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Encyclopedia > Religion and homosexuality
Religion and homosexuality
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Christianity
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The relationship between religion and homosexuality varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. While myths of same-sex love can be found around the world and some religious faiths regard homosexuality as sacred, the Abrahamic religions traditionally espouse a negative view of homosexuality, and other religions have few official teachings about same-sex relations. Information regarding homosexuality in Norse paganism is scant. ... The issue of religion and sexual orientation has become a highly debated topic, involving religious morality, opinion of homosexuality, and questions of civil rights. ... The Third (or sometimes Fourth) of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct. Among the manifold Buddhist traditions there is a vast diversity of opinion about homosexuality and in interpreting the precedents which define sexual misconduct. Buddhism teaches that sensual enjoyment and desire... Christian leaders have written about homosexual male-male sexual activities since the first decades of Christianity; female-female sexual behaviour was essentially ignored[1]. Throughout the majority of Christian history most theologians and Christian denominations have viewed homosexual behavior as immoral or sinful. ... Exclusive homosexuality in Confucianism is frowned upon, while non-exclusive has been traditionally accepted. ... Hindu views of homosexuality are diverse, as Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion with no central doctrinal authority. ... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... The subject of homosexuality in Judaism dates back to the Biblical book of Leviticus. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Scientology views of homosexuality are based on the writings of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Homosexuality in Shinto has a varied past of periods of acceptance and rejection. ... The supreme religious body of Sikhism teaches that homosexuality is unnatural and ungodly. The Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, does not explicitly mention homosexuality. ... It is difficult to determine a single position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions, from organised religious movements such as Quanzhen to Chinese folk religion and even a school of philosophy. ... The Unification Church views heterosexual marriage as Gods ideal (see absolute sex). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Homosexuality in Voodoo is religiously acceptable and homosexuals are allowed to participate in all religious activities. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article is about religious groups. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... Religious narrative has included stories interpreted by many as accounts of same-sex love and sexuality. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...


Currently, a majority of Abrahamic religions adhere to doctrines and interpretations that view homosexuality negatively (from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, to explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality). Those who hold these beliefs may teach that homosexual desire itself is sinful or assert that only sexual acts are sinful. Some religious groups have claimed that homosexuality can be overcome through religious faith and practice.[1] In the wake of colonialism, imperialism and missionary work undertaken by people and countries of the Abrahamic faiths, some cultures have adopted new attitudes antagonistic towards homosexuality. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


On the other hand, even within the Abrahamic religions, voices exist that view homosexuality more positively, and many religious denominations bless same-sex marriages. For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ...


Among the dharmic religions that originated in India, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic traditions. Unlike in western religions, homosexuality is rarely discussed.


Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are often disputed. Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Views of specific religious groups

Abrahamic religions

Abrahamic religions such as Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, traditionally forbid sexual relations between men and teach that such behaviour is sinful. Religious authorities point to passages in the Hebrew Bible (Leviticus 18:22, 20:13), the New Testament (Romans 1:26-27, I Timothy 1:9-10, 1 Corinthians 6:9-11) and the Qur'an (7:80-81, 26:165), for scriptural justification of these beliefs. The first recorded law against homosexuality is found in the holiness code of Leviticus. Within this code of laws, sexual intercourse between men is a capital offense. There are fewer references that refer to sexual acts between women. Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Holiness Code appears at Leviticus 17-26, and is so called due to its highly repeated use of the word Holy. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


Today some major denominations within these religions, such as Reform Judaism and the United Church of Christ, accept homosexuality. They believe that injunctions against the sexual acts were originally intended as a means of distinguishing religious worship between Abrahamic and pagan faiths, specifically Greek (Ganymede) and Egyptian rituals that made homosexuality a religious practice and not merely human sexuality. Thus, the prohibitions are thus no longer relevant. Some Christian denominations, such as the Presbyterian and Anglican churches now welcome members regardless of sexual orientation, and perform same-sex marriages, as do Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The Rape of Ganymede, by Rubens In Greek mythology, Ganymede, or closer to the Greek Ganymede the great man that leads (in Greek — Γανυμήδης, GanumÄ“dÄ“s) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ...


Judaism

...If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They must be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads....

Leviticus 20:12-14, NIV The subject of homosexuality in Judaism dates back to the Biblical book of Leviticus. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ...

The Torah (first five books of the Hebrew Bible) is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: "[A man] shall not lie with another man as [he would] with a woman, it is a toeva ("abomination")" (Leviticus 18:22). (Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for wilful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism rid itself of the death penalty for all practical purposes 2,000 years ago.) The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Rabbinic Jewish tradition understands this verse to specifically prohibit a man from having anal sex with another man. Rabbinic works ban lesbian acts of sex as well. What people today describe as a biological or psychological homosexual inclination is not discussed among classical rabbis. The sources only discuss specific same-sex acts and not homosexual relationships.


Orthodox Judaism views homosexuality as sinful. Many Orthodox Jews view homosexuality as a choice; some sources claim it to be a deliberate deviance. The majority view is to consider all homosexual activity as an abomination (as per Leviticus 20:12-14). A trend of studying the issue of homosexuality has recently begun to occur, with a view towards understanding and reaching out to religious homosexual Jews. It is common practise amongst Orthodox Jews to encourage young Jews known to be gay to marry (someone of the opposite sex) in the hope that this will "cure" them. Many Rabbis and community leaders have condemned this as potentially cruel to both spouses. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


Conservative Judaism, has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa (papers with legal arguments) for communal consideration. The official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagogues, and also campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but also to uphold a ban on homosexual sex as a religious requirement. However, a recent split decision of the movement's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards, in January 2007, has significantly reinterpreted the issue, and now allows homosexual men and women to become rabbis or cantors. Some form of commitment ceremony is now also viewed as legitimate. Conservative rabbis who voted on this change used the issue of Kavod HaBriyot, honoring a person's dignity, as honor for someone's rights may override rabbinic restrictions. See Conservative Halakha for a full discussion. This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on halakha (Jewish law and tradition) within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active and widely known committees on the Conservative movements Rabbinical Assembly. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Kavod HaBriyot כבוד הברייות (literally in Hebrew: honor [of/due to] the [Gods] creations (human beings) also variously translated as individual dignity, individual honor, or human dignity is a phrase used in Judaism and by Jews when wanting to stress the importance of treating others with dignity and honor. ... It has been suggested that Conservative responsa be merged into this article or section. ...


Progressive forms of Judaism, including Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom, view homosexual practices to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexual practices. Progressive Jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality. Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the Torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution. Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term for all strands of Judaism which do not view halakha as having normative status. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Christianity

...God gave them up unto vile passions: for their women changed the natural use into that which is against nature: and likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another...

Romans 1:26-27, ASV Christian leaders have written about homosexual male-male sexual activities since the first decades of Christianity; female-female sexual behaviour was essentially ignored[1]. Throughout the majority of Christian history most theologians and Christian denominations have viewed homosexual behavior as immoral or sinful. ... This is a list of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality. ... A mediæval copy of the Bible. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Standard American Edition, Revised Version, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was released in 1901. ...

The Catholic Church and, later, Protestant authorities have traditionally been explicitly condemnatory of same-sex sexual relations, namely, "man lying with man as one lies with a woman" and men "burning with lust toward one another." Where the Catholic view is founded on a natural law argument informed by scripture, the Protestant view is based more directly upon scripture. Certain scriptures within the Bible, as in Leviticus, declare same-sex sexual relations between men as sinful and, in the eyes of God, an "abomination". In the Epistle to the Romans, Saint Paul describes “men, leaving the natural use of the woman, [burning] in their lust one toward another” as a consequence or punishment for the sin of idolatry. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Denunciation of homosexuality is also seen in surviving early Christian writings; such as in the Didache and the writings of Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, St. Cyprian, Eusebius, St. Basil the Great, St. John Chrysostom, St. Augustine of Hippo, and in doctrinal sources such as the Apostolic Constitutions — for example, Eusebius of Caesarea's statement which condemns "the union of women with women and men with men.” Many prominent Christian theologins have been critical of homosexuality throughout the religion's history. Thomas Aquinas denounced sodomy as second only to bestiality as the worst of all sexual sins, and Hildegard of Bingen's book "Scivias", which was officially approved by Pope Eugene III, condemned sexual relations between women as "perverted forms." The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Basil (ca. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Illumination from the Liber Scivias showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe Hildegard of Bingen (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard, was a German magistra who founded two womens communities (Rupertsberg in 1150... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ...


In the 20th and 21st century, a few historians and theologians have challenged the traditional understanding and argue that passages have been mistranslated or that they do not refer to what we understand as “homosexuality.”[2]


The Roman Catholic Church requires homosexuals to practice chastity in the understanding that homosexual acts are "intrinsically disordered" and "contrary to the natural law." It insists that the only appropriate expression of sexuality is within the context of marriage, which by definition is permanent, procreative, heterosexual, and monogamous. The Church describes homosexual tendencies as "a trial" and stresses that people with such tendencies "must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity."[3] In reference to the possible ordination of homosexuals to the religious life, distinguishing between "deep-seated homosexual tendencies" and those that are "only the expression of a transitory problem", the Vatican requires that any homosexual tendencies "must be clearly overcome at least three years before ordination to the diaconate."[4] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints makes clear that same-gender attraction is not sinful and no one should be blamed for it, but that a few people have been able to overcome it.[5] However, it considers homoerotic thoughts, feelings and behaviors to be a problem that everyone can and should overcome.[6] Homosexual activity is considered a serious sin on par or greater than other sexual activity outside of a legal, heterosexual marriage and those involved may be ex-communicated.[5] For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ...    This article is a stub. ...


While same-sex sexual behavior is rejected to the present day by many Christian denominations, contemporary Catholic guides to pastoral care reflect an ethos informed by compassion and respect of the sanctity of other.[7]


Some Christians do not condemn homosexual acts as bad or evil. Many liberal Christians are open and affirming to active homosexuals. Indeed, there is even an entire denomination, the Metropolitan Community Church, devoted to being open and affirming to active homosexuals. Logo of the Metropolitan Community Churches The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC, or more commonly MCC) is an international fellowship of Christian congregations. ...


Islam

What! Of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you? Nay, but ye are froward folk.

Quran , 26th sura, trans. Pickthal For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... Shah Abbas I and a page The dedication reads Tempera and gilt; Muhammad Qasim, 1627; Louvre, Paris For a generalized discussion of relations between men and boys see main article: Pederasty The practice of pederasty in the Middle East seems to have begun, according to surviving records, sometime during the... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ...

All major Islamic sects disapprove of homosexuality,[8] Islam views same-sex desires as a natural temptation; but, sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the natural role and aim of sexual activity.[9] Same-sex intercourse is an offence punishable by execution in six Muslim nations: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia and Yemen.[10] It also carried the death penalty in Afghanistan under the Taliban. In other Muslim nations, such as Bahrain, Qatar, Algeria, Pakistan the Maldives, and Malaysia, homosexuality is punished with prison, fines, or corporal punishment. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Taliban (Pashto: ) is a Sunni Muslim group[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their spiritual leader Mohammad Omar was removed from power by NATO forces with the help of several anti-Taliban Afghan groups including the Northern Alliance. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ...


Islamic teachings (in the hadith tradition) presume same-sex attraction, extol abstention and (in the Qur'an) condemn consummation. In concordance with those creeds, in Islamic countries, male desire for attractive male youths is widely expected and condoned as a human characteristic. However, it is thought that restraint from either acting on, or revealing, this desire is rewarded with an afterlife in paradise, where one is attended by perpetually young virgin lovers, women and men, houri and ghilman. (Al-Waqia 56.37, Qur'an) Homosexual intercourse itself has been interpreted to be a form of lust and a violation of the Qur'an. Thus, while homosexuality as an attraction is not against the Sharia (Islamic law, which governs the physical actions, rather than the inner thoughts and feelings), the physical action of same-sex intercourse is punishable under the Sharia. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... In Islam, the ḥūr or ḥūrīyah (Arabic: ) are described as (splendid)[1] companions of equal age (well-matched)[2], lovely eyed[3], of modest gaze[4], voluptuous,[5] pure beings or companions pure of paradise, denoting humans and jinns who enter paradise after being recreated anew in... Ghilman (singular ghulam) applies to young male servants in two contexts // In Islamic paradise The ghilman, or wuldan according to the Quran (52:24, 56:17. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men. Relations between women, if they are regarded as problems, are treated akin to adultery, and al-Tabari records an execution of a harem couple under Caliph al-Hadi. The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (Arabic: أبو عبد الله موسى بن المهدي الهادي) (d. ...

Youth seeking his father's advice on choosing a loverFrom the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love; See Homosexuality and Islam; The Smithsonian, Washington, DC.
Youth seeking his father's advice on choosing a lover
From the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love; See Homosexuality and Islam; The Smithsonian, Washington, DC.

Historically, and with exceptions, punishment for male same-sex relations has been less severe compared to its Abrahamic counterparts: Judaism and Christianity.[citation needed] The Qur'an states that if a person commits the sin they can repent and save their life. In early Islamic cultures, such as the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Canaanites, homosexuality was well documented to be entrenched in many aspects of the culture by exposure to Hellenistic culture. [citation needed] Later cultures such as the Abbasid caliphate and Safavid Persia, were renowned for cultivating a sophisticated homosexual aesthetic reflected in art and literature. The reconciliation of same-sex attraction with religious teachings may have been based on a hadith from a collection of quotations ascribed to Muhammad: "He who loves and remains chaste and conceals his secret and dies, dies a martyr".[citation needed] Hadiths from later periods are harsher: "When a man mounts another man, the throne of God shakes... Kill the one that is doing it and also kill the one that it is being done to." Both ancient and modern fundamentalists have interpreted these injunctions literally, with resulting loss of life. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The result is a religion that allows love between those of the same gender as long as they do not have sexual intercourse. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Daud, Al-Mutamid, Abu Nuwas and many others used this edict to write extensively and openly of love between men while proclaiming to be chaste. Furthermore, in order for the transgression to be proven, at least four men or eight women must bear witness against the accused, thus making it very difficult to persecute those who do not remain celibate in the privacy of their homes. Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Abraham ben David was a Jewish, French commentator on the Talmud. ... Al-Mutamid (d. ... A drawing of Abu Nuwas Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–815?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ...


The teachings of Islam have themselves been used to justify love and sexual expression between males. As for bearing witness, it takes emotional considerations into the subject. See Qur'an, iv. 38; Qur'an, ii. 282; Qur'an, iv. 175), and thus, by a process of induction, they must be worthier objects of desire as well.[clarify]Debate Between the Wise Woman and the Sage Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ...


Dharmic religions

Among the dharmic religions that originated in India, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic traditions. Unlike in western religions, homosexuality is rarely discussed. However, most contemporary religious authorities in the various dharmic traditions view homosexuality negatively, and when it is discussed, it is discouraged or actively forbidden.[11] Ancient religious texts such as the Vedas often refer to people of a third gender, who are neither female nor male. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, transgender and/or intersex identities. However, this third sex is usually negatively valued as a pariah class in ancient texts.[12] Ancient Hindu law books, from the first century onward, categorize non-vaginal sex (ayoni) as impure.[13] For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Veda redirects here. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Look up Pariah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hinduism

Monk performing auparashtika on a visiting prince. Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.
Monk performing auparashtika on a visiting prince. Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.

Hinduism has taken various positions, ranging from positive to neutral or antagonistic. Sexuality is rarely discussed openly in Hindu society today, and homosexuality is largely a taboo subject — especially among the strongly religious. In a 2004 survey, most — though not all — swamis said they opposed the concept of a Hindu-sanctified gay marriage.[14] Some of the law codes, such as that of Manu Smriti refer to both female and male homosexuality as a punishable crime.[15] Punishments include ritual baths, fines, public humiliation and having fingers cut off. However, the bulk of sexual matters dealt with by the law books are heterosexual in nature. Download high resolution version (1412x1016, 206 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... Download high resolution version (1412x1016, 206 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... , Khajuraho (Hindi खजुराहो) is a village in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District, about 385 miles (620 kilometres) southeast of Delhi, the capital city of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Hindu views of homosexuality are diverse, as Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion with no central doctrinal authority. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Swami playing the Harmonium Swami is a primarily Hindu honorific, loosely akin to master. It is derived from the Sanskrit language and means owner of oneself, denoting complete mastery over instinctive and lower urges. ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. ...


A "third gender" has been acknowledged within Hinduism since Vedic times. Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti[16] and Sushruta Samhita, assert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. They worked as hairdressers, flower-sellers, servants, masseurs and prostitutes. Today, many people of a "third gender" (hijras) live throughout India, mostly on the margins of society, and many still work in prostitution, or make a livelihood as beggars. Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. ... The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text on surgery, attributed to Sushruta (lived in ca. ... The word neuter can refer to: the property of being neither biologically male or female: being asexual the sterilization (castration, spaying, etc. ... Street haircut in Harbin, China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Whore redirects here. ... Two Hijras bless a baby in a Hindu ceremony. ...


The Indian Kama Sutra, written in the 4th century AD, contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men.[17] However, the author was "not a fan of homosexual activities" and treated such individuals with disdain, according to historian Devdutt Pattanaik.[18] Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict both male homosexuality and lesbianism within their carvings, such as the temple walls at Khajuraho. Some infer from these images that Hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present. For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century _ other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... , Khajuraho (Hindi खजुराहो) is a village in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District, about 385 miles (620 kilometres) southeast of Delhi, the capital city of India. ...


During British control, Hinduism became markedly antagonistic toward homosexuality. Hindus adopted British Victorian values and imposed them upon hijras and the general public. Consequently, homosexuality, crossdressing, and other similar practices that were formerly legal in Hindu society were criminalized by the British during the 19th century. Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


In Hinduism many divinities are androgynous. There are Hindu deities who are intersex (both male and female); who manifest in all three genders; who switch from male to female or from female to male; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods; deities born from two males or from two females; deities born from a single male or single female; deities who avoid the opposite sex; deities with principal companions of the same sex, and so on. One of the most important aspects of Hinduism is the belief that both God and nature are unlimitedly diverse. If referring to a flower, see disambiguation under bisexual Androgyny is the state of indeterminate gender, or characteristics of gender. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ...


The dynamic between homosexuals and Hindu Nationalism is a complex one. On one hand, Professor of women's studies and world religions Paola Bacchetta argues that "queerphobia is one of the pillars of Hindu nationalism".[19].On the other hand, one of India's most prominent Gay activists, Ashok Row Kavi, has expressed some sympathy with the Hindutva movement, particularly when he condemned the lenient approach of the left-wing politicians towards Pakistan[20][21]. Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ...


Buddhism

Buddhism traditionally did not concern itself with the gender of the beloved. Contemporary Western Buddhists and many Japanese and Chinese schools hold very accepting views, something that is traditionally allowed when the relationship does not impede the birth of a child, while other Eastern Buddhists, possibly since colonial times, have adopted attitudes that scorn the practice. The Third (or sometimes Fourth) of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct. Among the manifold Buddhist traditions there is a vast diversity of opinion about homosexuality and in interpreting the precedents which define sexual misconduct. Buddhism teaches that sensual enjoyment and desire... Image:Buddhasunset crop. ...


In keeping with its philosophy of moderation and restraint, Buddhism discourages sexual behavior that would disturb equanimity of the practitioner or of others, and Buddhism is often characterised as distrustful of sensual enjoyment in general.[22] In particular, homosexual conduct and gender variance are seen as obstacles to spiritual progress in most schools of Buddhism. However, in Japanese feudal period, pederasty between child novice and older monks become common due to the fact that many non eldest sons of nobility and samurai family were forced to become monks.[citation needed] In Edo period, Tokugawa Shogunate banned priestly class to marry or have sex which resulted in homosexuality being associated with priestly class in Japan. After Meiji restoration, the ban of marriage and sex by priest/monk were lifted and majority of monks took up wife and produce offspring. As the temple succession become hereditary, the custom of child novice, along with the practice of pederasty and homosexuality disappeared from Japanese temple. In the West, FWBO, contemporary Western Buddhist orders, is known for the founder's exaltation of male homosexual relationship between order members. Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO) is a Buddhist movement that was founded in the UK by Sangharakshita (formerly Dennis Lingwood) in 1967, followed by the Western Buddhist Order in 1968. ...


Traditionally, monks are expected to refrain from all sexual activity, and the Vinaya (the first book of the Tripitaka) specifically prohibits homosexuality and gender variance for monks.[23] A notable exception in the history of Buddhism occurred in Japan during the Edo period, in which male homosexuality, more specifically pederasty between child monks and older monks were celebrated among certain institutions, including the monastic community.[24] The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ... Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


References to pandaka, a deviant sex/gender category that is usually interpreted to include homosexual males, can be found throughout the Pali canon as well as other Sanskrit scriptures.[25] Leonard Zwilling refers extensively to Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika, where pandaka are described as being filled with defiled passions and insatiable lusts, and are dominated by their libido. The Abhidharma states that a pandaka cannot achieve enlightenment in their own life time, but must wait for rebirth as a normal man or woman. According to one scriptural story, Ananda—Buddha's cousin and disciple—was a pandaka in one of his many previous lives. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ... Samantapasadika refers to a collection of Pali commentaries on Theravada Tipitaka Vinaya. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ... For Paulina Rubio album of the same title, see Ananda (album). ...


The third of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct; this precept has sometimes been interpreted to include homosexuality. The Dalai Lama of Tibetan Buddhism interprets sexual misconduct to include lesbian and gay sex, and indeed any sex other than penis-vagina intercourse, including oral sex, anal sex, and masturbation or other sexual activity with the hand.[26] However, the Dalai Lama acknowledges that homosexual sexual relations can be "of mutual benefit, enjoyable, and harmless" for non-Buddhists, and supports human rights for all, "regardless of sexual orientation."[27] Image:Buddhasunset crop. ... Sexual misconduct is misconduct of a sexual nature. ... Tenzin Gyatso (born 6 July 1935) is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...


In Thailand, traditional accounts propose that "homosexuality arises as a kammic consequence of violating Buddhist proscriptions against heterosexual misconduct. These kammic accounts describe homosexuality as a congenital condition which cannot be altered, at least in a homosexual person's current lifetime, and have been linked with calls for compassion and understanding from the non-homosexual populace."[22] For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Within Japanese traditions, those who practice pederasty claim that it was "invented" by the Bodhisattva Manjusri of wisdom and the sage Kūkai, the founder of Buddhism in Japan.[28] Japanese Buddhist scholar and author of Wild Azaleas Kitamura Kigin actually said that heterosexuality was to be avoided for priests and homosexuality allowed.[29] Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Statue of Manjusri (Monju) at Senkoji in Onomichi, Japan MañjuÅ›rÄ« (Ch: 文殊 Wenshu or 文殊師利 Wenshushili; Jp: Monju; Tib: Jampelyang), also written Manjushri, is the bodhisattva of keen awareness in Buddhism. ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ...


Sikhism

Sikhism has no written view on the matter, but in 2005, the world's highest Sikh religious authority described homosexuality as "against the Sikh religion and the Sikh code of conduct and totally against the laws of nature," and called on Sikhs to support laws against gay marriage.[30] However, other Sikhs believe that Guru Nanak's emphasis on universal equality and brotherhood is fundamentally in support of homosexuals' human rights. The supreme religious body of Sikhism teaches that homosexuality is unnatural and ungodly. The Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, does not explicitly mention homosexuality. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Jainism

Chastity is one of the five virtues in the fundamental ethical code of Jainism. For laypersons, the only appropriate avenue for sexuality is within marriage, and homosexuality is believed to lead to negative karma.[31] Jain author Duli Chandra Jain wrote in 2004 that homosexuality and transvestism "stain one's thoughts and feelings" because they involve sexual passion.[32] Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... Transvestism is literally the practice of cross-dressing, wearing the clothing of the opposite sex, and transvestite literally refers to a person who cross-dresses. ...


Taoic religions

Among the Taoic religions of East Asia, such as Taoism, passionate homosexual expression is usually discouraged because it is believed to not lead to human fulfillment.[33] map showing the prevalence of Dharmic, and Abrahamic religions in each country. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Confucianism

Confucianism has allowed homosexual sex with the precondition of procreation. In China where Buddhists often belong to Confucianism as well, traditionally exclusive homosexuality was discouraged because it would prevent a son from carrying out his Confucian religious duty to reproduce, whereas non-exclusive homosexuality was permissible and widely practiced. Monogamy was an unusual and foreign idea to many Asians until contact with the West. Chinese traditions attribute homosexuality to Huang Di ("Yellow Emperor"), the father of Chinese civilization. Exclusive homosexuality in Confucianism is frowned upon, while non-exclusive has been traditionally accepted. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor (黄帝 Hu ng D ) is a Chinese mythical character, a culture hero said in legend to be the ancestor of all Chinese people. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ...


Taoism

It is difficult to determine a single position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions, from organised religious movements such as Quanzhen to Chinese folk religion and even a school of philosophy. The vast majority of adherents live in China and among Chinese Diaspora communities elsewhere, and so attitudes to homosexuality within Taoism often reflect the values and sexual norms of broader Chinese society (see Homosexuality in China). It is difficult to determine a single position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions, from organised religious movements such as Quanzhen to Chinese folk religion and even a school of philosophy. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... the Quanzhen School is an important school in Chinese Taoism. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Overseas Chinese (華僑 in pinyin: huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo) are ethnic Chinese who live outside of Hong Kong, Taiwan. ... A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm. ... Young men sipping tea and having sex. ...


Taoism stresses the relationship between yin and yang: two opposing forces which maintain harmony through balance. The Taoist tradition holds that males need the energies of females, and vice versa, in order to bring about balance, completion and transformation. Heterosexuality is seen as the physical and emotional embodiment of the harmonious balance between yin and yang. Homosexuality on the other hand is often seen as the union of two yins or two yangs, and therefore unbalanced. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ...


However, homosexuality is not explicitly forbidden by the Taoist Holy Books, the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi. Furthermore, Yin and yang chart or Taijitu (太極圖), the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang indicates that there is a dot of Yin in Yang and a dot of Yang in Yin. This explains that the world does not consist of two exclusive elements. There are Yin elements in the Yang and Yang elements in Yin. This connotes that there are minority who possesses some opposite traits differ from the majority. Homosexuals, indicated by the two dots, are regarded as the minority who possesses opposite traits. This shows that homosexual is not forbidden in Taoism. The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ...


Homosexuality has found a place within the history of Taoism, at certain times and places. For example, Taoist nuns exchanged love poems during the Tang dynasty.[34] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


Paganism

6th century BCE Athenian cup depicting a man seducing a youth. Antikenmuseum, Berlin
Main articles: Pederasty and Mythology of same-sex love

In Classical antiquity religious views on same-sex romance cannot be separated from the general societal view of the subject. Attitudes toward same-sex intercourse differed somewhat between the Greeks and the Romans. In ancient Greece same-sex love was integrated in sacred texts and rituals, reflecting the fact that in antiquity it was considered normal to be open to romantic engagements with either sex. Certain surviving myths depict homosexual bonds (see History), sanctified by divinities modeling such relationships (e.g. Zeus and Ganymede). The Romans viewed sexuality somewhat differently. It was considered appropriate for someone of higher social standing to sexually penetrate someone of lower social standing. Thus, an upper-class male could engage in sexual relations with either a slave or a woman (both below him in standing). It would be inappropriate and indeed condemned for a free Roman man to be penetrated by another man. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Red-figure kylix by Peithinos (detail). ... Image File history File links Red-figure kylix by Peithinos (detail). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... Religious narrative has included stories interpreted by many as accounts of same-sex love and sexuality. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... In Greek mythology, Ganymede (Greek: Γανυμήδης, Ganumêdês)) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ...


The Sumerian religion also held homosexuality sacred. It also was incorporated into various New World religions, such as the Aztec. It is thought to have been common in shamanic practice. However, Ancient Germanic religions were condemnatory towards homosexuality, and the ancient common law in Scandinavia harshly punished homosexual activity. Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... Specifically, Shaman (saman) is a term in Evenk, Manchu and other Manchu-Tungus languages for an intellectual and spiritual figure; who usually possess power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, one of which is analogous to the function of a healer in other cultures. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Neopagan religion

Neopagan religions are almost unanimous in their acceptance of same-sex relationships as equal to heterosexual ones. Most Neo-Pagan religions have the theme of fertility (both physical and creative/spiritual) as central to their practices, and as such encourage a healthy sex life, which is seen as consensual sex between adults, regardless of gender or age. Another New Age perspective, however, is that of Eckhart Tolle, author of The Power of Now. Starting with the idea that "the realization that you are 'different' from others may force you to disidentify from socially conditioned patterns of thought and behavior," he claims that being gay can help in the "quest for enlightenment", but only so long as one does not "develop a sense of identity based on... gayness". Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Eckhart Tolle (born Germany, 1948 as Ulrich Tolle) is a contemporary spiritual teacher and writer on spirituality. ...


Wicca, like other religious philosophies has a spectrum of adherents including those with conservative views to liberal views. Nothing in Wiccan philosophy prohibits sexual intercourse outside of marriage or relationships between members of the same sex, however. On the contrary, the Wiccan Rede "An it harm none, do as thou wilt" is interpreted by many to allow and endorse responsible sexual relationships of all varieties. The Wiccan Rede is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. ...


The Charge of the Goddess, says in the words of the Goddess, "all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals"[35] and in the Gardnerian and Alexandrian forms of Wicca, "The Great Rite" is a way of expressing love through sexuality. The ritual is not an excuse to have sex with someone, nor is any sexual activity in a properly consecrated circle a Great Rite.[36] Any sexual acts dealing with Wicca, whether literal or symbolic, is encouraged to take place between two consenting adults, even more so with two involved lovers. The Charge of the Goddess is a traditional inspirational text sometimes used in Neopaganism and Wicca. ... In wicca, the Great Rite is ritualistic sexual intercourse. ...


The Wiccan attitude about sexuality as wholly natural, and goes on from there to seek a fuller understanding of masculine-feminine polarity and of how to make constructive use of it — both psychologically and magically. Sexuality freed from the shackles of obligatory breeding is what makes us specifically human.[37]


Other religions collectively termed "Pagan," including Druidism are also accepting in general. Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...


Religious groups and civil rights political activity

Religious opponents of LGBT rights believe that supporting reform of anti-gay laws would promote wilful acts of homosexuality, which is incompatible with their faith. Opposition to equal rights protections, same-sex marriage, and hate crime legislation is often associated with conservative religious views. LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ...


On the other hand, the Unitarian Universalist Association supports the freedom to marry [1] and compares resistance to it to the resistance to abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and the end of anti-miscegenation laws. [2] Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ... Slave redirects here. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ...


Religious persecution of homosexuality

Persecution of lesbians and gay men is common in conservative Islamic nations such as Saudi Arabia, where gay men have reportedly been beheaded, or forced into therapy. The Taliban regime in Afghanistan reportedly executed homosexuals by burying them alive. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Beheading. ... The Taliban (Pashto: ) is a Sunni Muslim group[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their spiritual leader Mohammad Omar was removed from power by NATO forces with the help of several anti-Taliban Afghan groups including the Northern Alliance. ...


Some translations of the Old Testament have been used to argue that gay men should be punished with death, and AIDS has been portrayed by some such as Fred Phelps as a punishment by God against gay men and lesbians. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Fred Waldron Phelps, Sr. ...


Religious support for homosexuality

There exist groups and denominations whose interpretation of scripture and doctrine states that homosexuality is morally acceptable, and a natural occurrence. Some conclude that there can be no scriptural prohibition against homosexuality as it is presently understood, namely as the outworking of an orientation. Others consider that scriptural prohibitions only relate to pederasty, which was a mode of same-sex practice in ancient times. Others consider that scripture has a thoroughgoing patriarchal bias, which expresses itself in a disapproval of all gender-transgressive sexual practices; present-day readings must account for this. Proponents of liberation theology may consider that the liberation of gay and lesbian peoples from stigmatisation and oppression is a Kingdom imperative. Similarly, the inclusion of the "unclean" Gentiles in the early Church is sometimes said to be a model for the inclusion of other peoples called "unclean" today. The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


Others consider that Christ made the commandments to "love God and one's neighbour," and to "love one's neighbour as oneself" touchstones of the moral law; that these imply a radical equality, and that, by this principle of equality, the Law of Moses is to be adjusted. Jesus exemplified this principle in his teaching on divorce. Furthermore, it is said that Jesus Christ instituted a virtue ethic, whereby the worth of one's action is to be adjudged by one's interior disposition. For these reasons, it is said that to condemn homosexuality is to fall into a pre-Christian "Pharasaical" legalism. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


People adopting one of the foregoing positions would hold that morality which applies to heterosexuals should similarly apply to gay men and lesbians, i.e. sex is acceptable within a monogamous relationship or a same-sex marriage. One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ...


Others seek a naturalistic justification for the view that homosexual behavior is moral or that morality does not apply, pointing to evidence of the existence of such behavior in the animal kingdom. Therefore it is said to be natural, perhaps even integral to a species' survival.


See also

Sexual morality varies greatly over time and between cultures. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...

General references

  • John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century, University Of Chicago Press, 1st ed. 1980 ISBN 0-226-06710-6, paperback Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-06711-4
  • Dane S. Claussen, ed. Sex, Religion, Media, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. ISBN 0-7425-1558-3
  • Mathew Kuefler (editor), The Boswell Thesis : Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, University Of Chicago Press, Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-45741-9
  • Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment, New World Library, 1st ed. 1999, paperback 2004 ISBN 1-57731-480-8
  • Arlene Swidler: Homosexuality and World Religions. Valley Forge 1993. ISBN 156338051X

Professor John Boswell John Eastburn Boswell (March 20, 1947 - December 24, 1994), was a prominent historian and a professor at Yale University. ... Eckhart Tolle (born Germany, 1948 as Ulrich Tolle) is a contemporary spiritual teacher and writer on spirituality. ...

References

  1. ^ http://exodus.to/content/view/34/118
  2. ^ See generally http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibl.htm and subpages therein.
  3. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church", see the "Chastity and homosexuality" section.
  4. ^ Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders, Congregation for Catholic Education, November 04, 2005
  5. ^ a b God Loveth His Children 2007
  6. ^ LDS Church (1992)Understanding and Helping Those Who Have Homosexual Problems: Suggestions for Ecclesiastical Leaders Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church
  7. ^ Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons 1 October 1986, Rome
  8. ^ See, for example, this website
  9. ^ "Homosexuality in the Light of Islam", September 20, 2003
  10. ^ ILGA world survey
  11. ^ See Homosexuality and Buddhism for pronouncements from Thai, Tibetan and Chinese Buddhist leaders.
    The supreme body of Sikhism condemned homosexuality in 2005: World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March, 2005.
    Hinduism is diverse, with no supreme governing body, but the majority of swamis opposed same-sex relationships in a 2004 survey, and a minority supported them. See: Discussions on Dharma, by Rajiv Malik, in Hinduism Today. October/November/December 2004.
  12. ^ Gyatso, Janet (2003). One Plus One Makes Three: Buddhist Gender Conceptions and the Law of the Non-Excluded Middle, History of Religions. 2003, no. 2. University of Chicago press.
  13. ^ http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=28081
  14. ^ Discussions on Dharma, by Rajiv Malik, in Hinduism Today. October/November/December 2004.
  15. ^ For example, Manu Smriti chapter 8, verse 369, 370. text online.
  16. ^ Manu Smriti, 3.49
  17. ^ Kama Sutra, Chapter 9, "Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress". Text online.
  18. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). Homosexuality in Ancient India, Debonair 2000 or 2001. Essay available online from GayBombay.org.
  19. ^ Bacchetta, Paola (1999). When the (Hindu) Nation Exiles Its Queers, Social Text, No. 61 (Winter, 1999), pp. 141-166
  20. ^ Gulam Ali Par Gussa Aata Hai - Metro Beat, by Ashok Row Kavi
  21. ^ Same Sex Love in India by Ashok Row Kavi
  22. ^ a b Jackson, Peter Anthony (December 1995). "Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s". The Australian Journal of Anthropology 6 (3): pp. 140–153. 
  23. ^ See, for example, the Pandakavatthu section of the Mahavagga. 1:61, 68, 69; Vinaya: Mahavagga, 1:71, 76. Additionally, "The Story of the Prohibition of the Ordination of Pandaka" justifies the ban by giving an example of a monk with an insatiable desire to be sexually penetrated by men, thus bringing shame upon the Buddhist community. Vinaya, Vol. 4, pp. 141–142.
  24. ^ Leupp, Gary P. (1995). Male Colors, the Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley: The University of California Press. ISBN 0-585-10603-7. 
  25. ^ Zwilling, Leonard (1992). "Homosexuality As Seen In Indian Buddhist Texts", in Cabezon, Jose Ignacio (ed.): Buddhism, Sexuality & Gender. State University of New York, pp. 203–214. 
  26. ^ Lattin, Don. "Dalai Lama Speaks on Gay Sex - He says it's wrong for Buddhists but not for society", San Francisco Chronicle, 1997-06-11.  – Conkin, Dennis. "Dalai Lama urges 'respect, compassion, and full human rights for all,' including gays", 1997-06-19.  – Nichols, Jack. "Dalai Lama says 'oral and anal sex' not acceptable", 1997-05-13. 
  27. ^ The Buddhist religion and homosexuality. Religioustolerance.org.
  28. ^ West, Donald James; Green, Richard (1997). Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality: Multi-nation Comparison. Springer, p. 68. ISBN 0306455323. “According to one legend, homosexuality was introduced into Japan in the ninth century by Shingon Buddhist monk, Kukai” 
  29. ^ Kumagusu, Miinakata; Ihara Saikaku [July 1996] (1996-12-30). in Stephen D. Miller: Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature, trans. Paul Gordon Schalow, 2nd ed., San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, p. 103. ISBN 0-940567-18-0. “The Buddha preached that Mount Imose (a metaphor for the love of women) was a place to be avoided, and thus priests of the dharma first entered this way as an outlet for their feelings, since their hearts were, after all, made of neither stone nor wood.” 
  30. ^ World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March, 2005.
  31. ^ Website: What Jains believe.
  32. ^ Duli Chandra Jain, Answers To Some Frequently Asked Questions, in 'Religious Ethics: A Sourcebook’, edited by Dr. Arthur B. Dobrin, published by Hindi Granth Karyalaya, Mumbai, 2004. Text onlinePDF link).
  33. ^ Wawrytko, Sandra (1993). Homosexuality and Chinese and Japanese Religions in "Homosexuality and World Religions", edited by Arlene Swidler. Trinity Press International, 1993.
  34. ^ Homosexuality in China on glbtq.com.
  35. ^ Alternative Sexuality. Tangled Moon Coven (2006-08-08). Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  36. ^ "Sex, Wicca and the Great Rite". The Blade & Chalice Spring 1993 (3). 
  37. ^ (1984) The Witches' Way. Custer Washington: Phoenix Publishing, 156-174. ISBN 0-919345-71-9. 

External links

  • Homosexuality and Religion Comparison of religious views
  • Religious Declaration on Sexual Morality, Justice, and Healing "signed by over 2600 religious leaders"; an alternative sexuality - friendly document.
  • Soulforce Religious based gay rights organization.
  • Religious Declaration on Human Sexual Morality Pro-heterosexuality and monogamy.
  • Greek Mythology The secret Greek myths of male love, ancient coming-of-age rituals, uncensored and developed.
  • The Two-Spirit Tradition essay on male love and gay marriage in Native American shamanic religion.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association - http://www.galva108.org - For more information on Homosexuality and Hinduism.
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Homosexuality and Religion - ReligionFacts (0 words)
Homosexuality is generally defined as sexual interest in and attraction to members of one's own sex.
Homosexuality was not uncommon in ancient cultures, though the forms and views of homosexual behavior vary significantly.
Hinduism and Buddhism tend to view homosexuality primarily from the standpoint of its karmic effects, with varying conclusions.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Homosexuality and religion (1335 words)
The relationship between homosexuality and religion varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality.
Homosexuality in Voodoo is religiously acceptable and homosexuals are allowed to participate in all religious activities.
Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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