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Encyclopedia > Religion and Divorce

Many countries in Europe, such as France, once prohibited divorce, as it is not condoned by the Roman Catholic Church. Sometimes citizens travelled to other jurisdictions to obtain a divorce. The Roman Catholic Church will not remarry divorced persons, nor their children. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... It has been suggested that Divorcee be merged into this article or section. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and...

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Islam

In Islam, divorce is allowed, though discouraged. A commonly mentioned Islamic ruling is that divorce is the least liked of all permissible acts. Islam considers marriage to be a legal contract; and the act of obtaining a divorce is essentially the act of legally dissolving the contract. According to Shariah (Islamic Law), there is a required waiting period before a divorce is considered valid. After three divorces, the man and the women are not allowed to remarry, unless under specific circumstances. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Judaism

Judaism recognized the concept of "no-fault" divorce thousands of years ago. Judaism has always accepted divorce as a fact of life (for example, see Deuteronomy chapters 22 and 24), albeit an unfortunate one. Judaism generally maintains that it is better for a couple to divorce than to remain together in a state of constant bitterness and strife. Contrary to the popular opinion, woman can initiate the divorce on multiple grounds (including lack of satisfaction the sexual life). A husband is coerced into releasing the woman by the order of the rabbinic court (a tradition that existed in the Talmudic times and that exists today). Also see Jewish Attitude Toward Divorce.[1] and Get in the Conflict of Laws. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... For the religious process, see Get (divorce document) A get or gett (גט) is the Jewish form of divorce which, when one is available in the state of residence, is supervised by a Beth Din (בית דין), a rabbinical court. ...


Furthemore, from the philosophical and mystical point of view, divorce is a unique procedure that spans the time and creates changes in the past. Just like repentance (teshuvah) can change the state of a sin in the past into a virtue, the divorce nullified the state of union of two souls and the state of their being destined to another as these states exist in the past. Because this is an event of such importance and complexity, because it nullifies one the holiest connections that can exist in the Universe (similar to a connection between a person and God), and because of the danger of the birth of illegitimate children (mamzerim) if the process is not performed properly, divorce is subject to many complex laws and is highly regulated. Despite many claims, however, women do not de facto have an inferior status to men in the divorce, with the exception of the possible problem of Agunah. Repentance in Judaism known as Teshuva (literally means Returning in Hebrew), is the way of atoning for sin in Judaism. ... Mamzer (Hebrew: ממזר) in Halakha (Jewish religious law) is a product of certain illegitimate relationships between two Jews. ... Agunah, according to Jewish law, is a woman who wishes to obtain a divorce from her husband, but whose husband is either unable or unwilling to grant her a halachic bill of divorce, or Get. ...


Christianity

Most Christian churches treat divorce negatively; however, different Christian denominations vary in their toleration of it. The Roman Catholic Church treats all consummated sacramental marriages as permanent during the life of the spouses, and therefore does not allow remarriage after a divorce if the other spouse still lives and the marriage has not been annulled. However, divorced Catholics are still welcome to participate fully in the life of the church so long as they have not remarried against church law, and the Catholic Church generally requires civil divorce or annulment procedures to have completed before it will consider annulment cases. Other Christian denominations, including the Eastern Orthodox Church and many Protestant churches, will allow both divorce and remarriage even with a surviving former spouse, at least under certain conditions. List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... As a verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion, such as a transaction, concept, plan or action. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Bible commentary on divorce comes primarily from the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and the epistles of Paul. Jesus taught on the subject of divorce in three of the Gospels, Paul gives a rather extensive treatment of the subject in his First Epistle to the Corinthians chapter 7: "Let not the wife depart from her husband...let not the husband put away his wife" (1 Corinthians 7:10-11), but he also includes the Pauline privilege. He again alludes to his position on divorce in his Epistle to the Romans, albeit an allegory, when he states "For the woman which hath an husband is bound by the law to her husband so long as he liveth...So then if, while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress" (Romans 7:2-3). The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Pauline Privilege (Privilegium Paulinum) is a Christian concept drawn from the apostle Pauls instructions in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...


In Matthew 5:31-32,Matthew 19:1-10 and Mark 10:1-5, Jesus came into conflict with the Pharisees over divorce concerning their well-known controversy between Hillel and Shammai about Deuteronomy 24:1-4--as evidenced in Nashim Gittin 9:10 of the Mishnah. Do Jesus’ answers to the Pharisees also pertain to Christians? The differences in opinions about this usually arise over whether Jesus opposed the Law of Moses or just some of the viewpoints of the Pharisees, and whether Jesus just addressed a Jewish audience or expanded his audience to include Christians, for example "all nations" as in the Great Commission. Since Deuteronomy 24:1-4 did not give Jewish women the right to directly initiate a divorce (See Agunah), did Jesus' answers "in the house" to his disciples expand the rights of women or did they merely acknowledge that some Jewish women, such as Herodias who divorced Herod Boethus, were wrongfully taking rights because they were being assimilated by other cultures? (See Matthew 14:3-4, Mark 10:10-12.) In other words, did Jesus confine his remarks to the Pharisaical questions, and did he appeal to his own authority by refuting the oral authority of the Pharisees with the formula "You have heard...But I say to you" in Matthew 5:20-48? Expressions used by Jesus such as "you have heard", "it hath been said", "it is written", "have you never read", "keep the commandments", "why do you break the commandments with your traditions?" and "what did Moses Command you?" seem to indicate that Jesus generally respected the Written Laws and sometimes opposed Pharisaical Opinions. (See Matthew 15:1-3, Matthew 4:1-4.) Furthermore, Jesus used disclaimers like those found in Matthew 5:17-20 and Luke 16:16-18 to indicate his endorsement of the Law of Moses. His general respect for the written word and the disclaimers (coupled with the implications of ignoring them such as being "called least in the kingdom of heaven") are strong evidence that Jesus supported the Law and the Prophets. Jesus had a relationship with the Law of Moses while he was alive, but after his death and resurrection he was free to have a relationship with his new bride--the church. (Gal 4:4,Rom 7:1-4,Ephesians 5:29-32.) (See also Judaizers, Jewish Christians, Expounding of the Law (Divorce), Sermon on the Mount (Interpretation), Old Testament (Christian view of the Law), New Covenant.) The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate, from a root related to the Aramaic wordas upharsin (and divided) in the writing on the wall in Daniel 5:25. ... Hillel is a Hebrew name that has been held by many famous Jewish rabbis and thinkers. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, a historical one and a contemporary one. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... Agunah, according to Jewish law, is a woman who wishes to obtain a divorce from her husband, but whose husband is either unable or unwilling to grant her a halachic bill of divorce, or Get. ... Herodias (c. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially Law. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Neviim [נביאים] or Prophets is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible). ... Judaizers is a pejorative term used by Pauline Christianity, particularly after the third century, to describe Jewish Christian groups like the Ebionites and Nazarenes who believed that followers of Jesus needed to keep the Law of Moses. ... Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, a historical one and a contemporary one. ... The Expounding of the Law (KJV:Matthew 5:17-48), sometimes called the Antithesis of the Law, is a less well known but highly structured (Ye have heard . ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


Dharmic Religions

Dharmic religions do not have a concept of divorce. However, the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 applicable to Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Jains in India does have provisions for divorce under some circumstances. map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


References

  1. ^ Rich, Tracey R.. Jewish Attitude Toward Divorce. JewFAQ.Org. Retrieved on 2006-09-10.

Also: 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ...

  • Amato, Paul R. and Alan Booth. A Generation at Risk: Growing Up in an Era of Family Upheaval. Harvard University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-29283-9 and ISBN 0-674-00398-5. Reviews and information at [1]
  • Gallagher, Maggie. "The Abolition of Marriage." Regnery Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-89526-464-1.
  • Lester, David. "Time-Series Versus Regional Correlates of Rates of Personal Violence." Death Studies 1993: 529-534.
  • McLanahan, Sara and Gary Sandefur. Growing Up with a Single Parent; What Hurts, What Helps. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994: 82.
  • Morowitz, Harold J. "Hiding in the Hammond Report." Hospital Practice August 1975; 39.
  • Office for National Statistics (UK). Mortality Statistics: Childhood, Infant and Perinatal, Review of the Registrar General on Deaths in England and Wales, 2000, Series DH3 33, 2002.
  • U.S. Bureau of the Census. Marriage and Divorce. General US survey information. [2]
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Survey of Divorce [3] (link obsolete).

 
 

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