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Encyclopedia > Religion
Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Baha'i, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic
Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Baha'i, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic

Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. The term "religion" refers to both the personal practices related to faith as well as to the larger shared systems of belief. Image File history File links ReligijneSymbole. ... Image File history File links ReligijneSymbole. ... This is a list of graphical signs, icons, and symbols. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism)) is the English name for a religious and philosophical tradition in China. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... hi guys if you are reading this it means you are very gay and geekish so i suggest you get of this site ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி -Path of the father), is a monistic religion, originated in South India in the mid 19th century,[1]. The faith is centered on Ayya Vaikundar and his life and teachings as presented in the religions scriptures. ... A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... Maltese Cross The Maltese cross is identified as the symbol of the Christian warrior. ... Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Personification of wisdom (Greek Σοφια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paulo Veronese (c. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ...


In the larger sense, religion is a communal system for the coherence of belief—typically focused on a system of thought, unseen being, person, or object, that is considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine, or of the highest truth. Moral codes, practices, values, institutions, traditions, and rituals are often traditionally associated with the core belief, and these may have some overlap with concepts in secular philosophy. Religion can also be described as a way of life. Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


The development of religion has taken many forms in various cultures. "Organized religion" generally refers to an organization of people supporting the exercise of some religion with a prescribed set of beliefs, often taking the form of a legal entity (see religion-supporting organization). Other religions believe in personal revelation and responsibility. "Religion" is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system,"[1] but is more socially defined than that of personal convictions. There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... A legal entity is a legal construct through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is currently under construction. ...

Contents

Definition of religion

There are many definitions of religion, and most have struggled to avoid an overly sharp definition on the one hand, and meaningless generalities on the other. Some have tried to use formalistic, doctrinal definitions and others have tried to use experiential, emotive, intuitive, valuational and ethical factors.


Sociologists and anthropologists see religion as an abstract set of ideas, values, or experiences developed as part of a cultural matrix. Primitive religion was indistinguishable from the sociocultural acts where custom and ritual defined an emotional reality.


Other religious scholars have put forward a definition of religion that avoids the reductionism of the various sociological and psychological disciplines that relegate religion to its component factors. Religion may be defined as the presence of a belief in the sacred or the holy. For example Rudolf Otto's "The Idea of the Holy," formulated in 1917, defines the essence of religious awareness as awe, a unique blend of fear and fascination before the divine. Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th century defined religion as a "feeling of absolute dependence." Rudolf Otto (September 25, 1869 - 6 March 1937) was an eminent German protestant theologian and scholar of comparative religion. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ...


The Encyclopedia of Religion describes religion in the following way:[2]

"In summary, it may be said that almost every known culture involves the religious in the above sense of a depth dimension in cultural experiences at all levels — a push, whether ill-defined or conscious, toward some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life. When more or less distinct patterns of behaviour are built around this depth dimension in a culture, this structure constitutes religion in its historically recognizable form. Religion is the organization of life around the depth dimensions of experience — varied in form, completeness, and clarity in accordance with the environing culture."

Development of religion

Jerusalem is an ancient and sacred city of key importance to three major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Pictured is the Dome of the rock. It is a constituent of the Mosque, "Masjid-ul-Aqsa"
Jerusalem is an ancient and sacred city of key importance to three major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Pictured is the Dome of the rock. It is a constituent of the Mosque, "Masjid-ul-Aqsa"

There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. Broadly speaking, these models fall into three categories: Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Dome of the Rock User:Jgritz/photos Image:Dome of the rock distance. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Noble Sanctuary The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ...

  • Models which see religions as social constructions;
  • Models which see religions as progressing toward higher, objective truth;
  • Models which see a particular religion as absolutely true.

The models are not mutually exclusive. Multiple models may be seen to apply simultaneously, or different models may be seen as applying to different religions.


Religion as a social construction

This group of models holds that religion is a social construction, rather than referring to actual supernatural phenomena; that is, phenomena beyond the natural world that we measure using the scientific method. Some of these models view religion as nonetheless having or having had a positive effect on society, the individual, and civilization itself, and others view it as having or having had a mostly injurious or destructive effect. Many of these views have their origins in the field of the sociology of religion. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents physical, biological or social processes, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists solely because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ...


Models that view religion as a social construction include the "Dogma Selection Model," which holds that religions, although untrue in themselves, encode instructions or habits useful for survival, and that these ideas "mutate" periodically as they are passed on, and spread or die out in accord with their effectiveness at improving chances for survival.


Karl Marx wrote (1844) that "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness." Bertrand Russell commented, "[r]eligion in any shape or form is regarded as a pernicious and deliberate falsehood, spread and encouraged by rulers and clerics in their own interests, since it is easier to exercise control over the ignorant."[3] Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician. ...


The "Theory of Religion Model" states that religion arose from some psychological or moral pathology in religious leaders and believers. Another theory states that spirit-based religions found in many indigenous tribes may originate in dreams. A dead person seen in a dream is, in some sense, not really dead, and so may be able to do good or harm. Some anthropologists see in this the origin of a belief in ghosts and in those religions in which ancestors are worshiped.[4] Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... It has been suggested that Moral reflex be merged into this article or section. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ... Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi Anthropology (from the Greek word , man or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... This article is about the paranormal. ...


Religions as progressively true

In contrast to the some other models, this category of models see religion as "progressively true." Within these models, religions reflect an essential Truth. The development of religion is therefore the course of religions aligning themselves more completely with the Truth, as the benefits of the teachings of each religion take effect within the development of humanity across time and place, as well as dealing with drifts of the religions from their founding principles or standing in need of elaborating the same essential truth in a new specific way - but all in relation to the same mysterious God, that is that this progression is divinely based or directed, rather than simply the occurrence of good people in history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 3495 KB) This picture has been taken, uploaded and the copyright owned by Tom Habibi, but released in the licences below. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 3495 KB) This picture has been taken, uploaded and the copyright owned by Tom Habibi, but released in the licences below. ... Shrine of the Báb The Shrine of the Báb is the location where the Bábs remains have been laid to rest. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Models which view religion as progressively true include the Bahá'í model of prophetic revelation, which holds that God has sent a series of prophets to Earth, each of which brought teachings appropriate for his culture and context, but all originating from the same God, and therefore teaching the same essential message. While religious truth is seen as being relative due to its varied cultural and developmental expression, this model accepts that the underlying essential truth being expressed is absolutely true, if incompletely and progressively presented. The A Study of History Model holds that prophets are given to extraordinary spiritual insight during periods of social decay and act as "surveyors of the course of secular civilization who report breaks in the road and breakdowns in the traffic, and plot a new spiritual course which will avoid those pitfalls." Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Progressive revelation is a core teaching of the Baháí Faith that flows from central teachings of the religion, namely, the oneness of God, the oneness of religion, and the oneness of humanity. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called Prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ...


Another model, the Great Awakening Model, states that religion proceeds along a Hegelian dialectic of thesis, antithesis, synthesis, in cycles of approximately 80 years as a result of the interaction between four archetypal generations, by which old religious beliefs (the thesis) face new challenges for which they are unprepared (the antithesis) and adapt to create new and more sophisticated beliefs (the synthesis). Great Awakenings are commonly said to be periods of religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. ...


To a lesser degree this "progression in religion" is true within most of the religions - Judaism accepts a series of Prophets progressively leading the Jews, from Abraham to Moses, and further to Malachi. Christianity accepts the same and adds Jesus. Islam accepts those of Judaism and Christianity and adds Muhammad. The Bahá'í Faith accepts all of the same, but adds the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh as modern Prophets, at the same time acknowledging the divine origin of Krishna, Buddha, and Zoroaster. Hinduism identifies a series of Avatars from Brahma through to Krishna. Buddhism adds to the list of Avatars, calling them Buddhas. Zoroastrianism also delineates earlier Saoshyants, who came progressively leading the people forward. There are other examples. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... hi guys if you are reading this it means you are very gay and geekish so i suggest you get of this site ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Religions as absolutely true

Other models see religion as absolutely and unchangingly true. They contrast with both the first group of models (which hold religion to be false), and the second group (which hold religion to develop over time). Models which view a particular religion as absolutely true include the Jewish and Christian model which holds that God relates to humanity through covenants; that he established a covenant with all humanity at the time of Noah called the Noahide Laws, and that he established a covenant with Israel through the Ten Commandments, and also Jesus Christ did establish a covenant with his people through the New Testament. The Ayyavazhi Model states that "All religions had their own truth on their own point and the one and same God himself incarnates in different parts and by destroying the evil forces, saved the people and there by formed different scriptures..." This model, however, asserts that the scripture of Ayyavazhi, known as Akilattirattu Ammanai, is currently the only living scripture and all others are dead. Exclusivist Models hold that one particular set of religious doctrines is the "One True Religion," and all others are false, so that the development of the True Religion is tied inexorably to one prophet or holy book. In this model, all other religions are seen as either distortions of the original truth or original fabrications resulting from either human ignorance or imagination, or a more devious influence, such as false prophets or the influence of another rival supernatural entity (such as Satan). The model of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is nuanced differently than either the progressively true model or the absolutely true model, in that its leaders have taught that foreordination included plans by God that prophets as well as other good men and women (for example, Muhammad, Confucius, John Wycliffe, William Tyndale, and Gandhi) would be inspired by God during the course of human history who would bring much light, truth and knowledge though not necessarily a fullness of truth to their particular societies. [5][6] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The Seven Noahide Laws (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני × ×—, Sheva mitzvot bnei Noach), also called the Brit Noah (Covenant of Noah) mitzvot (commandments) and halakhot (laws) that are morally binding on non-Jews according to Judaism. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Inclusiveness and exclusivity in Ayyavazhi is the inclusive and exclusive ideology of Ayyavazhi scriptures over other religions. ... Ayyavazhi (IPA: )(Tamil:அய்யாவழி -Path of the father), is a monistic religion, originated in South India in the mid 19th century,[1]. The faith is centered on Ayya Vaikundar and his life and teachings as presented in the religions scriptures. ... Akilathirattu Ammanai அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை (Tamil: akilam (world) + thirattu (collection) + ammanai (ballad)), also called Thiru Edu (venerable book), is the main religious book of the Southern Indian Ayyavazhi faith, officially an offshoot of Hinduism. ... The practice of being exclusive; mentality characterized by the disregard for opinions and ideas other than ones own. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that The Tyndale Society be merged into this article or section. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called...


Demographics

Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ...

Demographic Methodologies and Sources

There is no consensus among researchers as to the best methodology for determining the religiosity profile of the world's population. A number of fundamental aspects are unresolved:

  • Whether to count "historically predominant religious culture[s]"[7]
  • Whether to count only those who actively "practice" a particular religion[8]
  • Whether to count based on a concept of "adherence"[9]
  • Whether to count only those who expressly self-identify with a particular denomination[10]
  • Whether to count only adults, or to include children as well (see God_Delusion#Childhood.2C_abuse_and_the_escape_from_religion)
  • Whether to rely only on official government-provided statistics [11]
  • Whether to use multiple sources and ranges or single "best source(s)"

The God Delusion is a non-fiction book by British ethologist and atheist Richard Dawkins that is critical of religion. ...

Present day adherents

High range estimate for ChristianityThe image above is proposed for deletion. See images and media for deletion to help reach a consensus on what to do.
High range estimate for Christianity

The image above is proposed for deletion. See images and media for deletion to help reach a consensus on what to do.
Dominant world religions, mapped by country.
Dominant world religions, mapped by country.
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.

The following statistics show the number of adherents in all known approaches, both religious and irreligious worldwide. [Note: these statistics are taken from a single site (see Adherents[12]), which also states that its total for Christianity is provided by a single source, David Barrett, described as an "Evangelical Christian"[13], and elsewhere listed as "Research Professor of Missiometrics at Regent University"[14]. The term "adherents" is moreover not defined in this context and is not universally accepted as the most appropriate basis for ranking religions by size. For example: Image File history File links Major_religions_2005_pie_small. ... Image File history File links Major_religions_2005_pie_small. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) Summary Copied from http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) Summary Copied from http://en. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Sutras may refer too: Sutra, a concept regarding Hinduism Sutras (album), an album by 1960s rock musician Donovan ... Adherents. ...

Many Muslims (and some non-Muslim) observers claim that there are more practicing Muslims than practicing Christians in the world. Adherents.com has no reason to dispute this. It seems likely, but we would point out that there are different opinions on the matter, and a Muslim may define "practicing" differently than a Christian.... [15]

Other sources quoted in this article put the percentages of various countries' populations who rank Religion (any denomination) as "Very Important" at small fractions of those used to compile the table below[16]]. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Buddhism are the largest world religions today. Approximately 69-78% of humanity adheres to one of these five religions[citation needed]. Christianity is the religion with the largest number of adherents[citation needed], followed by Islam, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Buddhism respectively. However, the third-largest "group" of approximately 1 billion people do not adhere to religious approaches. Their irreligious approaches include Humanism, Atheism, Rationalism, and Agnosticism. These figures are necessarily approximate: note that the figures in the following table total nearly 7 billion people, yet the world population was only 6.4 billion (2005),[17] and a person can be an adherent of more than one religion[citation needed]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey, 286). ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without and gnosis, knowledge, translating to unknowable) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities — is unknown or (possibly) inherently unknowable. ...

  1. Christianity 2.1 billion (see below)
  2. Islam 1.3 billion (see below)
  3. Non-Adherent (Secular/Atheist/Irreligious/Agnostic/Nontheist) 1.1 billion
  4. Hinduism 900 million (see below)
  5. Chinese folk religion 394 million (see below)
  6. Buddhism 376 million
  7. Primal indigenous ("Pagan") 300 million
  8. African traditional and diasporic 100 million
  9. Sikhism 23 million
  10. Juche 19 million
  11. Spiritism 15 million
  12. Judaism 14 million
  13. Bahá'í Faith 7 million
  14. Jehovah's Witnesses 6.5 million
  15. Jainism 4.2 million
  16. Shinto 4 million (see below)
  17. Cao Dai 4 million
  18. Zoroastrianism 2.6 million
  19. Tenrikyo 2 million
  20. Neo-Paganism 1 million
  21. Unitarian Universalism 800,000
  22. Rastafari movement 600,000
  • Christianity encompasses many different denominations but the statistics in the source for this document consider most of them all together for the purposes of analysis (except Unitarians and Rastafarians). The detailed country-by-country figures given by the primary source for this section[18] sum to a range lower than the 2.1 Billion total cited in the summary "Major Religions of the World" list[19] (itself derived from the World Christian Encyclopedia[20]).
  • The high end estimate for Islam from the source for the table above is 1.4 billion:

Islam: Contemporary figures for Islam are usually between 900 million and 1.4 billion, with 1 billion being a figure frequently given in comparative religion texts, probably because it's such a nice, round number[21]. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Irreligion is the absence of religious following. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Nontheism or non-theism is the absence of belief in any gods. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor worship and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... hi guys if you are reading this it means you are very gay and geekish so i suggest you get of this site ... Heathen redirects here. ... This article is about dispersion of peoples. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Tay Ninh Holy See Cao Dai (Cao Đài) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion and philosophy that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former (and last) emperor of Ethiopia, as Jah (the Rasta name for God incarnate, from a shortened form of Jehovah found in Psalms 68:4 in the King...

  • The high end estimate for Hinduism from the source for the table above is 1.4 billion:

Hinduism: The highest figure we've seen for Hinduism (1.4 billion, Clarke, Peter B., editor), The Religions of the World: Understanding the Living Faiths, Marshall Editions Limited: USA (1993); pg. 125.) is actually higher than the highest figure we've seen for Islam. But this is an aberration. World Hinduism adherent figures are usually between 850 million and one billion.[22]

  • Shinto is a special case due to shrine-reporting versus self-reporting. Since the 17th century, there have been laws in Japan requiring registration with Shinto shrines. Because of this, 75-90% of all Japanese are listed on shrine rolls, greatly inflating the apparent number of adherents. When asked in polls, only about 3.3% of Japanese people identify themselves as "Shinto."[23] However, many who do not consider themselves "Shintoists" still practice Shinto rituals.

In ranking religious denominations, the Roman Catholic Church is the largest single denomination within Christianity, Sunni Islam within Islam, and Vaishnavism within Hinduism. It is difficult to say whether there are more Roman Catholics or Sunnis, as the numbers are roughly equal, and exact counts are impossible, because some members though legally accepted in those denominations may have renounced their faith or have converted quickly. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Maha-Vishnu depicted as resting on the causal ocean, with countless universes emanating from his skin pores. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ...


Trends in adherence

World map based on the results of a 2002 Pew Research Center study on the importance of religion.
World map based on the results of a 2002 Pew Research Center study on the importance of religion.
The largest religious gathering of humans on Earth [1]. About 70 million Hindus from around the world participated in Kumbh Mela in the Hindu holy city of Prayaga, India, which is also known as Allahabad.
The largest religious gathering of humans on Earth [1]. About 70 million Hindus from around the world participated in Kumbh Mela in the Hindu holy city of Prayaga, India, which is also known as Allahabad.

Since the late 19th century, the demographics of religion have changed a great deal. Some countries with a historically large Christian population have experienced a significant decline in the numbers of professed active Christians. Symptoms of the decline in active participation in Christian religious life include declining recruitment for the priesthood and monastic life, as well as diminishing attendance at church. At the same time, there has been an increase in the number of people who identify themselves as secular humanists. In many countries, such as the People's Republic of China, communist governments have discouraged religion, making it difficult to count the actual number of believers. However, after the collapse of communism in numerous countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Eastern Orthodox Christianity has been experiencing considerable resurgence there. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary Created by Jersyko from blank world map. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary Created by Jersyko from blank world map. ... The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the USA and the world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (721x721, 88 KB) Summary Image may be used for illustration and publishing purposes with the credit of spaceimaging. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (721x721, 88 KB) Summary Image may be used for illustration and publishing purposes with the credit of spaceimaging. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The 2001 Kumbh Mela. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Map of India. ... Roman Catholic priests in clerical clothing. ... Monastery of St. ... St. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice and specifically rejects rituals and ceremonies as a means to affirm a life stance. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Within the world's four largest religions Christianity currently has the greatest growth by numbers and Islam has the fastest growth by percentage.[24] Christianity is spreading rapidly in northern Africa and the Far East, in particular China and South Korea. Hinduism is undergoing a revival, and many temples are being built, both in India and in other countries. Analyzing percentage growth is a difficult matter - see this article for a discussion. However, the World Christian Encyclopedia and World Christian Trends reported these numbers from growth from 1990-2000[24][25]: There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ... There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

1990-2000

(the annual growth in the world population over the same period is 1.41%) Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... hi guys if you are reading this it means you are very gay and geekish so i suggest you get of this site ...


A 2002 Pew Research Center study found that, generally, poorer nations had a larger proportion of citizens who found religion to be very important than richer nations, with the exception of the United States.[26] The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the USA and the world. ...

See also: Major religious groups, Claims to be the fastest growing religion, Religion by country

Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ... There are several different religions claimed to be the “fastest growing religion”. Such claims vary due to different definitions of “fastest growing”, and whether the claim is worldwide or regional. ...

Religious belief

Main article: Religious belief

Religious belief usually relates to the existence, nature and worship of a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and human life. Alternately, it may also relate to values and practices transmitted by a spiritual leader. Unlike other belief systems, which may be passed on orally, religious belief tends to be codified. Religious beliefs are found in virtually every society throughout human history. Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Universe is a word derived from the Old French univers, which in turn comes form the Latin roots unus (one) and versus (a form of vertere, to turn). Physicists concept of the Universe is motivated[] by the attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Related forms of thought

Religion and science

Religious knowledge, according to religious practitioners, may be gained from religious leaders, sacred texts (scriptures), and/or personal revelation. Some religions view such knowledge as unlimited in scope and suitable to answer any question; others see religious knowledge as playing a more restricted role, often as a complement to knowledge gained through physical observation. Some religious people maintain that religious knowledge obtained in this way is absolute and infallible (religious cosmology). While almost unlimited, this knowledge can be unreliable, since the particulars of religious knowledge vary from religion to religion, from sect to sect, and often from individual to individual. Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ... Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ... Look up unlimited in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Early science such as geometry and astronomy was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th Century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation.
Early science such as geometry and astronomy was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th Century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation.

The scientific method gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop theories through elucidation of facts or evalution by experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the physical universe. It develops theories of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is probabilistic and subject to later improvement or revision in the face of better evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as facts (such as the theory of gravity). Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... Image File history File links God_the_Geometer. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of astrology. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... For the tool used to draw circles, see Compass (drafting). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Facts may refer to: fact, an incontrovertible truth Flexible AC transmission system, abbreviated FACTS Facts (newspaper), a Swiss newspaper Category: ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... Cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... In religion the term physical universe or material universe is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from its spiritual essence. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ...


Many early scientists held strong religious beliefs (see Scientists of Faith and List of Christian thinkers in science) and strove to reconcile science and religion. Isaac Newton, for example, believed that gravity caused the planets to revolve about the Sun, and credited God with the design. In the concluding General Scholium to the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, he wrote: "This most beautiful System of the Sun, Planets and Comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being." Nevertheless, conflict arose between religious organizations and individuals who propagated scientific theories which were deemed unacceptable by the organizations. The Roman Catholic Church, for example, has historically reserved to itself the right to decide which scientific theories are acceptable and which are unacceptable. In the 17th century, Galileo was tried and forced to recant the heliocentric theory. Most early scientists had strong religious convictions. ... This list concerns the issue of The relationship between religion and science, but is specific to Christian history. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For the astrological concept, see Planets in astrology. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparsion to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ...


Many theories exist as to why religions sometimes seem to conflict with scientific knowledge. In the case of Christianity, a relevant factor may be that it was among Christians that science in the modern sense was developed. Unlike other religious groups, as early as the 17th century the Christian churches had to deal directly with this new way to investigate nature and seek truth. The perceived conflict between science and Christianity may also be partially explained by a literal interpretation of the Bible adhered to by many Christians, both currently and historically. This way to read the sacred texts became especially prevalent after the rise of the Protestant reformation, with its emphasis on the Bible as the only authoritative source concerning the ultimate reality.[27] This view is often shunned by both religious leaders (who regard literally believing it as petty and look for greater meaning instead) and scientists who regard it as an impossibility. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...


Some Christians have disagreed or are still disagreeing with scientists in areas such as the validity of Keplerian astronomy, the theory of evolution, the method of creation of the universe and the Earth, and the origins of life. On the other hand, scholars such as Stanley Jaki have suggested that Christianity and its particular worldview was a crucial factor for the emergence of modern science. In fact, most today's historians are moving away from the view of the relationship between Christianity and science as one of "conflict", a perspective commonly called the conflict thesis (or the Draper-White thesis). Gary Ferngren in his historical volume about Science & Religion states: Johannes Keplers primary contributions to astronomy/astrophysics were his three laws of planetary motion. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Universe is a word derived from the Old French univers, which in turn comes form the Latin roots unus (one) and versus (a form of vertere, to turn). Physicists concept of the Universe is motivated[] by the attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation). ... Stanley L. Jaki (b. ... Worldview is Chicago Public Radios daily international-affairs radio show, hosted by Jerome McDonnell. ... Galileo before the Holy Office by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, a classic depiction of science clashing with religion The conflict thesis, also known as the warfare thesis, the warfare model or the Draper-White thesis, is an interpretive model of the relationship between religion and science. ...

While some historians had always regarded the Draper-White thesis as oversimplifying and distorting a complex relationship, in the late twentieth century it underwent a more systematic reevaluation. The result is the growing recognition among historians of science that the relationship of religion and science has been much more positive than is sometimes thought. Although popular images of controversy continue to exemplify the supposed hostility of Christianity to new scientific theories, studies have shown that Christianity has often nurtured and encouraged scientific endeavour, while at other times the two have co-existed without either tension or attempts at harmonization. If Galileo and the Scopes trial come to mind as examples of conflict, they were the exceptions rather than the rule.[28]

In the Bahá'í Faith, the harmony of science and religion is a central tenet.[29] The principle states that that truth is one, and therefore true science and true religion must be in harmony, thus rejecting the view that science and religion are in conflict.[29] `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, asserted that science and religion cannot be opposed because they are aspects of the same truth; he also affirmed that reasoning powers are required to understand the truths of religion and that religious teachings which are at variance with science should not be accepted; he explained that religion has to be reasonable since God endowed humankind with reason so that they can discover truth.[30] Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, described science and religion as "the two most potent forces in human life."[31] Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... A fundamental principle of the Baháí Faith is the harmony of religion and science. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ...


Proponents of Hinduism claim that Hinduism is not afraid of scientific explorations, nor of the technological progress of mankind. According to them, there is a comprehensive scope and opportunity for Hinduism to mold itself according to the demands and aspirations of the modern world; it has the ability to align itself with both science and spiritualism. This religion uses some modern examples to explain its ancient theories and reinforce its own beliefs. For example, some Hindu thinkers have used the terminology of quantum physics to explain some basic concepts of Hinduism such as Maya or the illusory and impermanent nature of our existence. Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ... Fig. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (illusion). ...


The philosophical approach known as pragmatism, as propounded by the American philosopher William James, has been used to reconcile scientific with religious knowledge. Pragmatism, simplistically, holds that the truth of a set of beliefs can be indicated by its usefulness in helping people cope with a particular context of life. Thus, the fact that scientific beliefs are useful in predicting observations in the physical world can indicate a certain truth for scientific theories; the fact that religious beliefs can be useful in helping people cope with difficult emotions or moral decisions can indicate a certain truth for those beliefs. (For a similar postmodern view, see grand narrative). For themes emphasized by Charles Peirce, see Pragmaticism. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... Look up Context in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In critical theory, and particularly postmodernism, a metanarrative is a grand overarching account, or all-encompassing story, which is thought to give order to the historical record. ...


Religion, metaphysics, and cosmology

Religion and philosophy meet in several areas, notably in the study of metaphysics and cosmology. In particular, a distinct set of religious beliefs will often entail a specific metaphysics and cosmology. That is, a religion will generally have answers to metaphysical and cosmological questions about the nature of being, of the universe, humanity, and the divine. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... // Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ...


Mysticism and esotericism

Mysticism, in contrast with philosophy and metaphysics, denies that logic is the most important method of gaining enlightenment. Rather, physical disciplines such as yoga, stringent fasting, whirling (in the case of the Sufi dervishes), or the use of Psychoactive drugs such as LSD, lead to higher states of consciousness that logic can never hope to grasp. Download high resolution version (427x639, 83 KB)Photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Malvina Hoffman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (427x639, 83 KB)Photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Malvina Hoffman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος logos (the word), is the study of patterns found in reasoning. ... A woman practising hatha yoga Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana (Single-Legged Pigeon) demonstrated at a Hindu temple. ... Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and/or drink, for a period of time. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... A Turkish dervish, in the 1860s. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... For other uses, see LSD (disambiguation). ...


Mysticism ("to conceal") is the pursuit of communion with, or conscious awareness of ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct, personal experience (intuition or insight) rather than rational thought. Mystics speak of the existence of realities behind external perception or intellectual apprehension that are central to being and directly accessible through personal experience. They say that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... In philosophy, Ultimate Reality is the absolute nature of all things. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Esotericism claims to be more sophisticated than religion, to rely on intellectual understanding rather than faith, and to improve on philosophy in its emphasis on techniques of psycho-spiritual transformation (esoteric cosmology). Esotericism refers to "hidden" knowledge available only to the advanced, privileged, or initiated, as opposed to exoteric knowledge, which is public. It applies especially to spiritual practices. The mystery religions of ancient Greece are examples of Esotericism. Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... Exotericism refers to religious practices and laws that are meant to regulate human activities in the external world and are easily understandable and practicable by the masses, as opposed to esotericism. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ...


Spirituality

Main article: Spirituality

Members of an organized religion may not see any significant difference between religion and spirituality. Or they may see a distinction between the mundane, earthly aspects of their religion and its spiritual dimension. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


Some individuals draw a strong distinction between religion and spirituality. They may see spirituality as a belief in ideas of religious significance (such as God, the Soul, or Heaven), but not feel bound to the bureaucratic structure and creeds of a particular organized religion. They choose the term spirituality rather than religion to describe their form of belief, perhaps reflecting a disillusionment with organized religion (see Religion in modernity), and a movement towards a more "modern" — more tolerant, and more intuitive — form of religion. These individuals may reject organized religion because of historical acts by religious organizations, such as Islamic terrorism, the marginalisation and persecution of various minorities or the Spanish Inquisition. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. ...


Myth

Main article: Mythology

The word myth has several meanings. // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ...

  1. A traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon;
  2. A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence.
  3. A metaphor for the spiritual potentiality in the human being [32]

Ancient polytheistic religions, such as those of Greece, Rome, and Scandinavia, are categorized under the heading of mythology. Religions of pre-industrial peoples, or cultures in development, are similarly called myths in the anthropology of religion. The term "myth" can be used pejoratively by both religious and non-religious people. But by defining another person's religious stories and beliefs as mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than one's own religious stories and beliefs. Joseph Campbell often made the statement "Mythology is popularly defined as 'other peoples' religions'...but actually religion is misinterpreted mythology". Polytheism is belief in, or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ...


Humanists believe that all religion is based on myth. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The term myth in sociology, however, has a non-pejorative meaning. There, myth is defined as stories that are important for the group whether or not it is objectively or provably true. Examples include the death and resurrection of Jesus, which, to Christians, explains the means by which they are freed from sin, as well as being ostensibly a historical event. But from a mythological outlook, whether or not a death and resurrection actually occurred or not is unimportant. Instead, the symbolism of a death to an old "life" and the start of a new "life" is more important than the religious dogma of the actual historical authenticity. Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...

Cosmology

Humans have many different methods which attempt to answer fundamental questions about the nature of the universe and our place in it (cosmology). What is reality? How can we know? Who are we? Why we are here? How should we live? What happens after we die? Religion is only one of the methods for trying to answer one or more of these questions. Other methods include science, philosophy, metaphysics, astrology, esotericism, mysticism, and forms of shamanism, such as the sacred consumption of ayahuasca among Peruvian Amazonia's Urarina. The Urarina have an elaborate animistic cosmological system[33], which informs their mythology, religious orientation and daily existence. Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Universe is a word derived from the Old French univers, which in turn comes form the Latin roots unus (one) and versus (a form of vertere, to turn). Physicists concept of the Universe is motivated[] by the attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy... // Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... It has been suggested that astrologer be merged into this article or section. ... Esotericism is knowledge suitable only for an inner circle of the initiated, advanced or privileged. ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... The widely used Quechua name ayahuasca (pronounced ) has two highly interrelated yet distinct meanings and referents: 1) an Amazonian giant vine native to the rainforest containing various harmala alkaloids, generally Banisteriopsis caapi, and, by extension, 2) pharmacologically complex psychoactive infusions prepared from it for shamanic, folk-medicinal, and religious purposes. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Cosmology is the study of the large-scale structure and history of the universe. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ...


Given the generalized discontents with modernity, consumerism, over-consumption, violence and anomie, many people in the so-called industrial or post-industrial West rely on a number of distinctive religious worldviews. This in turn has given rise to increased religious pluralism, as well as to what are commonly known in the academic literature as new religious movements, which are gaining ground across the globe. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be taken in context. ... Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with consumption (economics). ... Violence is any act of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause injury, in some cases criminal, or harm to persons, and (by some definitions) animals or property. ... For the band, see Anomie (band) Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ... A new religious movement or NRM appears as a religious, ethical or spiritual grouping that has not (yet) become recognised as a standard denomination, church, or body, especially when it has a novel belief system and when it is not a sect. ...


Etymology

The etymology of the word "religion" has been debated for centuries. The English word clearly derives from the Latin religio, "reverence (for the gods)" or "conscientiousness". The origins of religio, however, are obscure. Proposed etymological interpretations include: Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


From Relego

  • Re-reading–from Latin re (again) + lego (in the sense of "read"), referring to the repetition of scripture.
  • Treating carefully–from Latin re (again) + lego (in the sense of "choose"–this was the interpretation of Cicero) "go over again" or "consider carefully".

Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Latin pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ...

From Religare

  • Re-connection to the divine–from Latin re (again) + ligare (to connect, as in English ligament). This interpretation is favoured by modern scholars such as Tom Harpur, but was made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation of Lactantius.
  • To bind or return to bondage–an alternate interpretation of the "reconnection" etymology emphasizing a sense of servitude to God, this may have originated with Augustine. However, the interpretation, while popular with critics of religion, is often considered imprecise and possibly offensive to followers.

A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... Thomas Tom Harpur (born ca. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...

From Res + legere

  • Concerning a gathering — from Latin res (ablative re, with regard to) + legere (to gather), since organized religion revolves around a gathering of people.

Criticism

Most western criticism of religion focuses on the Abrahamic religions, particularly Christianity, Judaism, and Islam with titles such as Why I am not a Christian, The God Delusion and The End of Faith. Not all the criticisms would apply to all religions: criticism regarding the existence of god(s), for example, has very little relevance to Buddhism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Secularity is the state of being without religious or spiritual qualities. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Why I Am Not a Christian is an essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell in which he explains why he is not a Christian. ... The God Delusion is a non-fiction book by British ethologist and atheist Richard Dawkins that is critical of religion. ... Sam Harris began writing The End of Faith on September 12, 2001—his basic message being that it would be as well to kill religion before it kills us. ... Buddhism is generally viewed as a religion without a Supreme Being or Creator God. ...


Many skeptics consider that all religious faith is essentially irrational.[34] By definition, skeptics of religion are atheists or agnostics.[35][36] Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ...


Critics claim dogmatic religions are typically morally deficient, elevating to moral status ancient, arbitrary, and ill-informed rules that may have been designed for reasons of hygiene, politics, or other reasons in a bygone era.[37] People who break these rules are often condemned and victimised even though they have only done wrong within a particular religion's idiosyncratic conception of what constitutes right and wrong. It has been suggested that Moral reflex be merged into this article or section. ... Hygiene is commonly understood as preventing infection through cleanliness. ...


See also

Main lists: List of basic religious topics and List of religious topics
Religion-related topics edit
Aspects Beliefs - Practice - Supernatural beings - Education - Organizations - Objects
Study of religion Anthropology of religion - Comparison - Psychology of religion - Sociology of religion - Philosophy of religion - Religious studies
Groups Religious faiths, traditions, and movements - Major religious groups - List of religions - List of religious populations
Interfaces Religion and science - Religion and society - Religion and mythology
Related subjects Mythology - Spirituality - Supernatural - Criticism of religion - Secularism and non-religion
More lists List of basic religious topics - List of religious topics - List of deities - List of people who have been considered deities - List of religion scholars - List of largest gatherings in history

The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005. ... The following is a list of religions. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Secularity is the state of being without religious or spiritual qualities. ... Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The following is a list of religion scholars. ... This is a list of the largest historic gatherings of people for a single event: In January 2001, a reported 20 million Hindu pilgrims travelled to Allahabad in India for the Kumbh Mela, the worlds largest religious festival. ...

Notes

Religion Portal
  1. ^ The words "belief system" may not necessarily refer to a religion, though a religion may be referred to as "belief system."
  2. ^ Religion [First Edition]. Winston King. Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 11. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. p7692-7701.
  3. ^ Wisdom of the West, ISBN 0-517-69041-1
  4. ^ Johnson, George (2006-01). Getting a Rational Grip on Religion: Is religion a fit subject for scientific scrutiny?. Scientific American. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph F., Gospel Doctrine, 1919, Chapter 22.;Top, Brent L., Life Before, 1988, Chapter 7
  6. ^ To the question of why God would inspire Muhammad with one set of doctrines and Joseph Smith with another, Mormonism answers that God answers specific questions that are asked of Him in prayer or meditation, but only according to the faith, intent, desire, and particular understanding of the person, who may mix inspired truths with their own views unless they receive full prophetic revelation. Mormonism posits that each mortal person has the God-given right to receive knowledge of truth "line upon line, precept upon precept," (Isaiah 28:13), as they ask for it or ponder it in their hearts.
  7. ^ Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart, Sacred and Secular, Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, 2007-01-06.
  8. ^ Pew Research Center (2002-12-19). Among Wealthy Nations U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion. Pew Research Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  9. ^ adherents.com (2005-08-28). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  10. ^ worldvaluessurvey.com (2005-06-28). World Values Survey. worldvaluessurvey.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  11. ^ unstats.un.org (2007.01.06). United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics. United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved on 2007.01.06.
  12. ^ adherents.com (2005-08-28). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  13. ^ adherents.com (2006-12-25). Major Religions Ranked by Size. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  14. ^ gordonconwell.edu (2005-12-27). GCTS - Global Christianity -- Staff. gordonconwell.edu. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  15. ^ adherents.com (2006-12-27). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  16. ^ Pew Research Center (2002-12-19). Among Wealthy Nations U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion. Pew Research Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  17. ^ adherents.com (2005-08-28). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  18. ^ adherents.com (2006-12-27). Adherents.com - Religion by Location. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  19. ^ (2006-12-27) Major Religions Ranked by Size. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. 
  20. ^ Barrett, David A. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia, p. 4. 
  21. ^ adherents.com (2006-12-30). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  22. ^ adherents.com (2006-12-30). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  23. ^ adherents.com (2005-08-28). Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents - Shinto. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  24. ^ a b Barrett, David A. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia, p. 4. 
  25. ^ Barrett, David; Johnson, Todd (2001). Global adherents of the World's 19 distinct major religions. William Carey Library. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  26. ^ Pew Research Center (2002-12-19). Among Wealthy Nations U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion. Pew Research Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  27. ^ Stanley Jaki. Bible and Science, Christendom Press, 1996 (pages 110-111)
  28. ^ Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8018-7038-0. (Introduction, p. ix)
  29. ^ a b Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, 5th ed., Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-160-4. 
  30. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá [1912] (1982). The Promulgation of Universal Peace, Hardcover, Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-172-8. 
  31. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1938). The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-231-7. 
  32. ^ Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth, p22 ISBN 0-385-24774-5
  33. ^ Bartholomew Dean 1994 "The Poetics of Creation: Urarina Cosmology and Historical Consciousness." Latin American Indian Literatures Journal (10):22-45
  34. ^ Bryan Caplan. Why Religious Beliefs Are Irrational, and Why Economists Should Care. The article about religion and irrationality.
  35. ^ definition of atheist
  36. ^ definition of agnostic
  37. ^ Nobel Peace Laureate, Muslim and human rights activist Dr Shirin Ebadi has spoken out against undemocratic Islamic countries justifying "oppressive acts" in the name of Islam. Speaking at the Earth Dialogues 2006 conference in Brisbane, Dr Ebadi said her native Iran as well as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Yemen "among others" were guilty of human rights violations. "In these countries, Islamic rulers want to solve 21st century issues with laws belonging to 14 centuries ago," she said. "Their views of human rights are exactly the same as it was 1400 years ago."

Image File history File links Portal. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... John Ebenezer Esslemont (1874-1925), was a prominent British Baháí from Scotland. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ...

References

  • Saint Augustine; The Confessions of Saint Augustine (John K. Ryan translator); Image (1960), ISBN 0-385-02955-1.
  • Descartes, René; Meditations on First Philosophy; Bobbs-Merril (1960), ISBN 0-672-60191-5.
  • Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); Our Oriental Heritage; MJF Books (1997), ISBN 1-56731-012-5.
  • Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); Caesar and Christ; MJF Books (1994), ISBN 1-56731-014-1
  • Durant, Will (& Ariel (uncredited)); The Age of Faith; Simon & Schuster (1980), ISBN 0-671-01200-2.
  • Gonick, Larry; The Cartoon History of the Universe; Doubleday, vol. 1 (1978) ISBN 0-385-26520-4, vol. II (1994) ISBN#0-385-42093-5, W. W. Norton, vol. III (2002) ISBN 0-393-05184-6.
  • Haisch, Bernard The God Theory: Universes, Zero-point Fields, and What's Behind It All -- discussion of science vs. religion (Preface), Red Wheel/Weiser, 2006, ISBN 1-57863-374-5
  • Lao Tzu; Tao Te Ching (Victor H. Mair translator); Bantam (1998).
  • Marx, Karl; "Introduction to A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right", Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, (1844).
  • Saler, Benson; "Conceptualizing Religion: Immanent Anthropologists, Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories" (1990), ISBN 1-57181-219-9
  • The Holy Bible, King James Version; New American Library (1974).
  • The Koran; Penguin (2000), ISBN 0-14-044558-7.
  • The Origin of Live & Death, African Creation Myths; Heinemann (1966).
  • Poems of Heaven and Hell from Ancient Mesopotamia; Penguin (1971).
  • The World Almanac (annual), World Almanac Books, ISBN 0-88687-964-7.
  • The Serotonin System and Spiritual Experiences - American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1965-1969, November 2003.
  • United States Constitution
  • "Selected Works" Marcus Tullius Cicero
  • The World Almanac (for numbers of adherents of various religions), 2005
  • Religion [First Edition]. Winston King. Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 11. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. p7692-7701.
  • World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective by Andrey Korotayev, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7734-6310-0.

Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Religion (4894 words)
In so far as the Romans had a religion of their own, it was not based on any central belief, but on a mixture of fragmented rituals, taboos, superstitions, and traditions which they collected over the years from a number of sources.
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Christianity is often portrayed as the religion of the poor and the slaves.
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Religion is the human response to being alive and having to die.
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Religion did not exist for the saving of souls but for the preservation and welfare of society, and in all that was necessary to this end every man had to take his part, or break with the domestic and political community to which he belonged.
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