FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Reincarnation" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Reincarnation

Reincarnation, literally "to be made flesh again", is a doctrine or metaphysical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. This essential part is often referred to as the Spirit or Soul, the 'Higher or True Self', 'Divine Spark', 'I' or the 'Ego' (not to be confused with the ego as defined by psychology). According to such beliefs, a new personality is developed during each life in the physical world, but some part of the being remains constantly present throughout these successive lives as well.[1] Rinne ) is a 2005 J-Horror film. ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... Past Lives is a live album released in 2002 by Black Sabbath. ... Suzanne Weyn is an American author, born in Flushing, New York on July 6, 1955. ... Reincarnation is a 2008 fantasy novel by American author Suzanne Weyn. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses of ego and id, see EGO and ID. The ego is not sharply separated from the id; its lower portion merges into it. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...


Belief in reincarnation is an ancient phenomenon. This doctrine is a central tenet within the majority of Indian religious traditions, such as Hinduism (including Yoga, Vaishnavism, and Shaivism), Jainism, and Sikhism. The idea was also entertained by some Ancient Greek philosophers. Many modern Pagans also believe in reincarnation as do some New Age movements, along with followers of Spiritism, practitioners of certain African traditions, and students of esoteric philosophies such as Kabbalah, Sufism and Gnostic and Esoteric Christianity. The Buddhist concept of Rebirth although often referred to as reincarnation differs significantly from the Hindu-based traditions and New Age movements in that there is no "self" (or eternal soul) to reincarnate. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... In fashion then as of a snow-white rose Displayed itself to me the saintly host, Whom Christ in his own blood had made his bride - The Divine Comedy, Paradiso, Canto XXXI “Esoteric Christianity” is a term which refers to an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... According to Buddhism, there is a cycle of death and rebirth that can be transcended by the practice of the Eightfold Path. ...


During recent decades, a significant minority of people in the West have developed a belief in reincarnation.[2] Feature films, such as Kundun and Birth, contemporary books by authors such as Carol Bowman and Vicki Mackenzie, as well as popular songs, regularly mention reincarnation. Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... Birth is a 2004 film directed by Jonathan Glazer and starring Nicole Kidman, Lauren Bacall, Danny Huston and Cameron Bright. ... Childrens Past Lives: How Past Life Memories Affect Your Child is a 1997 book by Carol Bowman. ... Vicki Mackenzie, an author and journalist, was born in Britain and spent much of her early life in Australia. ...


Some researchers, such as Professor Ian Stevenson, have explored the issue of reincarnation and published suggestive evidence. Some skeptics are critical of this work and others say that more reincarnation research is needed.[3] Ian Pretyman Stevenson, M.D., (born October 31, 1918, in Montreal, Canada, died February 8, 2007, in Charlottesville, Virginia), was a Canadian-American psychiatrist whose research interests included: children who claim to remember previous lives, near-death experiences, apparitions (death-bed visions), the mind-brain problem, and possible survival of... Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation is a book written by Ian Stevenson Categories: Substubs ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ...

Contents

Eastern religions and traditions

Eastern philosophical and religious beliefs regarding the existence or non-existence of an enduring 'self' have a direct bearing on how reincarnation is viewed within a given tradition. There are large differences in philosophical beliefs regarding the nature of the soul (also known as the jiva or atman) amongst the Dharmic Religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Some schools deny the existence of a 'self', while others claim the existence of an eternal, personal self, and still others say there is neither self or no-self, as both are false. Each of these beliefs has a direct bearing on the possible nature of reincarnation, including such concepts as samsara, moksha, nirvana, and bhakti. In philosophy, the self is the idea of a unified being which is the source of an idiosyncratic conciousness. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...


Hinduism

In India the concept of reincarnation is first recorded in the Upanishads[4] (c. 800 BCE), which are philosophical and religious texts composed in Sanskrit. In most Indian philosophical traditions, including the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikhism and Jain systems, an ongoing cycle of birth, death, and rebirth is assumed as a fact of nature. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


According to Hinduism, the soul (atman) is immortal, while the body is subject to birth and death. The Bhagavad Gita states that: Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

Worn-out garments are shed by the body; Worn-out bodies are shed by the dweller within the body. New bodies are donned by the dweller, like garments.[5]

The idea that the soul (of any living being - including animals, humans and plants) reincarnates is intricately linked to karma, another concept first introduced in the Upanishads. Karma (literally: action) is the sum of one's actions, and the force that determines one's next reincarnation. The cycle of death and rebirth, governed by karma, is referred to as samsara. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ...


Hinduism teaches that the soul goes on repeatedly being born and dying. One is reborn on account of desire: a person desires to be born because he or she wants to enjoy worldly pleasures, which can be enjoyed only through a body.[6] Hinduism does not teach that all worldly pleasures are sinful, but it teaches that they can never bring deep, lasting happiness or peace (ānanda). According to the Hindu sage Adi Shankaracharya - the world as we ordinarily understand it - is like a dream: fleeting and illusory. To be trapped in Samsara is a result of ignorance of the true nature of being. Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth...


After many births, every person eventually becomes dissatisfied with the limited happiness that worldly pleasures can bring. At this point, a person begins to seek higher forms of happiness, which can be attained only through spiritual experience. When, after much spiritual practice (sādhanā), a person finally realizes his or her own divine nature—ie., realizes that the true "self" is the immortal soul rather than the body or the ego—all desires for the pleasures of the world will vanish, since they will seem insipid compared to spiritual ānanda. When all desire has vanished, the person will not be reborn anymore.[7] A Sadhana is a ritualistic meditation practice from Hindu and Buddhist spiritual traditions which is followed in order to achieve a form of spiritual purification or enlightenment. ...


When the cycle of rebirth thus comes to an end, a person is said to have attained moksha, or salvation.[8] While all schools of thought agree that moksha implies the cessation of worldly desires and freedom from the cycle of birth and death, the exact definition of salvation depends on individual beliefs. For example, followers of the Advaita Vedanta school (often associated with jnana yoga) believe that they will spend eternity absorbed in the perfect peace and happiness that comes with the realization that all existence is One (Brahman), and that the immortal soul is part of that existence. The followers of full or partial Dvaita schools ("dualistic" schools, such as bhakti yoga), on the other hand, perform their worship with the goal of spending eternity in a loka, (spiritual world or heaven), in the blessed company of the Supreme being (i.e Krishna or Vishnu for the Vaishnavas, Shiva for the Shaivites). [9] For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Jnana yoga is one of the four basic paths in yoga (jnana, [[Bhakti yoga|bhakti, raja and karma. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Bhakti yoga is the Hindu term for the spiritual practice of fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, or supraphysical world) is a theoretical region of space and/or consciousness beyond the known physical universe, or the region containing the universe itself. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars (i. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ...


Jainism

In Jainism, particular reference is given to how devas (gods) also reincarnate after they die. A Jainist who accumulates enough good karma may become a deva, but this is generally seen as undesirable since devas eventually die and one might then come back as a lesser being. This belief is also exists in a number of other schools of Hinduism.[10] Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ...


Sikhism

In Sikhism reincarnation is a central tenet.[11] The Sikhs believe that the Soul has to transmigrate from one body to another as part of an evolution process of the Soul. This evolution of the Soul will eventually result in a union with God upon the proper purification of the spirit. If one does not perform righteous deeds, one's soul will continue to cycle in reincarnation forever. A being who has performed good deeds and actions in his or her life is transmigrated to a better and higher life form in the next life until the soul of the being becomes Godlike. From a human life form, if one performs the proper functions of a Gurmukh, the person can achieve salvation with God. One must cleanse the soul by reciting Naam, by remembrance of Waheguru and by following the path of Gurmat. [12] Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Gurmukh literally means To face the Guru. ... The term Nām refers to the act of worship of God by Hindus and is also adopted by Sikhs. ... Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... GURMAT (gur-mat, mat, Sanskrit mati, i. ...


Buddhism

Main article: Rebirth (Buddhism)

The Buddha taught a concept of rebirth that was distinct from that of any Indian teacher contemporary with him. This concept was consistent with the common notion of a sequence of related lives stretching over a very long time, but was constrained by two core Buddhist concepts: anattā, that there is no irreducible ātman or "self" tying these lives together; and anicca, that all compounded things are subject to dissolution, including all the components of the human person and personality. At the death of one personality, a new one comes into being, much as the flame of a dying candle can serve to light the flame of another.[13][14] Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... The Buddhist doctrine of Anatta (Pāli) or Anātman (Sanskrit) specifies the absence of a permanent and unchanging self or soul (ātman). ... Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ... Impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya; Pali anicca; Tibetan: mi rtag pa; Chinese: 無常, wúcháng; Japanese: mujō) is one of the essential doctrines or the three marks of Buddhism. ...


Since according to Buddhism there is no permanent and unchanging self (identify) there can be no transmigration in the strict sense. However, the Buddha himself referred to his past-lives. Buddhism teaches that what is reborn is not the person but that one moment gives rise to another and that that momentum continues, even after death. It is a more subtle concept than the usual notion of reincarnation, reflecting the Buddhist concept of personality existing (even within one's lifetime) without a "soul". In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... Transmigration can has several meanings: Transmigration of the soul is a common term for reincarnation. ...


Buddhism never rejected samsara, the process of rebirth, but suggests that it occurs across six realms of beings. It is actually said to be very rare for a person to be reborn in the immediate next life as a human.[15] However, Tibetan Buddhists do believe that a new-born child may be the rebirth of some important departed lama. For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ...


Taoism

Taoist documents from as early as Han Dynasty stated that Lao Zi appeared on earth in different persons in different times beginning from the time of Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.[16] An important scripture of Taoism, the Chuang Tzu (4th century BC), states: "Birth is not a beginning; death is not an end. There is existence without limitation; there is continuity without a starting point. Existence without limitation is space. Continuity without a starting point is time. There is birth, there is death, there is issuing forth, there is entering in. That through which one passes in and out without seeing its form, that is the Portal of the Divine." (Zhuang Zi, 23) For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Lao Zi (Chinese 老子, also spelled Laozi, Lao Tzu, or Lao Tse) is a major figure in Chinese philosophy whose historical existence is debated. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... // The Person Zhuāng Zǐ (pinyin), Chuang Tzu (W-G), or Chuang Tse (Chinese 莊子, literally meaning Master Zhuang) was a famous philosopher in ancient China who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States Period, corresponding to the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical summit of Chinese thought. ...


Western Religions and Traditions

Classical Greek philosophy

Main article: Metempsychosis

Among the ancient Greeks, Socrates, Pythagoras, and Plato may be numbered among those who made reincarnation an integral part of their teachings. At the end of his life, Socrates said, "I am confident that there truly is such a thing as living again, and that the living spring from the dead." Pythagoras claimed he could remember his past lives, and Plato presented detailed accounts of reincarnation in his major works. [17] Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to the belief of transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


In the Hermetica, a Graeco-Egyptian series of writings on cosmology and spirituality attributed to Hermes Trismegistus/Thoth the doctrine of reincarnation is also central. Hermetica refers to a category of popular Late Antique literature purporting to contain secret wisdom, and generally attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. ... Hermes Trismegistus (Greek: , thrice-great Hermes; Latin: Mercurius ter Maximus) is the syncretism of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ...


Judaism

While ancient Greek philosophers like Plato and Socrates attempted to prove the existence of reincarnation through philosophical proofs, Jewish mystics who accepted this idea did not. Rather, they offered explanations of why reincarnation would solve otherwise intractable problems of theodicy (how to reconcile the existence of evil with the premise of a good God).[citation needed] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The idea of reincarnation, called gilgul, became popular in folk belief, and is found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews. Among a few kabbalists, it was posited that some human souls could end up being reincarnated into non-human bodies. These ideas were found in a number of Kabbalistic works from the 1200s, and also among many mystics in the late 1500s. Martin Buber's early collection of stories of the Baal Shem Tov's life includes several that refer to people reincarnating in successive lives.[18] Gilgulim neshamot (jewish concept of reincarnation) literally means circles of the souls (around lifes or incarnations to the body). ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Israeli-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as...


Among well known (generally non-kabbalist or anti-kabbalist) Rabbis who rejected the idea of reincarnation are the Saadia Gaon, Hasdai Crescas, Yedayah Bedershi (early 14th century), Joseph Albo, Abraham ibn Daud, the Rosh and Leon de Modena. The Saadia Gaon, in Emunoth ve-Deoth, concludes Section vi with a refutation of the doctrine of metempsychosis (reincarnation). While refuting reincarnation, the Saadia Gaon states that Jews who hold to reincarnation have adopted non-Jewish beliefs. Crescas writes that if reincarnation were real, people should remember details of their previous lives.[citation needed] Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Hasdai ben Abraham Crescas (c. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Abraham ben David was a Jewish, French commentator on the Talmud. ... Rosh is a Hebrew word used in a number of contexts: Rosh, a minor character in the Book of Genesis Rosh is a Hebrew word meaning head, beginning. The root letters (shoresh) of the word are Resh/Aleph/Shin. ... Leon de Modena or Yehudah Aryeh de Modena (1571-1648) was a Jewish scholar born in Venice of a notable French family which had migrated to Italy after the expulsion of the Jews from France. ... Emunoth ve-Deoth (אמונות ודעות; Hebrew: Beliefs and Opinions) written by Rabbi Saadia Gaon - originally Kitab al-Amanat wal-ltikadat (Book of the Articles of Faith and Doctrines of Dogma) - was the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism. ...


While many Jews today do not believe in reincarnation, the belief is common in Orthodox Judaism. Most Orthodox siddurim (prayerbooks) have a prayer asking for forgiveness for one's sins that one may have committed in this gilgul or a previous one.[19] Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... Gilgulim neshamot (jewish concept of reincarnation) literally means circles of the souls (around lifes or incarnations to the body). ...


Gnosticism

Many Gnostic groups believed in reincarnation. For them, reincarnation was a negative concept: Gnostics believed that the material body was evil, and that they would be better off if they could eventually avoid having their 'good' souls reincarnated in 'evil' bodies. [citation needed] Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Christianity

An illustration of the Rebirth (reincarnation) process, including the postmortem existence in the supraphysical realms (where the so-called dead live), from the perspective of the Christian esoteric teachings (western).

The overwhelming majority of mainstream Christian denominations reject the notion of reincarnation and consider the theory to challenge basic tenets of their beliefs. Many churches do not directly address the issue, but indirectly, through teachings about death (see Particular judgment). A few consider the matter open to individual interpretation due to the few biblical references which survived the purging of texts considered to be heretical in the founding years of Christianity as a church. New Age Chrisitians contend that reincarnation was taught by the early chrisitian church, but due to bias and mistranslations, these teachings were lost or obscured.[20] Most of the philosophies associated with the theory of reincarnation focus on "working" or "learning" through various lifetimes to achieve some sort of higher understanding or state of "goodness" before salvation is granted or acquired. Basic to Roman Catholicism is the doctrine that humans can never achieve the perfection God requires and the only salvation is total and complete forgiveness accomplished through the sacrifice Jesus made on the cross wherein he took the sins of mankind. There seems to be evidence however that some of the earliest Christian sects such as the Sethians and followers of the Gnostic Church of Valentinus believed in reincarnation, and they were persecuted by the Romans for this.[21] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 769 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 769 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... For other uses of the word plane, see plane. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Sethian is also a Finnish progressive metal band. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Valentinus can refer to: Pope Valentinus Saint Valentine Basil Valentinus, a 15th century monk from Erfurt who may have described Bismuth Valentinius, a Gnostic also known as Valentinus Roman emperors - Valentinian I (364 - 375) and Valentinian II (371 - 392) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists...


A number of Evangelical and (in the USA) Fundamentalist Christian groups have denounced any belief in reincarnation as heretical, and explained any phenomena suggestive of it as deceptions of the devil. Although the Bible never mentions the word reincarnation, there are several passages through New Testament that Orthodox Christians interpret as openly rejecting reincarnation or the possibility of any return or contact with this world for the souls in Heaven or Hell (see 9:27 and Luke 16:20-31) Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... The Inferno redirects here. ...


The Bible contains passages in the New Testament that could be interpreted to allude to reincarnation. In Matthew 11:10-14and 17:10-13, Jesus says that John the Baptist is the prophet Elijah who had lived centuries before, and he does not appear to be speaking metaphorically.[22] However, it should be noted that Elijah never actually "died," but was "raptured" in a chariot of fire. Furthermore, the prophetic texts stated that God would send Elijah back to Earth, as a harbinger of Jesus Christ. As cousins they were born respectively to barren Elizabeth [23] and Zacharias[24]; Jesus, firstborn of Mary and Joseph[25], was the first to rise from the dead visibly demonstrating his power over death [26].


There are various contemporary attempts to entwine Christianity and reincarnation. Geddes Macgregor, wrote a book called Reincarnation in Christianity : A New Vision of Rebirth in Christian Thought, Rudolf Steiner wrote Christianity as Mystical Fact and Tommaso Palamidessi wrote Memory of Past Lives and Its Technique which contains several methods which are supposed to help in obtaining memories from previous lives. [27] Rudolf Steiner. ... Tommaso Palamidessi (Pisa, February 16, 1915 – Rome, April 29, 1983) was an Italian esotericist. ...


Several Christian denominations which support reincarnation include the Christian Community, the Liberal Catholic Church, Unity Church, The Christian Spiritualist Movement, the Rosicrucian Fellowship and Lectorium Rosicrucianum. The Medieval heretical sect known variously as the Cathars or Albigensians who flourished in the Languedoc believed in Reincarnation, seeing each soul as a fallen angel born again and again into the world of Matter created by Lucibel (Lucifer). Only through a Gnostic 'Rebirth' in the Holy Spirit through Christ could the soul escape this process of successive existences and return to God.[citation needed] The Christian Community (German: Die Christengemeinschaft) is a worldwide Movement for Religious Renewal. ... The Liberal Catholic Church is a form of Christianity open to theosophical ideas. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity... The Rosicrucian Fellowship Emblem The Rosicrucian Fellowship - An International Association of Christian Mystics - was founded in 1909/11 by Max Heindel as herald of the Aquarian Age and with the aim of promulgating the Rosicrucian teachings of the Mystery School of the West, the invisible Rosicrucian Order (which, according to... The Lectorium Rosicrucianum is a worldwide school of Esoteric Christianity founded in 1935 by Dutch mystics Jan van Rijckenborgh, his brother Zwier Willem Leene and Catharose de Petri. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Albigensians A name that is usually used in reference to a later group of Cathari which was a religious movement of southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge...


Islam

Though mainstream Islam rejects the concept of reincarnation,[28] a number of sufi groups believe in reincarnation[29] claiming that this concept is mentioned in the Quran (Koran), the central religious text of Islam: Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...

"How can you deny God, when you were dead and God gave you life? Then God will cause you to die, and then revive you, and then you will be returned to God." (Quran 2:28)

Most Islamic authorities rejects this interpretation of the verse, claiming that it refers to the worldly human life and the consequent resurrection in the hereafter.[citation needed]


It is claimed by some sufi groups that the mystics and poets in the Islam tradition have celebrated this belief: Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...

"I died as mineral and became a plant,
I died as plant and rose to animal,
I died as animal and I was man.
Why should I fear?
When was I less by dying?" [30]

Modern Sufis who embrace the idea of reincarnation include Bawa Muhaiyadeen (see his To Die Before Death: The Sufi Way of Life) and Hazrat Inayat Khan.[31]


Reincarnation has also been used to reconcile the Quran's apparent identification of Miriam, the mother of Isa as the sister of Aaron and daughter of Amran, all of whom lived well before the first century CE.


Another verse of the Qur-an that may support the theory of reincarnation is: "Thou [God] makest the night to pass into the day and Thou makest the day to pass into the night, and Thou bringest forth the living from the dead and Thou bringest forth the dead from the living, and Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou pleasest without measure." (Quran 3:27)


Some verses of Quran that seem to discount repeated lives:

  • "From the (earth) did We Create you, and into it Shall We return you, And from it shall We Bring you out once again." (The Quran, 20:55).
  • "And Allah has produced you from the earth, Growing (gradually), And in the End He will return you Into the (earth), And raise you forth (Again at the Resurrection)." (The Quran, 71:17-18).
  • "Nor will they there Taste Death, except the first Death; and He will preserve Them from the Penalty Of the Blazing Fire." (The Quran, 44:56).
  • "Is it (the case) that We shall not die, except our first death, And that we Shall not be punished?' Verily this is The supreme achievement! For the like of this Let all strive, Who wish to strive." (The Quran, 37:58-61).

Native American Nations

Reincarnation is an intrinsic part of many Native American and Inuit traditions. In the now heavily Christian Polar North (now mainly parts of Greenland and Nunavut), the concept of reincarnation is enshrined in the Inuit language. The survival of the concept of reincarnation applies across these nations in varying degrees of integrity, as these countries are now sandwiched between Native and European traditions.[citation needed] Native Americans redirects here. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ...


Norse mythology

Sváfa holding the dying Helgi in their first incarnation of three.
Sváfa holding the dying Helgi in their first incarnation of three.

Reincarnation also appears in Norse mythology, in the Poetic Edda. The editor of the Poetic Edda says that Helgi Hjörvarðsson and his mistress, the valkyrie Sváfa, whose love story is told in the Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, were reborn as Helgi Hundingsbane and the valkyrie Sigrún. Helgi and Sigrún's love story is the matter of a part of the Völsunga saga and the lays Helgakviða Hundingsbana I and II. They were reborn a second time as Helgi Haddingjaskati and the valkyrie Kára, but unfortunately their story, Káruljóð, only survives in a probably modified form in the Hrómundar saga Gripssonar. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar (Lay of Helgi Hjörvarðsson) is an Eddic poem, found in the Codex Regius manuscript where it follows Helgakviða Hundingsbana I and precedes Helgakviða Hundingsbana II. The portion of text which constitutes the poem is unnamed in the manuscript and may never... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... Helgi, Sváfa and Sigarr. ... Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar (Lay of Helgi Hjörvarðsson) is an Eddic poem, found in the Codex Regius manuscript where it follows Helgakviða Hundingsbana I and precedes Helgakviða Hundingsbana II. The portion of text which constitutes the poem is unnamed in the manuscript and may never... Helgi Hundingsbane/Hundingsbani was a hero in the Norse sagas. ... In Norse mythology, Sigrún was a valkyrie. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... Helgi returns to Valhalla Helgi Hundingsbane was a hero in the Norse sagas, who appears in the Volsunga saga and in two lays in the Poetic Edda named Helgakviða Hundingsbana I and II. The Poetic Edda relates that Helgi and his mistress Sigrún were Helgi Hjörvarðsson... Helgi Haddingjaskati meaning Helgi the lord of the Haddingjar[1] was a legendary Norse hero of which only fragmentary accounts survive. ... Hrómundar saga Gripssonar or the The Saga of Hromund Gripsson is a legendary saga from Iceland. ...


The belief in reincarnation was probably commonplace among the Vikings since the annotator of the Poetic Edda wrote that people formerly used to believe in it, but that it was in his (Christian) time considered "old wife's folly":

Sigrun was early dead of sorrow and grief. It was believed in olden times that people were born again, but that is now called old wives' folly. Of Helgi and Sigrun it is said that they were born again; he became Helgi Haddingjaskati, and she Kara the daughter of Halfdan, as is told in the Lay of Kara, and she was a Valkyrie.[32]

Contemporary perspectives

Modern thinkers

During the Renaissance, a new flowering of public interest in reincarnation occurred. One of the prominent figures in the revival was Italy's leading philosopher and poet Giordano Bruno, who was ultimately sentenced to be burned at the stake by the Inquisition because of his teachings about reincarnation.[33] Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ...


During the classical period of German literature metempsychosis attracted much attention: Goethe played with the idea, and it was taken up more seriously by Lessing, who borrowed it from Charles Bonnet, and by Herder. It has been mentioned with respect by Hume and by Schopenhauer. “Goethe” redirects here. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Bonnet Charles Bonnet (March 13, 1720 – May 20, 1793), Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into Switzerland by the religious persecution in the 16th century. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ...


Irish poet and Nobel Laureate William Butler Yeats proposed a novel theory of reincarnation in his occult treatise A Vision. According to Yeats’ view reincarnation does not occur within a framework of linear time. Rather, all of a person’s past and future lives are happening at once, in an eternal now moment; and the decisions made in any of these lifetimes influence all of the other lives (and are influenced by them). William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... A Vision is a 1925 collection of poems by the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. ...


Anthroposophy

Reincarnation plays an important role in the ideas of Anthroposophy, a spiritual movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. Steiner described the human soul as gaining new experiences in every epoch and in a variety of races or nations. The unique personality, with its weaknesses and abilities, is not simply a reflection of the body's genetic heritage. Though Steiner described the incarnating soul as searching for and even preparing a familial lineage supportive of its future life, a person's character is also determined by his or her past lives. Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ... Rudolf Steiner. ...


Anthroposophy describes the present as being formed by a tension between the past and the future. Both influence our present destiny; there are events that occur due to our past, but there are also events that occur to prepare us rightly for the future. Between these two, there is space for human free will; we create our destiny, not only live it out, just as we build a house in which we then choose to live. Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ... For other uses, see Destiny (disambiguation). ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... For other uses, see Destiny (disambiguation). ...


Anthroposophy has developed various spiritual exercises that are intended to develop the capacity to discern past lives and the deeper nature of the human being. In addition, Steiner investigated the karmic relationships of many historical individuals, from Karl Marx to Julian the Apostate.[34]


Theosophy

Modern theosophy, which draws its inspiration from India, has taken reincarnation as a cardinal tenet; it is, according to a recent theosophical writer, "the master-key to modern problems," including heredity.[35]


Scientology

See also: Scientology beliefs and practices.

Past reincarnation, usually termed "past lives", is a key part of the principles and practices of the Church of Scientology. Scientologists believe that the human individual is actually an immortal thetan, or spiritual entity, that has fallen into a degraded state as a result of past-life experiences. Scientology auditing is intended to free the person of these past-life traumas and recover past-life memory, leading to a higher state of spiritual awareness. This idea is echoed in their highest fraternal religious order, the Sea Organization, whose motto is "Revenimus" or "We Come Back", and whose members sign a "billion-year contract" as a sign of commitment to that ideal. L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, does not use the word "reincarnation" to describe its beliefs, noting that: "The common definition of reincarnation has been altered from its original meaning. The word has come to mean 'to be born again in different life forms' whereas its actual definition is 'to be born again into the flesh of another body.' Scientology ascribes to this latter, original definition of reincarnation." [36] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... Scientology cross Symbol Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy In Scientology, the concept of thetan (pronounced THAY-tan) is similar to the concept of spirit or soul found in other belief systems. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Sea Org logo. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was the creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ...


The first writings in Scientology regarding past lives date from around 1951 and slightly earlier. In 1960, Hubbard published a book on past lives entitled Have You Lived Before This Life. In 1968 he wrote Mission Into Time, a report on a five-week sailing expedition to Sardinia, Sicily and Carthage to see if specific evidence could be found to substantiate L. Ron Hubbard's recall of incidents in his own past, centuries ago. Have You Lived Before This Life is a Scientology / Dianetics book published by L. Ron Hubbard in 1960. ...


Edgar Cayce

American mystic Edgar Cayce promoted the theory of both reincarnation and karma, but wherein they acted as instruments of a loving God as well as natural laws - the purpose being to teach us certain spiritual lessons. Animals are said to have undifferentiated, "group" souls rather than individuality and consciousness. Once the soul evolves through a succession of animal incarnations and achieves human status, it is not then reborn in animal form. Cayce's view arguably incorporates Theosophical teachings on spiritual evolution.[citation needed] Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


Seth and Jane Roberts

In a series of books purportedly dictated through the medium Jane Roberts, a discarnate entity called Seth said that both humans and animals reincarnate, after which they move on to other planes of existence. Seth said that time and space are "root assumptions" of the physical plane (i.e., they are essentially illusions) and that all lives are actually lived simultaneously in a "spacious present" which includes all past and future events. Man is a multi-dimensional being who has an inner self, an outer self, and a dreaming self (among others). With each new life, a new outer self is born, which then becomes part of the whole self once the life has ended. Photographs of Jane Roberts on the cover of her biography by Susan Watkins Jane Roberts (May 8, 1929 – September 5, 1984) was an American author, psychic and trance medium or spirit medium who channelled a personality named Seth. ...


Henry Ford

Henry Ford was convinced he had lived before, most recently as a soldier killed at the battle of Gettysburg. A quote from the San Francisco Examiner from August 26, 1928 described Ford's beliefs: Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since the late 19th Century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"I adopted the theory of Reincarnation when I was twenty-six. Religion offered nothing to the point. Even work could not give me complete satisfaction. Work is futile if we cannot utilise the experience we collect in one life in the next. When I discovered Reincarnation it was as if I had found a universal plan I realised that there was a chance to work out my ideas. Time was no longer limited. I was no longer a slave to the hands of the clock. Genius is experience. Some seem to think that it is a gift or talent, but it is the fruit of long experience in many lives. Some are older souls than others, and so they know more. The discovery of Reincarnation put my mind at ease. If you preserve a record of this conversation, write it so that it puts men’s minds at ease. I would like to communicate to others the calmness that the long view of life gives to us."

George S. Patton

General George S. Patton was a staunch believer in reincarnation and, along with many other members of his family, often claimed to have seen vivid, lifelike visions of his ancestors.[37] In particular, Patton believed he was a reincarnation of Carthaginian General Hannibal. [38] George Patton redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ...


The New Age movement

There are people who say they remember their past lives and use that knowledge to help them with their current lives; the belief in this kind of occurrence is central to the New Age movement.[39] Some of the people who remember, say they simply remember without any effort on their part. They simply "see" previous times and see themselves interacting with others, occasionally even different creatures besides people themselves.


Popular western culture

Reincarnation seems to have captured the imagination of many in the West, and the idea of reincarnation receives regular mention in feature films, popular books, and popular music. A great many feature films have made reference to reincarnation, and notable films include:[40] There is very little detailed information on the prevalence of reincarnation beliefs in the contemporary western world. ...

Many popular books have made reference to reincarnation. These include several books by Vicki Mackenzie and Carol Bowman, as well as others on the reference list below. Birth is a 2004 film directed by Jonathan Glazer and starring Nicole Kidman, Lauren Bacall, Danny Huston and Cameron Bright. ... Promotional poster for Dead Again Dead Again is a 1991 thriller film directed by Kenneth Branagh, starring Branagh and his then-wife Emma Thompson. ... DVD cover of Defending Your Life (1991) Defending Your Life is a 1991 comedy fantasy movie about the afterlife. ... Fluke poster Fluke was a 1995 motion picture release about a man who dies in a car crash caused by his business partner and whose soul enters the body of a dog. ... Karz is a 1980 Hindi film directed by Subhash Ghai. ... Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... Little Buddha is a 1993 movie by director Bernardo Bertolucci and starring Bridget Fonda and Keanu Reeves. ... Mahal (Devnagari: महल) is a 1949 Indian film directed by Kamal Amrohi and starring Ashok Kumar and Madhubala. ... Rinne ) is a 2005 J-Horror film. ... Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Paramount Pictures, 1984; see also 1984 in film) is the third feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... The Reincarnation of Peter Proud was a 1973 novel by Max Ehrlich, and a 1975 movie starring Michael Sarrazin, Jennifer ONeill and Margot Kidder. ... The Three Lives of Thomasina is a 1964 film by Walt Disney Pictures. ... DVD cover for What Dreams May Come What Dreams May Come is an Academy Award-winning 1998 dramatic film, starring Robin Williams, Cuba Gooding Jr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Happy New Year!!!. (Discuss) Om Shanti Om is a forthcoming movie directed by Farah Khan. ... Vicki Mackenzie, an author and journalist, was born in Britain and spent much of her early life in Australia. ... Childrens Past Lives: How Past Life Memories Affect Your Child is a 1997 book by Carol Bowman. ...


Notable popular songs or albums which refer to reincarnation include:

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the band. ... Roy Zimmerman is a guitarist, songwriter, and satirist, and the founder of the Southern California folk quartet The Foremen. ... Santana (originally the Santana Blues Band) is a flexible number of musicians accompanying Carlos Santana since the late 1960s. ... My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult (TKK) is an American electronic industrial band originally based out of Chicago, Illinois. ... Highwayman is a 1985 album by country supergroup The Highwaymen, comprising Kris Kristofferson, Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson. ... Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, and Waylon Jennings, on the cover of their album The Road Goes on Forever. ... Tommy is a given name that is the English diminutive of Thomas and could refer to: Tommy Atkins, nickname for a British soldier Thompson submachine gun, also known as the Tommy Gun Tommy (rock opera), by The Who Tommy (film), based on the rock opera Tommy (comics) is a former... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... The Indigo Girls are an American lesbian folk-rock duo, consisting of Amy Ray and Emily Saliers. ...

Scientific research

Thomas Huxley, the famous English biologist, thought that reincarnation was a plausible idea and discussed it in his book Evolution and Ethics and other Essays. The most detailed collections of personal reports in favor of reincarnation have been published by Professor Ian Stevenson, from the University of Virginia, in books such as Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation. Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... Ian Pretyman Stevenson, M.D., (born October 31, 1918, in Montreal, Canada, died February 8, 2007, in Charlottesville, Virginia), was a Canadian-American psychiatrist whose research interests included: children who claim to remember previous lives, near-death experiences, apparitions (death-bed visions), the mind-brain problem, and possible survival of... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation is a book written by Ian Stevenson Categories: Substubs ...


Stevenson spent over 40 years devoted to the study of children who have apparently spoken about a past life. In each case, Professor Stevenson methodically documented the child's statements. Then he identified the deceased person the child allegedly identified with, and verified the facts of the deceased person's life that matched the child's memory. He also matched birthmarks and birth defects to wounds and scars on the deceased, verified by medical records such as autopsy photographs.[41][42] This page deals with the cessation of life. ... A birthmark, also known as a Naevus, is a blemish on the skin formed before birth. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Medical records refer to records, either in paper or electronic form, of the results of medical tests, diagnoses and treatments for individuals. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ...


In a fairly typical case, a boy in Beirut spoke of being a 25-year-old mechanic, thrown to his death from a speeding car on a beach road. According to multiple witnesses, the boy provided the name of the driver, the exact location of the crash, the names of the mechanic's sisters and parents and cousins, and the people he went hunting with -- all of which turned out to match the life of a man who had died several years before the boy was born, and who had no apparent connection to the boy's family.[43]


Stevenson believed that his strict methods ruled out all possible "normal" explanations for the child’s memories. However, it should be noted that a significant majority of Professor Stevenson's reported cases of reincarnation originate in Eastern societies, where dominant religions often permit the concept of reincarnation. Following this type of criticism, Stevenson published a book on European cases suggestive of reincarnation.[44]


There are many people who have investigated reincarnation and come to the conclusion that it is a legitimate phenomenon, such as Peter Ramster, Dr. Brian Weiss, Dr. Walter Semkiw, and others, but their work is generally ignored by the scientific community. Professor Stevenson, in contrast, published dozens of papers in peer-reviewed journals.[45]


Some skeptics, such as Paul Edwards, have analyzed many of these accounts, and called them anecdotal.[46] Philosophers like Robert Almeder, having analyzed the criticisms of Edwards and others, suggest that the gist of these arguments can be summarized as "we all know it can't possibly be real, so therefore it isn't real" - an argument from lack of imagination.[47] Paul Edwards, born Paul Eisenstein, (September 2, 1923-December 9, 2004) was an Austrian-American moral philosopher. ... Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... The argument from ignorance, also known as argumentum ad ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance [1]) or argument by lack of imagination, is a logical fallacy in which it is claimed that a premise is true only because it has not been proven false, or that a premise is false only because...


The most obvious objection to reincarnation is that there is no evidence of a physical process by which a personality could survive death and travel to another body, and researchers such as Professor Stevenson recognize this limitation.[48]


Another fundamental objection is that most people simply do not remember previous lives, although it could be argued that only some, but not all, people reincarnate. Certainly the vast majority of cases investigated at the University of Virginia involved people who had met some sort of violent or untimely death.[49]


Some skeptics explain that claims of evidence for reincarnation originate from selective thinking and the psychological phenomena of false memories that often result from one's own belief system and basic fears, and thus cannot be counted as empirical evidence. But other skeptics, such as Dr Carl Sagan, see the need for more reincarnation research.[50] Selective thinking is the process by which one selects for favorable evidence in order to justify a belief, ignoring unfavorable evidence. ... For the novel, see False Memory (novel) It has been suggested that Synthetic memory be merged into this article or section. ... Empirical research is any activity that uses direct or indirect observation as its test of reality. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ...


See also

Spirituality Portal

Concepts Image File history File links EndlessKnot03d. ...

Themes For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Parturition redirects here. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to the belief of transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Xenoglossy is the ability to speak in a language which the individual has not learnt. ... There is very little detailed information on the prevalence of reincarnation beliefs in the contemporary western world. ...

Traditions A life review is a phenomenon widely reported in near-death experiences in which a person having died (though in a handful of cases also while alive) rapidly sees much or the totality of their life history in chronological sequence and in extreme detail. ... // Past Life Therapy (PLT) utilizing clinical hypnotherapy/ de-hypnosis claims to allow unconscious experiences from past life traumas or emotionally charged events to become fully conscious. ... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... This article is about the song; for the personal relationship, see soulmate Title of song: Soul Mate Artist: Funkadelic Title of album: Hardcore Jollies Year of first release: 1976 Trivia: Description of music: Complete tabs at [external site with complete tabs] Songwriters: George Clinton, Grace Cook (aka Eddie Hazel) Memorable... The Subtle body is a non-physical energy or psycho-spiritual body or bodies that all beings have, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings. ...

People Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... According to Buddhism, there is a cycle of death and rebirth that can be transcended by the practice of the Eightfold Path. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tulku is the reincarnation of a lama or other spiritually significant figure. ... Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... According to Edgar Cayce, a 20th century American mystic, Karma is the meeting of oneself in the present through thoughts and deeds from the past. ... In fashion then as of a snow-white rose Displayed itself to me the saintly host, Whom Christ in his own blood had made his bride - The Divine Comedy, Paradiso, Canto XXXI “Esoteric Christianity” is a term which refers to an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... In most Indian philosophical traditions, including the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikhism and Jain systems, an ongoing cycle of birth, death, and rebirth is assumed as a fact of nature. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Karma is a concept in Hinduism, based on the Vedas and Upanishads, which explains causality through a system where beneficial events are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful events from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a persons reincarnated lives. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Gilgul or gilgul neshamot or Gilgulim neshamot refers to the concept of reincarnation within the Kabbalah of Judaism. ... Ibbur (Hebrew: pregnancy or impregnation), is one of the transmigration forms of the soul and has similarities with Gilgul neshamot. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ...

Arthur Flowerdew was an Englishman who lived in the 20th century and whose unique recollections strongly suggest for some the existence of reincarnation. ... Richard James Allen (born 1960) is a contermporary Australian poet and dancer. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Theosophy and reincarnation
  2. ^ Popular psychology, belief in life after death and reincarnation in the Nordic countries, Western and Eastern EuropePDF (54.8 KiB)
  3. ^ Tucker, Jim B. (2005). Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children's Memories of Previous Lives, p.186.
  4. ^ See Śvetāśvatara Upanishad 5.11 and Kauśītāki Upanishad 1.2.
  5. ^ Bhagavad Gita II.22, ISBN 1-56619-670-1
  6. ^ See Bhagavad Gita XVI.8-20
  7. ^ Rinehart, Robin, ed., Contemporary Hinduism19-21 (2004) ISBN 1-57607-905-8
  8. ^ Karel Werner, A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism 110 (Curzon Press 1994) ISBN 0-7007-0279-2
  9. ^ Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, Translation by Swami Nikhilananda (8th Ed. 1992) ISBN 0-911206-01-9
  10. ^ Teachings of Queen Kunti by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Chapter 18 "To become Brahma is not a very easy thing. Brahma is such a big post, and it is given to a very qualified living entity who is highly advanced in austerities and penance. But he is also a living entity like us."
  11. ^ [http://www.allaboutreligion.org/sikhism.htm Sikhism basics}
  12. ^ http://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Reincarnation
  13. ^ Tucker, 2005, p.216
  14. ^ PTS: Miln 71-72; 82-83; 84 (Pali Canon)
  15. ^ The Five Precepts
  16. ^ The history of Tai Shang Lao Jun
  17. ^ Reincarnation: Socrates to Salinger
  18. ^ Martin Buber, "Legende des Baalschem" in Die Chassidischen Bücher, Hellerau 1928, especially Die niedergestiegene Seele
  19. ^ Krias Shema she'al ha-mitag: Ribono Shel Olom
  20. ^ Reincarnation by JJ Dewey
  21. ^ Much of this is documented in R.E. Slater's book Paradise Reconsidered.
  22. ^ Tucker, 2005, p.202
  23. ^ Luke 1:56;2:7
  24. ^ Luke 1:7;57
  25. ^ Matthew 1:25
  26. ^ 1 Corinthians,{bibleref|Luke|24:39}}
  27. ^ Tommaso Palamidessi, Memory of Past Lives and Its Technique, ed Archeosofica, 1977
  28. ^ What does Islam think about reincarnation?
  29. ^ Reincarnation in Islam
  30. ^ Nicholson, 1950, p. 103
  31. ^ see The Sufi Message, vol. V, part 3
  32. ^ Bellow's translation of Helgakviða Hundingsbana II.
  33. ^ Boulting, 1914. pp. 163-64
  34. ^ Steiner, various dates
  35. ^ Theosophy and reincarnation
  36. ^ Does Scientology believe in reincarnation or past lives?
  37. ^ Plot summary for Patton (1970)
  38. ^ Patton and Hannibal
  39. ^ Reincarnation and NDE Research
  40. ^ IMDb Keyword: Reincarnation
  41. ^ Cadoret, Remi. Book Review: European Cases of the Reincarnation Type The American Journal of Psychiatry, April 2005.
  42. ^ Rockley, Richard. Book Review: Children who remember previous lives
  43. ^ Ian Stevenson; Sought To Document Memories Of Past Lives in Children
  44. ^ Stevenson, Ian (2003). European Cases of the Reincarnation Type.
  45. ^ University of Virginia, Division of Perceptual Studies, Books and Articles by Division Staff
  46. ^ Rockley, Richard. Book Review: Children who remember previous lives
  47. ^ A Critique of Arguments Offered Against Reincarnation
  48. ^ Ian Stevenson; Sought To Document Memories Of Past Lives in Children
  49. ^ Tucker, 2005, p.214
  50. ^ Tucker, 2005

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Jim Tucker, M.D., is the author of Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children’s Memories of Previous Lives, which presents an overview of more than 40 years of research at the University of Virginia Division of Personality Studies. ... Life Before Life is a book written by psychiatrist Dr. Jim Tucker, which is a very readable overview of more than 40 years of research at the University of Virginia Division of Personality Studies into past life recall by children. ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... The Kauśītāki Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads. ... Tommaso Palamidessi (Pisa, February 16, 1915 – Rome, April 29, 1983) was an Italian esotericist. ...

References

Scientific Publications

  • Edwards, Paul, Reincarnation: A Critical Examination ISBN 1-57392-921-2
  • Shroder, Tom (1999). Old Souls: The Scientific Evidence for Past Lives.
  • Stevenson, Ian (1980). Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation, second (revised and enlarged) edition, University of Virginia Press. ISBN 9780813908724
  • Stevenson, Ian, Reincarnation and Biology: A Contribution to the Etiology of Birthmarks and Birth Defects ISBN 0-275-95283-5
  • Stevenson, Ian, Children Who Remember Previous Lives: A Question of Reincarnation, revised edition ISBN 0-7864-0913-4
  • Tucker, Jim, (2005). Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children's Memories of Previous Lives, ISBN 0-312-32137-6
  • Van Lommel, Pim. (2001). "Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands." The Lancet. 358: 2039-45.

Other Publications Paul Edwards, born Paul Eisenstein, (September 2, 1923-December 9, 2004) was an Austrian-American moral philosopher. ... Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation is a book written by Ian Stevenson Categories: Substubs ... Life Before Life is a book written by psychiatrist Dr. Jim Tucker, which is a very readable overview of more than 40 years of research at the University of Virginia Division of Personality Studies into past life recall by children. ...

  • Acharya, Pt. Shriram Sharma, The Life Beyond Physical DeathPDF (474 KiB), 1999.
  • Alegretti, Wagner, Retrocognitions: An Investigation into Memories of Past Lives and the Period Between Lives. ISBN 0-9702131-6-6, 2004.
  • Archiati, Pietro, Reincarnation in Modern Life: Toward a new Christian Awareness. ISBN 0-904693-88-0
  • Bache, Christopher M., Lifecycles, Reincarnation and the Web of Life, 1991, ISBN 1-55778-645-3
  • Boulting, W. Giordano Bruno, His Life, Thought, and Martyrdom, London: Kegan Paul, 1914.
  • Bowman, Carol, Children's Past Lives, 1998, ISBN 0-553-57485-X
  • Bowman, Carol, Return from Heaven, 2003, ISBN 0-06-103044-9
  • Cerminara, Gina, Many Mansions: The Edgar Cayce Story on Reincarnation, 1990, ISBN 0-451-03307-8
  • Childs, Gilbert and Sylvia, Your Reincarnating Child: Welcoming a soul to the world. ISBN 1-85584-126-6
  • Doore, Gary, What Survives?, 1990, ISBN 0-87477-583-3
  • Head, Joseph and Cranston, S.L., editors, Reincarnation: The Phoenix Fire Mystery, 1994, ISBN 0-517-56101-8
  • Heindel, Max, The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception (Part I, Chapter IV: Rebirth and the Law of Consequence), 1909, ISBN 0-911274-34-0
  • Heindel, Max, The Rosicrucian Mysteries (Chapter II: The problem of Life and its solution), 1911, ISBN 0-911274-86-3
  • Heindel, Max,The Rosicrucian Fellowship, The Light Beyond DeathPDF (361 KiB), 2001.
  • Lönnerstrand, Sture, I Have Lived Before: The True Story of the Reincarnation of Shanti Devi, 1998, ISBN 1-886940-03-7
  • Newton, Michael, Life Between Lives: Hypnotherapy for Spiritual Regression, 2004, ISBN 0-73870-465-2
  • Newton, Michael, Destiny of Souls: New Case Studies of Life Between Lives, 2000, ISBN 1-56718-499-5
  • Nicholson, R.A. Rumi, Poet and Mystic. London: Allen & Unwin, 1950.
  • Nikhilananda, Swami. Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, (8th Ed. 1992) ISBN 0-911206-01-9
  • Prophet, Elizabeth Clare, Erin L. Prophet, Reincarnation: The Missing Link in Christianity, 1997, ISBN 0-922729-27-1
  • Palamidessi Tommaso, The Memory of Past Lives and Its Technique, ed. Archeosofica, 1977
  • Palamidessi Tommaso, Reincarnation And Christianity
  • [Rajvanshi, Anil K. http://nariphaltan.virtualave.net/death.pdf Death, Karma and Reincarnation]PDF (49.7 KiB)
  • Ramster, Peter, In Search of Lives Past, ISBN 0-646-00021-7
  • Rinehart, Robin, ed., Contemporary Hinduism, (2004).
  • Roberts, Jane Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul, 1972, ISBN 0-553-12077-8
  • Steiner, Rudolf,Karmic Relationships: Esoteric studies, 8 volumes, various dates, Rudolf Steiner Press. ISBN 0-85440-260-8 and others.
  • Steiner, Rudolf, Manifestations of Karma. ISBN 1-85584-058-8
  • Steiner, Rudolf,Reincarnation and Immortality. ISBN 0-8334-1706-1
  • Steiner, Rudolf,Reincarnation and Karma: Two fundamental truths of existence. ISBN 0-88010-501-1
  • Steiner, Rudolf,A Western Approach to Reincarnation and Karma : selected lectures and writings; ed. and intr. by René Querido. Hudson, NY : Anthroposophic Press, c1997, ISBN 0-88010-399-X
  • Semkiw, Walter, Return of the Revolutionaries: The Case for Reincarnation and Soul Groups Reunited, 2003, ISBN 1-57174-342-1
  • Taylor, Michael, "Master of the Rose", Comstar Media LLC, 1997-2007, ISBN 1-933866-07-1
  • Weiss, Brian L., Only Love is real: the story of soulmates reunited, 1996, ISBN 0-446-51945-6
  • Weiss, Brian L., Many Lives, Many Masters, 1998, ISBN 0-671-65786-0
  • Werner, Karel, A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism (Curzon Press 1994) ISBN 0-7007-0279-2
  • Yarbro, Chelsea Quinn, Messages from Michael on the nature of the evolution of the human soul, 1979, ISBN 0-872235-26-2
  • Yeats, William Butler, A Vision, 1937, ISBN 978-0020556008

Pundit Shriram Sharma Acharya (September 20, 1911 – June 2, 1990) was a seer, sage and a visionary of the New Golden Era - Founder of All World Gayatri Pariwar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Max Heindel (1865-1919) Max Heindel - born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865 - was a Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. ... The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity is a Rosicrucian text, written by Max Heindel (ISBN 0-911274-34-0) // Western Wisdom Teachings The first edition was printed in November 1909, it has little changed since then and it is considered to be Max Heindels magnum opus. ... Max Heindel (1865-1919) Max Heindel - born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865 - was a Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. ... Max Heindel (1865-1919) Max Heindel - born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865 - was a Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. ... The Rosicrucian Fellowship Emblem The Rosicrucian Fellowship was founded in 1909/11 by Max Heindel as herald of the Aquarian Age and with the aim of promulgating the Rosicrucian teachings of the Mystery School of the West, the invisible Rosicrucian Order (which, according to Max Heindel, is an Order in... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Elizabeth Clare Prophet Elizabeth Clare Prophet (born April 8, 1939) is an American who became the leader of the new religious movement The Summit Lighthouse, an organization encompassing the branches of Church Universal and Triumphant, Summit University, Summit University Press, and Montessori International, after her husband, Mark L. Prophet, died... Tommaso Palamidessi (Pisa, February 16, 1915 – Rome, April 29, 1983) was an Italian esotericist. ... Tommaso Palamidessi (Pisa, February 16, 1915 – Rome, April 29, 1983) was an Italian esotericist. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Rudolf Steiner. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (born September 15, 1942) is a professional writer. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reincarnation (1323 words)
However reincarnation is not accurately synonymous with either metamorphosis or resurrection.
533, reincarnation was declared a heresy by the Council of Constantinople.
The reason reincarnation was repudiated was because of the eschatological teachings of death and judgment which were established as orthodox Christian doctrine.
reincarnation (1012 words)
Reincarnation is the belief that when one dies, one's body decomposes, but something of oneself is reborn in another body.
Reincarnation does seem to offer an explanation for some strange phenomena such as the ability of some people to regress to a past life under hypnosis.
Reincarnation could explain why bad things happen to good people and why good things happen to bad people: they are being rewarded or punished for actions in past lives (karma).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m