FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Religion in China
Chinese monk lighting incense in a temple in Beijing.

Religion in China has varied widely since the beginning of Chinese history. Temples of many different religions dot China's landscape, including Heaven worship, Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, and Chinese folk religion. Mahayana Buddhism remains the largest organized religion in China since its introduction in the 1st century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 378 KB) Monk Burning Incense, Beijing CHINA Taken with a Canon PowerShot A520. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x800, 378 KB) Monk Burning Incense, Beijing CHINA Taken with a Canon PowerShot A520. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Heaven worship is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism, but was later eventually incorporated into both Taoism and Confucianism. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ...


The majority of Chinese people follow Buddhism (1 billion, 80% [1]) and/or Taoism (400 million, 30% [2]). Common people usually worship also in joss houses of the Chinese folk religion. Minority religions are Christianity (between 39 and 50 million, 4% [3]), Islam (20 million, 1.5%), and a number of new religions and sects (particularly Xiantianism). Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Way of Former Heaven (or Hsien-tien tao or Xian Tian Tao , 先天道) or Xiantianism encompasses five religious groups of Chinese origin. ...


The study of religion in China is complicated by several factors. Because many Chinese belief systems have concepts of a sacred and sometimes spiritual world yet do not always invoke a concept of God, classifying a Chinese belief system as either a religion or a philosophy can be problematic. Although Daoism clearly developed a religious organization with priests, monks and temples, Confucianism remained chiefly an intellectual pursuit, with some influence from the Chinese Heaven worship practices (that included serving[4] an omnipotent, just, monotheistic, and supreme being called Shangdi). This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Heaven worship is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism, but was later eventually incorporated into both Taoism and Confucianism. ... Shangdi or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above or Sovreign Above, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Christianity for a supreme deity. ...


Moreover, the Chinese religions are family-oriented and do not demand the exclusive adherence of members, unlike many Western religions. Chinese people may visit Buddhist temples while living according to Daoist principles and participating in local ancestor veneration rituals. Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...


Major forms of religion that developed within China include ancestor veneration, Chinese folk religion, shamanism, Daoism and the veneration of localized deities. Most Chinese have a conception of heaven and yin and yang. Many Chinese have also believed in such practices as astrology, Feng Shui, geomancy, and numerology. Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Geomancy (from Old French geomancie <Late Latin geōmantia <Late Greek geōmanteia< geo, earth + manteia, divination) from the eponymous ilm al-raml (the science of sand), is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. ... In Chinese culture, certain numbers are believed by some to be auspicious (吉利) or inauspicious (不利) based on the Chinese word that the number name sounds similar to. ...


Historically, the emperor was regarded as the Son of Heaven, and he typically led the imperial court in performing elaborate annual rituals. He was not believed to be a deity, but rather someone who mediated between the forces of heaven and earth. A central idea of the dynastic cycle was that an unjust imperial dynasty that had lapsed into corruption could lose the Mandate of Heaven and be overthrown by a rebellion. Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... The king or wang (&#29579; wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through a dynastic cycle: A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Minority faiths introduced from abroad include Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... China has some of the oldest Muslim history, dating back to as early as 650, when the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong. ... Jews in China have historically been divided into several populations of Chinese Jews. ... For more background, see Religion in China. ...

Contents

Heaven worship

The Round Mound Altar, the altar proper at the Altar of Heaven in Beijing, where the Emperor communed with Heaven.
Main article: Heaven worship

The "official" orthodox faith system subscribed to by most dynasties of China until the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty is a panentheism system, centering on the worship of "Heaven" as an omnipotent force. This faith system pre-dated the development of Confucianism and Daoism or the introduction of Buddhism and Christianity. It has features of a monotheism in that Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, endowed with personality but no corporeal form. "Heaven" as a supernatural force was variously referred to as Shang Di (literally Emperor Above) or Huang Tian Shang Di (Sagely Heaven, Emperor Above). Worship of Heaven includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Altar of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. Manifestation of the powers of Heaven include the weather and natural disasters. No idols were permitted in heaven worship. Especially evil people were believed to be killed by Heaven through lightning, with their crimes inscribed on their (burnt) spines. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (3198 × 2089 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (3198 × 2089 pixel, file size: 2. ... Hall of Annual Prayer, the largest building in the Temple of Heaven The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: 天壇; Simplified Chinese: 天坛; pinyin: ) is situated in south eastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... Heaven worship is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism, but was later eventually incorporated into both Taoism and Confucianism. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Tian (天 Pinyin Tiān) is the Chinese character for heaven or sky. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Shangdi or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above or Sovreign Above, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Christianity for a supreme deity. ... Hall of Annual Prayer, the largest building in the Temple of Heaven The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: 天壇; Simplified Chinese: 天坛; pinyin: ) is situated in south eastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although it gradually diminished in popular belief after the advent of Buddhism and Daoism, among others, some of its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period. These concepts, often influenced heavily by Confucianist theory, include the Mandate of Heaven, the Emperor's role as Son of Heaven, and the legitimate overthrow of a dynasty when its "mandate" ended. As a result, the worship of Heaven remained the official cult or religion of Chinese empires. Emperors who favoured Daoism or Buddhism and neglected the worship of Heaven were often seen as anomalous. Elements were also incorporated into Chinese folk religion. Execution by lightning, for example, became one of the roles of the thunder gods. The concept of the almighty Heaven remained in popular expressions. Where an Anglophone would say "Oh my God" or "Thank God", a Chinese person might say "Oh Heaven" ("老天!" or "天哪!") or "Thank the heavens and the earth" ("謝天謝地"). Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Confucianism (&#20754;&#23478; Pinyin: rúji&#257; The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The king or wang (&#29579; wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ...


Ancestor worship

Main article: Ancestor worship

Chinese veneration of ancestors dates back to ancient times (10,000BC), predating Confucianism and Daoism. Traditional Chinese culture, Confucianism, and Chinese Buddhism all value filial piety as a top virtue, and the act is a continued display of piety and respect towards departed ancestors. The veneration of ancestors can even extend to legendary figures or historical, such as the patriarch or founder of one's Chinese surname, virtuous individuals such as Confucius or Guan Yu, or the mythological figures like the Yellow Emperor, supposed as the ancestor of all Chinese people. Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or clan name (氏; pinyin: shì), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ...


The two major festivals involving ancestor veneration are the Qingming Festival and the Double Ninth Festival, but veneration of ancestors is conducted in many other ceremonies, including wading, funerals, and triad initiations. Worshippers generally offer prayers and food for the ancestors, light incense and candles, and burn offerings of spirit money. These activities are typically conducted at the site of ancestral graves or tombs, at an ancestral temple, or at a household shrine. Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... The Double Ninth Festival (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chóngjiǔ, also Traditional Chinese: 重陽節; pinyin: Chóngyángjié or Chung Yeung Festival in Hong Kong) dated on the ninth day of the ninth month in Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period. ... A Qing Dynasty wedding. ... Triad (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in Hong Kong and Macau and also operating in Taiwan, mainland... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Joss paper Joss paper (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally gold paper), also known as ghost money, are sheets of paper that are burned in traditional Chinese deity or ancestor worship ceremonies during special holidays. ...


Whether this act constitutes a form of veneration, or of worship, became part of the Chinese Rites controversy which brought up the debate over whether or not the practice conflicted with the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Roman Catholic Church in the early 18th century about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to the emperor constituted idolatry or not. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Daoism

Main article: Daoism

Daoism ("Dao Jiao", Religious Daoism) is an indigenous religion of China and is traditionally traced to the composition of the Dao Te Ching or to the founding of the Way of the Celestial Masters by Zhang Daoling, although some Daoist schools trace their origin much earlier. Daoist religion builds on earlier concepts found in classic wisdom texts such as the Book of Dao and Its Virtues or Dao De Jing (Dao Te Ching). This work is attributed to the sage Lao Zi, a mythological person who subsequently came to be venerated by some as a god. The philosophy of Daoism is centered on 'the way', an understanding of which can be likened to recognizing the true nature of the universe. Daoism (in its unorganized form) is also considered the folk religion of China. Taoism is undergoing a major revival today [5], and it is the spirituality followed by about 30% (400 million) of the total Chinese population. [6] For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... The Tao Te Ching (&#36947;&#24503;&#32147;, Pinyin: Dào Dé J&#299;ng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ...


Buddhism

A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)
A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)
Main article: Buddhism in China

Buddhism was introduced from South Asia and Central Asia during the Han dynasty and was very popular among Chinese of all walks of life, admired by commoners, and sponsored by emperors in certain dynasties. Buddhism today has grown quite popular as well as gaining support from the government. It is the largest organized faith in the country. Estimates of the number of Buddhists in China range around 1 billion. [7] thus making China the country with the most Buddhist adherents in the world, followed by Japan. It should be noted that many Chinese identify themselves as Daoist and Buddhist at the same time. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


Islam

Main article: Islam in China

Islam was introduced into China via the Silk Road in the 7th century, other accounts state that some of Prophet Muhammad's companions arrived there at AD 650[8] when the Tang Emperor Gaozong showed significant esteem for Islam and believed that its teachings are compatible with the values espoused by Confucius. Islam was later more substantially spread by merchants and craftsmen as trade routes improved. During the Yuan Dynasty, many Mosques and learning centers were constructed. Today, there are well over 30,000 Mosques around China.[9] Several prominent Chinese historical figures are Muslims, such as 20th Century general Bai Chongxi and Ming Dynasty fleet admiral Zheng He. China has some of the oldest Muslim history, dating back to as early as 650, when the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Gaozong can be the name of the following Chinese emperors: Emperor Gaozong of Tang China (reign: 649&#8211;683) Emperor Gaozong of Song China (reign: 1127&#8211;1162) Qianlong Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty (reign: 1735-1796) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Bai Chongxi in uniform Bai Chongxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pai Chung-hsi) (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966), also spelled Pai Chung-hsi, was a Chinese Muslim general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ...

Image:TongxinAHG.jpg
The Great Mosque of Tongxin, Ningxia

Although data are difficult to obtain, it is now possibly the second largest organized faith in the country[10] practiced by an estimated 1.5% to 2.5% of Chinese, predominantly such minority groups as the Hui, the Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kirgiz, Tatar, Ozbek, Tajik, Dongxiang, Salar and Bonan.[11] These make up large percentages in Ningxia and Xinjiang Autonomous Regions. According to government statistics that there are 20 million Muslims in China. In 2006, a record number of Chinese pilgrims departed to Mecca for the hajj, up 40 percent from the previous year.[12] The Peoples Republic of China officially describes itself as a multinational unitary state and as such officially recognizes 56 nationalities or Mínzú (&#27665;&#26063;), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ... The Hui people (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Xiaoerjing: حُوِ Ø°ÙŽÙˆ ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Kazakh may refer to An ethnic group: the Kazakhs The Kazakh language The Culture of Kazakhstan Suhbat. ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... This article is about Uzbeks as an ethnic group. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... The Dongxiang people (own name: Sarta or Santa; Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are an ethnic group closely related to the Mongolians, who practice Islam. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bÇŽoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ...


See also: Persecution of Muslims, Chinese mosques, Chinese Islamic cuisine Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques Dongsi Mosque [1] Great Mosque, Huhhot [2] Great Mosque, Tianjin [3] Great Mosque, Xian [4] Huaisheng Mosque in Guangzhou [5] Huajue Mosque in Xian Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar [6] Najiahu Mosque in Yinchuan Nanguan Mosque... Chinese Islamic cuisine is cuisine of the Hui (ethnic Chinese Muslims) and other Muslims living in China. ...


Christianity

St. Ignatius Cathedral, Xujiahui, Shanghai.
St. Ignatius Cathedral, Xujiahui, Shanghai.
Main article: Christianity in China

The first entry of Christianity into China was the introduction of Nestorianism spread by Middle-Eastern travellers who came to China in AD 635, as documented by the Nestorian Stone in Xi'an. In 1289, Franciscan friars from Europe initiated mission work in China. This mission collapsed in 1368, as the Ming Dynasty abolished Christianity in China. The first Jesuit attempt to reach China was made in 1552 by Francis Xavier, but he died the same year on the Chinese island of Shangchuan, without having reached the mainland. In 1582, Jesuits once again initiated mission work in China, introducing Western science, mathematics, and astronomy. One of these missionaries was Matteo Ricci. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 181 KB) St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 181 KB) St. ... For more background, see Religion in China. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... The Nestorian Stele, Nestorian Stone, formally the Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin (&#22823;&#31206;&#26223;&#25945;&#27969;&#34892;&#20013;&#22283;&#30865; Pinyin: Dàqín J&#464;ngjiào liúxíng Zh&#333;ngguó béi, abbreviated &#22823;&#31206;&#26223;&#25945;&#30865... “Xian” redirects here. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Shangchuan Island (&#19978;&#24029;&#38215;, Schangschwan, Sancian, Chang-Chuang, St. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... Matteo Ricci. ...


Since loosening of restrictions on religion after the 1970s, Christianity has grown significantly within the People's Republic. The Three-Self Patriotic Movement and China Christian Council (Protestant) and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association, which has disavowed the Pope and is considered schismatic by other Roman Catholics, have affiliations with government and follow the regulations imposed upon them. Many Christians choose however to meet independently, typically in house churches. These fellowships are not officially registered and are seen as illegal entities and are sometimes harassed. There has been increasing tolerance of house churches since the late 1970s. Many Chinese Christians have been jailed because of their faith especially from the house churches. But the movement of house churches continues to grow including Bible study groups and unofficial seminaries. The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (officially 中国基督教三自爱国运动委员会, China Christian Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee; colloquially 三自教会, the Three-Self Church) and the China Christian Council (中国基督教协会) are two pro-government (patriotic) Christian organizations in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (officially &#20013;&#22269;&#22522;&#30563;&#25945;&#19977;&#33258;&#29233;&#22269;&#36816;&#21160;&#22996;&#21592;&#20250;, China Christian Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee; colloquially &#19977;&#33258;&#25945;&#20250;, the Three-Self Church) and the China Christian Council (&#20013;&#22269;&#22522;&#30563;&#25945;&#21327;&#20250;) are two... The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (Chinese: 中国天主教爱国会, pinyin: Zhōngguó TiānzhÇ”jiào Àiguó Huì), abbreviated CPA, CPCA, or CCPA, is a division, established in 1957, of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland Chinas Catholics. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Chinese house churches are unregistered Christian churches in the Peoples Republic of China, which operate independently of the government-run Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) and China Christian Council (CCC) for Protestant groups and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CCPA) and the Chinese Catholic Bishops Council (CCBC) for Catholics. ...


Though the official census enumerates 4 million Catholics and 10 million Protestants[13], estimates of Christians in China are difficult to obtain because of the numbers of Christians unwilling to reveal their beliefs, the hostility of the national government towards some Christian sects, and difficulties in obtaining accurate statistics on house churches. However, in a recent survey, it was found that about three percent of the population, roughly 70 million, are Christians.[14] In 2007 according to an official at the Chinese government religions affairs department, there are 130 million Catholic and Protestant Christians in China.[15]


Recent researches have found the numbers known in the West are exaggerately high, putting the total number of Christians around 39 million. [16]

See also: Protestantism in China, Catholicism in China, Chinese house church, and Persecution of Christians.

Protestant Christianity entered China in the early 19th century. ... Catholicism in China has a long and complicated history. ... Chinese house churches are unregistered Christian churches in the Peoples Republic of China, which operate independently of the government-run Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) and China Christian Council (CCC) for Protestant groups and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CCPA) and the Chinese Catholic Bishops Council (CCBC) for Catholics. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ...

Judaism

Main article: Judaism in China

During the Tang Dynasty (7-10 cent. AD) or earlier, small groups of Jews settled in China. The most prominent early community was at Kaifeng, in Henan province. (see Kaifeng Jews) In the 20th century, many Jews arrived in Hong Kong and Shanghai during those cities' periods of economic expansion in the first decades of the century, as well as for the purpose of seeking refuge from the Holocaust in Western Europe and from the communist revolution in Russia. Shanghai was particularly notable for its volume of Jewish refugees, most of whom left after the war, the rest relocating prior to or immediately after the establishment of the People's Republic. Today, the Kaifeng Jewish community is functionally extinct. Many descendants of the Kaifeng community still live among the Chinese population, mostly unaware of their Jewish ancestry. Meanwhile, remnants of the later arrivals maintain communities in Shanghai and Hong Kong. In recent years a community has also developed in Beijing. Jews in China have historically been divided into several populations of Chinese Jews. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Kāifēng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... The Kaifeng Jews comprise the best documented Jewish community in China. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


More recently, since the late 20th century, along with the study of religion in general, the study of Judaism and Jews in China as an academic subject has begun to blossom.


Recent sects

  • Way of Former Heaven
  • Falun Gong
  • I-Kuan Tao ("Way of Unity")
  • T'ung-shan She ("Society of Goodness")
  • Tien-te Sheng-chiao ("Sacred Religion of Celestial Virtue")
  • Dao-yuan ("Sanctuary of the Dao")
  • Tz'u-hui Tang ("Compassion Society")

The Way of Former Heaven, or Hsien-tien tao (&#20808;&#22825;&#36947;) encompasses five religious groups of Chinese origin. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ... I-Kuan Tao emblem. ... Tung-shan She (同善社, literally Society of Goodness) is a religious group that is one of the Way of Former Heaven sects. ... Tien-te Sheng-chiao (天德聖教, literally Sacred Religion of the Celestial Virtue) is a religious group that is one of the Way of former Heaven Sects. ... Tzu-hui Tang (慈惠堂, literally Compassion Society) is a religious group that is one of the Way of former Heaven Sects. ...

Government of the People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China was established in 1949. The Government of the People's Republic of China is atheist, therefore most of the time, it is anti-religion which was seen as emblematic of feudalism and foreign colonialism. Houses of worship, including temples, mosques, and churches, were converted into non-religious buildings for secular use during its early years, especially during Cultural revolution. After the 1970s, the trend was mostly reverted. Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to...


In the early years of the government, religious belief or practice was often discouraged because it was regarded as backwards and superstitious. Some of the Communist leaders, from Vladimir Lenin to Mao Zedong, had been critical of religious institutions. During the Cultural Revolution, religion was condemned as feudalistic and thousands of religious buildings were looted and destroyed. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Mao redirects here. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


This attitude, however, relaxed considerably in the late 1970s at the end of the Cultural Revolution. The 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China guarantees "freedom of religion" with a number of restrictions. Since the mid-1990s there has been a massive program to rebuild Buddhist and Daoist temples that were destroyed in the Cultural Revolution. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1978 Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated in 1978. ...


The Communist Party has said that religious belief and membership are incompatible. Party membership is a necessity for many high level careers and posts. That along with other official hostility makes statistical reporting on religious membership difficult. There are five recognized religions by the state, Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, Catholic Christianity, and Protestant Christianity.[17]


Most people report no organized religious affiliation; however, people with belief in folk traditions and non-religious spiritual beliefs, such as ancestor veneration and feng shui, along with informal ties to local temples and unofficial house churches is in the hundreds of millions. The United States Department of State, in its annual report on International Religious Freedom,[18] gives possibly the most reliable statistics about organized religions. In 2004 it reports the following: Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Department of State redirects here. ...

  • Buddhists 8%, with more than 200,000 monks and nuns. This value is seen as extremely low because there are more than 16,000 Buddhist temples that do not maintain traditional congregations.
  • Daoists, unknown as a percentage, there are more than 25,000 Daoist monks and nuns at more than 1,500 temples. Daoist belief is often intertwined with both Buddhism and traditional folk religions.
  • Muslims, 1.4%, with more than 45,000 Imams. Other estimates are much higher.
  • Protestant Christians, 0.8 to 1.2% with official churches. It is estimated that another 2.5% of the population is a Protestant Christian worshipping through an unofficial house church.
  • Catholic Christians, 0.4% with official churches, with another 0.4 to 0.8% estimated to be attending unofficial Catholic services.

It should be noted, however, that statistics relating to Buddhism and religious Daoism are to some degree incomparable with statistics for Islam and Christianity. This is due to the traditional Chinese belief system which blends Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, so that a person who follows a traditional belief system would not necessarily identify him- or herself as either Buddhist or Daoist, despite regularly attending Buddhist or Daoist places of worship. Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.vipassanafoundation.com/Buddhists.html
  2. ^ http://asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=468&Itemid=34
  3. ^ http://www.assistnews.net/STORIES/2007/s07100011.htm
  4. ^ Ethel R. Nelson, Richard E. Broadberry, and Ginger Tong Chock. God's Promise to the Chinese. p 8. ISBN 0-937869-01-5.
  5. ^ http://www.arcworld.org/downloads/SCMP%20Daoism%2030%20April%202007.pdf
  6. ^ http://asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=468&Itemid=34
  7. ^ http://www.vipassanafoundation.com/Buddhists.html
  8. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/china_1.shtml
  9. ^ http://chinaabc.showchina.org/chinaabc_en/religion/200701/t105539.htm
  10. ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/HI06Ad01.html
  11. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/e-china/religions/belief.htm
  12. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-12/28/content_769373.htm
  13. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/e-china/religions/belief.htm
  14. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6337627.stm
  15. ^ http://hrwf.org/religiousfreedom/news/2007PDF/China%202007.doc
  16. ^ http://www.assistnews.net/STORIES/2007/s07100011.htm
  17. ^ http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/zjxy/t36492.htm
  18. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/irf/rpt/

Further reading

  • De Groot, J.J.M. (Jan Jakob Maria), "The Religious System of China: Its Ancient Forms, Evolution, History and Present Aspect, Manners, Customs and Social Institutions Connected Therewith", Brill Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1892-1910. In six volumes.
  • Manchao, Cheng, "The Origin of Chinese Deities", Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1995. ISBN 7-119-00030-6
  • Paper, Jordan, "The Spirits are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion", SUNY Press, 2111

Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ...

See also

Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... F&#275;ng Shu&#464; (&#39080;&#27700; &#8211; literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Hinduism is a minor religion in China, with roughly about 130,000 followers and composing only of . ... China has some of the oldest Muslim history, dating back to as early as 650, when the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1858-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and... Religion is the opium of the people (translated from the German ) is one of the most frequently quoted (and sometimes misquoted as opiate of the people or opiate of the masses) statements of Karl Marx, from the introduction of his 1843 work Contribution to Critique of Hegels Philosophy of... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... A wide diversity of religions can be found on Taiwan, due to its multicultural history, and religious freedom written in the constitution. ... For more background, see Religion in China. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Religion in China undergoing massive change, says new journal editor | Ekklesia (667 words)
The growth of Christianity among intellectuals has fundamentally “reshaped the religious landscape in China”, says a leading Chinese academic and Editor of what is being described as the “most authoritative” journal on religion in the People’s Republic of China.
The China Study Journal is an initiative of the Churches Together in Britain and Ireland China Desk, headed up by Caroline Fielder, which cooperates with the Department of Theology at University of Birmingham.
The publication has its roots in a research project begun in the 1970s at the height of the Cultural Revolution, a period when China was cut off from the outside world, when churches and other religious organizations in China were forbidden, and when religious persecution was rife.
religion: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (8794 words)
Religion is a system of social coherence based on a common group of beliefs or attitudes concerning an object, person, unseen being, or system of thought considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine or highest truth, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such belief or system of thought.
Religion may be defined as the presence of a belief in the sacred or the holy.
Models that view religion as a social construction include the "Dogma Selection Model," which holds that religions, although untrue in themselves, encode instructions or habits useful for survival, and that these ideas "mutate" periodically as they are passed on, and spread or die out in accord with their effectiveness at improving chances for survival.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m