Hence the status of Confucianism in Indonesia in the New Order era was never clear. De jure, there were conflicting laws, as the higher law permitted Confucianism, but the lower law did not recognize it. De facto, Confucianists were not recognized by the government and they were forced to become Christians or Buddhists to maintain their citizenship. This practice was applied in many places, including in the national registration card, marriage registration, and even civics education in Indonesia taught school children that there are only 5 official religions.[4] Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


With the fall of Suharto in 1998, Abdurrahman Wahid was elected as the fourth president. Wahid lifted the Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967 and the 1978 Minister of Home Affairs directive. Confucianism is now officially recognized as religion in Indonesia. Chinese culture and all related Chinese-affiliated activities are now allowed to be practiced. Chinese and non-Chinese Confucianists have since then expressed their belief in freedom. The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Abdurrahman Wahid (also known as Gus Dur) (born August 4, 1940) was the President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001, and founder of the National Awakening Party (PKB). ...


Other religions and beliefs

Animism

The form of Animism in Indonesia shares the same form with Animism worldwide, which is, a belief in certain objects, such as trees, stones or people. This belief has existed since Indonesia's earliest history, around the first century, just before Hindu culture arrived in Indonesia.[38] Furthermore, two thousand years later, with the existence of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and other religion, Animism still exists in some parts of Indonesia. However, this belief is not accepted as Indonesia's official religion as the Pancasila states the belief in the supreme deity, or monotheism.[38] Animism, on the other hand, does not believe in a particular god. The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Indonesia religions map Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. ... Symbol of Indonesias Pancasila Pancasila, (pronounced ), is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. ... This article focuses on the concept of singular, monotheistic God. ...

See also: Animism

The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ...

Judaism

See also: History of the Jews in Indonesia

There are small unrecognized Jewish communities in Jakarta and Surabaya. An early Jewish settlement in the archipelago was through the Dutch Jews who came along for the spice trade. In the 1850s, about 20 Jewish families of Dutch and German origins lived in Jakarta (then Batavia). Some lived in Semarang and Surabaya. Several Baghdadi Jews also settled in the island. Prior to 1945, there were about 2,000 Dutch Jews in Indonesia. In 1957, it was reported around 450 Jews remained, mainly Ashkenazim in Jakarta and Sephardim in Surabaya. The community has decreased to 50 in 1963. In 1997, there were only 20 Jews, some of them in Jakarta and a few Baghdadi families in Surabaya.[39] Jewish Indonesian are Indonesians of Jewish descent or religion who maintain a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practising Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - City 274. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. ... The Baghdadi Jews are one of the main Jewish communities of India. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...


Jews in Surabaya maintain a synagogue, the only synagogue in Indonesia. They have little contact with Jews outside the country. There is no service given in the synagogue.[40] A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Inter-religious relations

Although the Indonesian government recognises a number of different religions, inter-religious conflict sometimes is unavoidable. In the New Order era, former president Suharto proposed the Anti-Chinese law which prohibits anything related to Chinese culture, including names and religions.[41] Nevertheless, positive form of relations have also appeared in the society, such as the effort from six different religious organisations to help the 2004 Tsunami victims. The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... -1...


Between 1966 and 1998, Suharto made an effort to "de-Islamicise" the government, by maintaining a large proportion of Christians in his cabinet.[42] However, in the early 1990s, the issue of Islamisation appeared, and the military split into two groups, the Nationalist and Islamic camps.[42] The Islamic camp, led by General Prabowo, was in favour of Islamisation, while General Wiranto was in the Nationalist group, in favour of a secular state. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Islamicization is a neologism coined to describe the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or the increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ...


During the Suharto era, the Indonesian transmigration program continued, after it was initiated by the Dutch East Indies government in the early nineteenth century. The intention of the program was to move millions of Indonesians from over-crowded populated Java, Bali and Madura to other less populated regions, such as Ambon, Lesser Sunda Islands and Papua. It has received much criticism, being described as a type of colonisation by the Javanese and Madurese, who also brought Islam to non-Muslim areas.[6] Citizens in western Indonesia are mostly Muslims with Christians a small minority, while in eastern regions the Christian populations are similar in size or larger than Muslim populations. This more even population distribution has led to more religious conflicts in the eastern regions, including Poso and Maluku communal violence since the resignation of President Suharto. The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Java island. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... For other uses, see Madura (disambiguation). ... Ambon may refer to two geographical places. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. ... Poso is the main port and transportation hub for the northeastern coast of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Suharto (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


The government has made an effort to reduce the tension by proposing the inter-religion co-operation plan.[43] The Foreign Ministry, along with the biggest Islamic organisation in Indonesia, Nahdatul Ulama, held the International Conference of Islamic Scholars, to promote Islamic moderation, which is believed to reduce the tension in the country.[43] On December 6, 2004, the "Dialogue On Interfaith Cooperation: Community Building and Harmony" conference was opened. The conference, which attended by ASEAN countries, Australia, Timor Leste, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea was intended to discuss possible co-operation between different religious groups to minimise inter-religious conflict in Indonesia.[43] The Australian government, represented by the Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, supported the dialogue by co-hosting it. The Nahdatul Ulama, known as Nahdlatul Ulama or NU, is a traditionalist conservative Sunni Islam group in Indonesia. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Alexander John Gosse Downer, MP (born 9 September 1951), Australian politician, became Foreign Minister of Australia in March 1996 This makes him the longest serving Foreign Minister in Australian history. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Portal. ... Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali. ... Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a search for inner self but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind. ... Asia is one of the worlds most populous and largest continents, with millions of different peoples following a wide variety of different religions. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing. ... Religion in Hong Kong is part and parcel of the culture of Hong Kong. ... The religion of Korea encompasses a number of different traditions. ... Traditionally, religion North Korea primarily consists of Buddhism and Confucianism, as well as, though to a lesser extent, Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way). ... Religion in South Korea is dominated by the traditional Buddhist faith, with a growing minority of Christians. ... Sri Lankas population worships a variety of religions. ... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... Motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika(Old Javanese) Unity in Diversity National ideology: Pancasila[1] Anthem Indonesia Raya Capital (and largest city) Jakarta Official languages Indonesian Demonym Indonesian Government Presidential Republic  -  President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono  -  Vice President Muhammad Jusuf Kalla Independence from the Netherlands   -  Declared 17 August 1945   -  Recognized 27 December 1949... Telephones - main lines in use: 3. ... Statue of Dewi Sri in Ubud, Bali. ... Indonesias 245 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... The politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... Jimbaran Beach, Bali. ...

References

  • Bertrand J, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004, 278 pages, ISBN 0-521-81889-3. Retrieved October 22, 2006
  • International Coalition for Religious Freedom. (2004). "Indonesia". "Religious Freedom World Report". Retrieved September 6, 2006
  • Llyod G and Smith S, Indonesia Today, Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001, 343 pages, ISBN 0-7425-1761-6
  • Shaw, E. "Indonesian Religions". "Overview of World Religions". Retrieved September 8, 2006
  • Bunge, F.M. (ed.) (1983). Indonesia: A Country Study. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-10-02. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Instant Indonesia: Religion of Indonesia. Swipa. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  2. ^ Indonesia. The World Factbook. CIA (2006-10-05). Retrieved on 2006-10-13.
  3. ^ The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Yang, Heriyanto (2005). "The History and Legal Position of Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia". Religion 10 (1). Retrieved on 2006-10-02. 
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Indonesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4806 words)
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a nation of islands consisting of almost 18,000 islands in the South East Asian Archipelago.
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Indonesia borders Malaysia on the island of Borneo (Indonesian: Kalimantan), Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea and East Timor on the island of Timor.
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Fertility aspects of the religion were stopped, as was the practice of offering freshly severed human heads at the end of a funeral.
Symbols of fertility are very significant in the religion despite the efforts of the missionaries.
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