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Encyclopedia > Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne d'Arc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933
Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne d'Arc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933

Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars") or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. In industrialised countries, nearly all concrete used in construction is reinforced concrete. Download high resolution version (512x768, 69 KB)Sainte Jeanne dArc Church Photograph available under GFDL license. ... Download high resolution version (512x768, 69 KB)Sainte Jeanne dArc Church Photograph available under GFDL license. ... Sainte Jeanne dArc at night Sainte Jeanne dArc is a Catholic church located in Nice, France noticeable for its original architecture. ... This article is about the construction material. ... A tied rebar beam cage. ... A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ...

Contents

History

The use of reinforced concrete is a relatively recent invention, usually attributed to Joseph-Louis Lambot in 1848. Joseph Monier, a French gardener, patented a design for reinforced garden tubs in 1867, and later patented reinforced concrete beams and posts for railway and road guardrails. Joseph-Louis Lambot (born May 22, 1814 in Montfort sur Argens died August 2, 1887 in Brignoles), is the inventor of ferro-cement, which led to the development of what is now known as reinforced concrete. ... ... Joseph Monier Joseph Monier (November 8, 1823, Saint-Quentin-de-Poterie, France—March 13, 1906, Paris) was a French gardener and one of the principal inventors of reinforced concrete. ... See also: 1866 in architecture, other events of 1867, 1868 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ...


Early reinforced concrete remained a patented rather than generic product, with different firms developing competing systems. The German company Wayss & Freitag was formed in 1875, with A.G. Wayss publishing a book on reinforced concrete in 1887. Their major competitor in Europe was the firm of Francois Hennebique, set up in 1892. Hennebique completed over 7,000 structures in reinforced concrete within his firm's first ten years.[1] See also: 1874 in architecture, other events of 1875, 1876 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... See also: 1886 in architecture, other events of 1887, 1888 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... Châtellerault bridge, bottom of picture François Hennebique (April 26, 1842 – March, 1921) was a French engineer and self-educated builder who patented his pioneering reinforced-concrete construction system in 1892. ... See also: 1891 in architecture, other events of 1892, 1893 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ...


A reinforced concrete system was patented in the United States by Thaddeus Hyatt in 1878. The first reinforced concrete building constructed in the United States was the Pacific Coast Borax Company's refinery in Alameda, California, built in 1893. See also: 1877 in architecture, other events of 1878, 1879 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ... The Pacific Coast Borax Company was founded in 1890 by the American borax magnate Francis Marion Smith. ... Nickname: Location in the state of California and Alameda County Coordinates: , Country State County Alameda Government  - Mayor Beverly Johnson (D) Area  - Total 23. ... See also: 1892 in architecture, other events of 1893, 1894 in architecture and the architecture timeline. ...


The major developments of reinforced concrete have taken place since the year 1900; and from the late 20th century, engineers have developed sufficient confidence in a new method of reinforcing concrete, called prestressed concrete, to make routine use of it. Traditional reinforced concrete is based on the use of steel reinforcement bars, rebar, inside poured concrete. ...


Use in construction

Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many concrete buildings would not have been possible.


Reinforced concrete can encompass many types of structures and components, including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames and more. Look up Slab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Slab can refer to: Slab (computer science) - a unit of storage unique to the NCR 315. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ... Framing is a term used to describe the process of erecting a framed structure, usually out of wood or occasionally steel. ...


Reinforced concrete can be classified as precast concrete and cast in-situ concrete. A precast concrete walled house in construction Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or form and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place. ...


Much of the focus on reinforcing concrete is placed on floor systems. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures. Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building. A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ...


Behaviour of reinforced concrete

Materials

Tied rebar
Tied rebar
Reinforced concrete street light pole. Concrete poles are less expensive than traditional steel or aluminium poles and may outlast them.
Reinforced concrete street light pole. Concrete poles are less expensive than traditional steel or aluminium poles and may outlast them.

Concrete is a mixture of cement (usually Portland cement) and stone aggregate. When mixed with a small amount of water, the cement hydrates to form a microscopic opaque crystal lattice structure encapsulating and locking the aggregate into its rigid structure. Typical concrete mixes have high resistance to compressive stresses (about 4,000 psi (27.5 MPa)); however, any appreciable tension (e.g. due to bending) will break the microscopic rigid lattice resulting in cracking and separation of the concrete. For this reason, typical non-reinforced concrete must be well supported to prevent the development of tension. Tied rebar This is my own photo, and I release it to public domain Zeizmic 20:09 26 May 2003 (UTC) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Tied rebar This is my own photo, and I release it to public domain Zeizmic 20:09 26 May 2003 (UTC) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A tied rebar beam cage. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (320x602, 341 KB) Summary Ossworks, Street light made from reinforced concrete. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (320x602, 341 KB) Summary Ossworks, Street light made from reinforced concrete. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Figure 1. ...


If a material with high strength in tension, such as steel, is placed in concrete, then the composite material, reinforced concrete, resists compression but also bending, and other direct tensile actions. A reinforced concrete section where the concrete resists the compression and steel resists the tension can be made into almost any shape and size for the construction industry. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Depending on the type of concrete mix and steel employed, reinforced concrete structures can support 300 to 500 times their combined weight and behave, according to general mechanics, as a single structural entity. Although concrete and steel would appear to have a weight disadvantage, this support ratio is competitive with student balsa-wood bridges.


Key characteristics

Three physical characteristics give reinforced concrete its special properties. First, the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction. Second, when the cement paste within the concrete hardens this conforms to the surface details of the steel, permitting any stress to be transmitted efficiently between the different materials. Usually steel bars are roughened or corrugated to further improve the bond or cohesion between the concrete and steel. Third, the alkaline chemical environment provided by calcium carbonate (lime) causes a passivating film to form on the surface of the steel, making it much more resistant to corrosion than it would be in neutral or acidic conditions. During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


The reinforcing bars are generally sufficiently well-bonded to the concrete to resist most tension forces. However, where this is not the case, anchorage of the steel can be increased by bending the steel, for example into a 90 degree bend or 180 degree hook.


In some structural members where a small cross-section is desired, steel may be used to carry some of the compressive load as well as tensile load. This occurs, for example, in columns. In general, beams and slabs have reinforcing steel on all faces, whether or not they are in tension, as this helps to tie the concrete together and prevents cracking from other causes, such as the early thermal shrinkage which occurs as the concrete cures. In the case of continuous beams where the tensile stress alternates between top and bottom of the member, multiple runs (layers) of steel may be used or the steel may be bent into a zig-zag shape within the beam.


The relative cross-sectional area of steel required for typical reinforced concrete is usually quite small and varies from 1% for most beams and slabs to 6% for some columns. Reinforcing bars are normally round in cross-section and vary in diameter (see rebar for more information). In the United States, rebar comes in two grades of carbon content, Grade 60 and Grade 40, which typically sell for the same price. Grade 60 has a higher carbon content and, therefore, a higher tensile strength, but its stiffness can make it difficult to bend and cut. Galvanised, epoxy-coated, and stainless steel rebar are also available for use in corrosive environments. This article is about the physical quantity. ... Galvanization, named after the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani, was originally the administration of electric shocks (in the 19th century also termed Faradism, after Michael Faraday). ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Reinforced concrete structures sometimes have provisions such as ventilated hollow cores to control their moisture & humidity.


Anti-corrosion measures

In wet and cold climates, reinforced concrete for roads, bridges, parking structures and other structures that may be exposed to deicing salt may benefit from use of epoxy-coated, hot dip galvanised or stainless steel rebar, although good design and a well-chosen cement mix may provide sufficient protection for many applications. Epoxy coated rebar can easily be identified by the light green colour of its epoxy coating. Hot dip galvanized rebar may be bright or dull grey depending on length of exposure, and stainless rebar exhibits a typical white metallic sheen that is readily distinguishable from carbon steel reinforcing bar. Reference ASTM standard specifications A767 Standard Specification for Hot Dip Galvanised Reinforcing Bars, A775 Standard Specification for Epoxy Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars and A955 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Bars for Concrete Reinforcment An American Airlines MD-80 aircraft being de-iced at Syracuse Hancock International Airport De-icing is the process of removing ice from a surface. ...


Penetrating sealants typically must be applied some time after curing. Sealants include paint, plastic foams, films and aluminum foil, felts or fabric mats sealed with tar, and layers of bentonite clay, sometimes used to seal roadbeds. Aluminium foil (aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of . ... Bentonite - USGS Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. ...


Common failure modes of steel reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete can fail due to inadequate strength, leading to mechanical failure, or due to a reduction in its durability. Corrosion and freeze/thaw cycles may damage poorly designed or constructed reinforced concrete. When rebar corrodes, the oxidation products (rust) expand and tends to flake, cracking the concrete and unbonding the rebar from the concrete. Typical mechanisms leading to durability problems are discussed below. For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ...


Mechanical failure

Reinforced concrete can be considered to fail when the concrete cracks, creating defects which can allow moisture to penetrate and corrode the reinforcement. This is a serviceability failure in limit state design. Cracking is normally the result of an inadequate quantity of rebar, or rebar spaced at too great a distance. The concrete then cracks either under excess loading, or due to internal effects such as early thermal shrinkage when it cures. Limit state design (LSD) refers to a design methodology used in structural engineering. ... Limit state design (LSD) refers to a design methodology used in structural engineering. ...


Ultimate failure leading to collapse can be caused by crushing of the concrete matrix, when stresses exceed its strength; by yielding of the rebar; or by bond failure between the concrete and the rebar. Yield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at which a material begins to plastically deform. ...


Carbonatation / Carbonation

Rebar for foundations and walls of sewage pump station.
Rebar for foundations and walls of sewage pump station.

The water in the pores of the cement is normally alkaline. This alkaline environment is one in which the steel is passive and does not corrode. According to the pourbaix diagram for iron, the metal is passive when pH is above 9.5.[2] The carbon dioxide from the air reacts with the alkali in the cement and makes the pore water more acidic, thus lowering the pH. Carbon dioxide will start to carbonate the cement in the concrete from the moment the object is made. This carbonatation process (in Britain, called carbonation) will start at the surface, then slowly move deeper and deeper into the concrete. If the object is cracked, the carbon dioxide of the air will be better able to penetrate into the concrete. When designing a concrete structure, it is normal to state the concrete cover for the rebar (the depth within the object that the rebar will be). The minimum concrete cover is normally regulated by design or building codes. If the reinforcement is too close to the surface, early failure due to corrosion may occur. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 628 KB) Closeup of rebar placement at South River Pump Station, West Sacramento, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 628 KB) Closeup of rebar placement at South River Pump Station, West Sacramento, California. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Passive has several meanings: In grammar it describes a grammatical voice. ... A Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Carbonatation is the process used in the production of sugar crystals from sugar beets, whereby raw beet juice is mingled with milk of lime and carbon dioxide gas in carbonation tanks. ... Concrete cover is the region between the exposed concrete surface and the nearest surface of the reinforcing bar, in reinforced concrete members. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ...


One method of testing a structure for carbonatation is to drill a fresh hole in the surface and then treat the surface with phenolphthalein. This will turn pink when in contact with alkaline cement, making it possible to see the depth of carbonatation. An existing hole is no good because the exposed surface will already be carbonated. For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Phenolphthalein is a sensitive chemical with the formula C20H14O4 (often written as HIn in shorthand notation). ... This article is about the color. ...


Chlorides

The Paulins Kill Viaduct, Hainesburg, New Jersey, is 115 feet (35 m) tall and 1,100 feet (335 m) long, and was heralded as the largest reinforced concrete structure in the world when it was completed in 1910 as part of the Lackawanna Cut-Off rail line project. The Lackawanna Railroad was a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete
The Paulins Kill Viaduct, Hainesburg, New Jersey, is 115 feet (35 m) tall and 1,100 feet (335 m) long, and was heralded as the largest reinforced concrete structure in the world when it was completed in 1910 as part of the Lackawanna Cut-Off rail line project. The Lackawanna Railroad was a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete

Chlorides, including sodium chloride, promote the corrosion of steel rebar. For this reason, in mixing concrete only water, cement and aggregates with a low chloride content may be used, and the use of salt for deicing concrete pavements is avoided where possible. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1798 KB) Paulins Kill Viaduct on the Lackawanna Cut-Off in Haineburg, NJ. October 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1798 KB) Paulins Kill Viaduct on the Lackawanna Cut-Off in Haineburg, NJ. October 2006. ... The Paulinskill Viaduct, also known as the Hainesburg Viaduct, is a railroad bridge which crosses the Paulins Kill in Knowlton Township, New Jersey. ... The Paulinskill Viaduct as it appears today on the Lackawanna Cut-Off. ... Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad External links DL&W pages by the Erie Lackawanna Historical Society Employees Thomas Patrick Norton 1906 to 1960, Hoboken Terminus, Yardmaster Categories: Stub | Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Alkali silica reaction

For Full Article, See: Alkali Silica Reaction Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) is a reaction between reactive silica (in the concrete aggregates) and an alkali (usually present in the cement), which results in the formation of a gel. ...


This is found when the cement is too alkaline, due to a reaction of the silica in the aggregates with the alkali. The silica (SiO2) reacts with the alkali to form a silicate in the Alkali silica reaction (ASR), this causes localised swelling which causes cracking. The conditions for alkali silica reaction are: (1) aggregate containing an alkali reactive constituent, (2) sufficiently high alkalinity, and (3) sufficient moisture, above 75%RH within the concrete. [3][4] This phenomenon has been popularly referred to as "concrete cancer". The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Concrete Cancer represents a theory describing the weakening of concrete structures with age. ...


Conversion of high alumina cement

Resistant to weak acids and especially sulfates, this cement cures quickly and reaches very high durability and strength. It was greatly used after World War II for making precast concrete objects. However, it can lose strength with heat or time (conversion), especially when not properly cured. With the collapse of three roofs made of prestressed concrete beams using high alumina cement, this cement was banned in the UK in 1976. Subsequent inquiries into the matter showed that the beams were improperly manufactured, but the ban remained.[5] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ...


Sulfates

Sulfates in soil or groundwater can react with Portland cement causing expansive products, e.g ettringite or thaumasite, which can lead to early failure. Sulfate is the IUPAC name for the SO42- ion, consisting of a central sulfur atom single bonded to four tetrahedrally oriented oxygen atoms. ... Ettringite is Hexacalcium Aluminate Trisulfate, (CaO)6(Al2O3)(SO3)3. ... Thaumasite from Virginia Thaumasite is a silicate mineral with an unusual composition, Ca3Si(CO3)(SO4)(OH)6·12(H2O). ...


Fiber-reinforced concrete

Fiber-reinforcement is mainly used in shotcrete, but can also be used in normal concrete. Fiber-reinforced normal concrete are mostly used for on-ground floors and pavements, but can be considered for a wide range of construction parts (beams, pilars, foundations etc) either alone or with hand-tied rebars. The concept of using fibers in concrete as reinforcement is not new. ... Shotcrete and gunite are two commonly used terms for sprayed concrete. ...


Concrete reinforced with fibers (which are usually steel, glass or "plastic" fibers) is less expensive than hand-tied rebar, while still increasing the tensile strength many times. Shape, dimension and length of fiber is important. A thin and short fiber, for example short hair-shaped glass fiber, will only be effective the first hours after pouring the concrete (reduces cracking while the concrete is stiffening) but will not increase the concrete tensile strength. A normal size fibre for European shotcrete (1 mm diameter, 45 mm length—steel or "plastic") will increase the concrete tensile strength. This article is about the material. ... Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) is a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres usually of glass, carbon, or aramid (and in the case of Duroplast even cotton or wool) and is commonly used in aerospace, automotive and marine industries. ...


Steel is the strongest commonly-available fiber, and come in different lengths (30 to 80 mm in Europe) and shapes (end-hooks). Steel fibres can only be used on surfaces that can tolerate or avoid corrosion and rust stains. In some cases, a steel-fiber surface is faced with other materials.


Glass fiber is inexpensive and corrosion-proof, but not as ductile as steel. Recently, spun basalt fiber, long available in Eastern Europe, has become available in the U.S. and Western Europe. Basalt fibre is stronger and less expensive than glass, but historically, has not resisted the alkaline environment of portland cement well enough to be used as direct reinforcement. New materials use plastic binders to isolate the basalt fiber from the cement. Basalt fiber or fibre is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ...


The premium fibers are graphite reinforced plastic fibers, which are nearly as strong as steel, lighter-weight and corrosion-proof. Some experimeters have had promising early results with carbon nanotubes, but the material is still far too expensive for any building. For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ...


Non-steel reinforcement

Some construction cannot tolerate the use of steel. For example, MRI machines have huge magnets, and require nonmagnetic buildings. Another example are toll-booths that read radio tags, and need reinforced concrete that is transparent to radio. The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ...


In some instances, the lifetime of the concrete structure is more important than its strength. Since corrosion is the main cause of failure of reinforced concrete, a corrosion-proof reinforcement can extend a structure's life substantially.


For these purposes some structures have been constructed using fiber-reinforced plastic rebar, grids or fibers. The "plastic" reinforcement can be as strong as steel. Because it resists corrosion, it does not need a protective concrete cover of 30 to 50 mm or more as steel reinforcement does. This means that FRP-reinforced structures can be lighter, have longer lifetime and for some applications be price-competitive to steel-reinforced concrete. Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) is a composite material comprising a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres usually of glass, carbon, or aramid (and in the case of Duroplast even cotton or wool) and is commonly used in aerospace, automotive and marine industries. ...


The main barrier to use of FRP reinforcement is the fact that it is neither ductile nor fire resistant. Structures employing FRP rebars may therefore exhibit a less ductile structural response, and decreased fire resistance. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


However, the addition of short monofilament polypropylene fibres to the concrete during mixing may have the beneficial effect of reducing spalling during a fire. In a severe fire, such as the Channel Tunnel fire, conventionally reinforced concrete can suffer severe spalling leading to failure. This is in part due to the pore water remaining within the concrete boiling explosively; the steam pressure then causes the spalling. The action of fibres within the concrete is due to their ability to melt, forming pathways out through the concrete, allowing the steam pressure to dissipate. Very high speed photography of a small projectile impacting a thin aluminium plate at 7000 m/s. ... The Channel Tunnel fire of 18 November 1996 occurred on a train carrying heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers through the Channel Tunnel from France to Britain. ...


References

  1. ^ Billington, David P.: "The Tower and the Bridge", Princeton University Press, 1983
  2. ^ Pourbaix diagram of iron
  3. ^ BBC - h2g2 - Concrete Cancer
  4. ^ http://www.cementindustry.co.uk/main.asp?page=272
  5. ^ http://www.quest-tech.co.uk/hac.htm

See also

Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Panelized ceiling slab forming system with temporary support structures on a university dorm project. ... A precast concrete walled house in construction Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or form and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place. ... Traditional reinforced concrete is based on the use of steel reinforcement bars, rebar, inside poured concrete. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... A tie rod is a slender structural rod used as a tie and capable of carrying tensile loads only. ... A steel fixer is a tradesman who positions and secures steel reinforcing bars, also known as rebar and steel mesh used in reinforced concrete on construction projects. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reinforced concrete - definition of Reinforced concrete in Encyclopedia (747 words)
Reinforced concrete is plain concrete in which steel reinforcement rods or bars ("rebars") have been incorporated to strengthen the naturally brittle concrete.
The use of reinforced concrete is a relatively recent invention, usually being considered as covering the last 150 years, and its accidental discovery is commonly ascribed to a Parisian gardener named Monier in about the year 1860.
Reinforcing bars are round and vary by eighths of an inch from 0.25" to 1" in diameter (in Europe from 8 to 30 mm in steps of 2 mm).
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Reinforced concrete (1065 words)
Reinforced concrete (Ferro concrete) is plain concrete in which steel reinforcement rods or bars ("rebars") have been incorporated to strengthen the naturally brittle concrete.
Firstly, the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is very nearly identical to that of steel, preventing internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction.
In wet and freezing climates, reinforced concrete for roads, bridges, parking structures and other structures that may be exposed to deicing salt require epoxy-coated rebar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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