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Encyclopedia > Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror (5 September 179328 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period that began about 15 months after the start of the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization. This led to violence and mass executions of enemies of the revolution. Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ... The Great Fear (French: ) occurred in July and August of 1789 in France at the start of the French Revolution. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


The Reign of Terror started on 5 September 1793. The repression accelerated in June and July 1794, a period called la Grande Terreur (The Great Fear), which ended the coup of 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), in which several key leaders of the Reign of Terror were themselves executed, including Saint-Just and Robespierre. The Terror took the lives of about 40,000 French men and woman. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 1767 – 28 July 1794), usually known as Saint-Just, was a French revolutionary leader. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ...


In the Summer of 1794, France was threatened by both internal enemies as well as conspirators, and by foreign European monarchies fearing that it would spread. Almost all European governments in that era were based on monarchy rather than the popular sovereignty asserted by the revolutionary French. Foreign powers wanted to stifle the democratic and republican ideas, which they feared would pose a threat to their own respective regimes stability. Their armies were pressing on the border of France, leading the new Republic into a series of wars against its monarchist neighbors. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ...


Foreign powers had already threatened the French population with retaliation if they did not free King Louis XVI and reinstate him as a monarch. The Prussian Duke of Brunswick threatened to "pilfer" Paris if the Parisians dared to touch the royal family, which only infuriated Paris. Louis XVI himself was suspected of conspiring with foreign powers who wished to invade France and restore absolute monarchy. For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...


The former French nobility, having lost its inherited privileges, had a stake in the failure of the Revolution. The Roman Catholic Church as well was generally against the Revolution, which (through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy) had turned the clergy into employees of the state and had required that they take an oath of loyalty to the nation. About half of the clergy, mainly in western France, refused the oath, making themselves known as refractory priests or non-jurors. The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The law of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Fr. ... A non-juror is a person who refuses to swear a particular oath. ...


Members of the Catholic clergy and the former nobility entered into conspiracies, often invoking foreign military intervention. In the western region known as the Vendée, priests and former nobles led an insurrection, which began in spring 1793 and was supported by Great Britain. The pacification of the region was so brutal that some historians claim the actions of the revolutionaries constitute genocide[1] and crimes against humanity.[2] The extension of civil war and the advance of foreign armies on national territory produced a political crisis, and increased the rivalry between the Girondins and the more radical Jacobins; the latter were eventually grouped in the parliamentary faction called the Mountain, and had the support of the Parisian population. Vendée is a department in west central France, on the Atlantic Ocean . ... Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendée... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ...

Contents

The Terror

1819 Caricature by Briton George Cruikshank. Titled "The Radical's Arms", it depicts the infamous guillotine. "No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!" is written in the republican banner.
1819 Caricature by Briton George Cruikshank. Titled "The Radical's Arms", it depicts the infamous guillotine. "No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!" is written in the republican banner.

On 2 June Paris sections — encouraged by the enragés ("enraged ones") Jacques Roux and Jacques Hébert — took over the Convention, calling for administrative and political purges, a low fixed price for bread, and a limitation of the electoral franchise to sans-culottes alone. With the backing of the National Guard, they convinced the Convention to arrest 31 Girondin leaders, including Jacques Pierre Brissot. Following these arrests, the Jacobins gained control of the Committee of Public Safety on 10 June, installing the revolutionary dictatorship. On 13 July the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat — a Jacobin leader and journalist known for his bloodthirsty rhetoric — by Charlotte Corday, a Girondin, resulted in further increase of Jacobin political influence.[3] Georges Danton, the leader of the August 1792 uprising against the King, was removed from the Committee. On 27 July Robespierre, self-styled as "the Incorruptible", made his entrance, quickly becoming the most influential member of the Committee as it moved to take radical measures against the Revolution's domestic and foreign enemies.[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (573x800, 1240 KB) en: The Radicals Arms de: Die Waffen der Radikalen Erstmalig publiziert: 13. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (573x800, 1240 KB) en: The Radicals Arms de: Die Waffen der Radikalen Erstmalig publiziert: 13. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Les Enragés (literally The Angry Ones) were a radical group active during the French Revolution (1789) opposed to the Jacobins. ... Jacques Roux (1752-1794) was the leader of the Enragés faction in time of the French Revolution. ... Jacques René Hébert Jacques René Hébert (November 15, 1757 - March 24, 1794) was editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Painted rendition of a sans-culottes. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... Jacques Pierre Brissot. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ... According to a biographer, Dantons height was colossal, his make athletic, his features strongly marked, coarse, and displeasing; his voice shook the domes of the halls.[1] Georges Jacques Danton (October 26, 1759 – April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and... On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ...


Meanwhile, on 24 June the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, the French Constitution of 1793. It was ratified by public referendum, but never put into force; like other laws, it was indefinitely suspended by the decree of October that the government of France would be "revolutionary until the peace". The eventual constitution under the Directory was quite different. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of 1793, Constitution of 24 June 1793 (French: Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), or Montagnard Constitution (French: Constitution montagnarde) was a national constitution of France ratified by the National Convention on June 24, 1793 during the French Revolution, but never applied, due to the suspension of all... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Look up directory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Facing local revolts and foreign invasions in both the East and West of the country, the most urgent government business was the war. On 17 August the Convention voted for general conscription, the levée en masse, which mobilized all citizens to serve as soldiers or suppliers in the war effort. On 5 September the Convention institutionalized The Terror: systematic and lethal repression of perceived enemies within the country. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 25 December 1793 Robespierre stated: is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The goal of the constitutional government is to conserve the Republic; the aim of the revolutionary government is to found it... The revolutionary government owes to the good citizen all the protection of the nation; it owes nothing to the Enemies of the People but death.. These notions would be enough to explain the origin and the nature of laws that we call revolutionary ... If the revolutionary government must be more active in its march and more free in his movements than an ordinary government, is it for that less fair and legitimate? No; it is supported by the most holy of all laws: Martin Guerre! (Martin Guerre:"safety/welfare/or salvation of the people").

On 5 February 1794 he stated, more succinctly: For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

La terreur n'est autre chose que la justice prompte, sévère, inflexible. ("Terror is nothing other than prompt, severe, inflexible justice.")

The result was policy through which the state used violent repression to crush resistance to the government. Under control of the effectively dictatorial Committee, the Convention quickly enacted more legislation. On 9 September the Convention established sans-culottes paramilitary forces, the revolutionary armies, to force farmers to surrender grain demanded by the government. On 17 September the Law of Suspects was passed, which authorized the charging of counter-revolutionaries with vaguely defined crimes against liberty. On 29 September the Convention extended price-fixing from grain and bread to other essential goods, and also fixed wages. The guillotine became the symbol of a string of executions: Louis XVI had already been guillotined before the start of the terror; Marie-Antoinette, the Girondins, Philippe Égalité, Madame Roland and many others lost their lives under its blade.[5] The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by the guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death. Sometimes people died for their political opinions or actions, but many for little reason beyond mere suspicion, or because some others had a stake in getting rid of them. Most of the victims received an unceremonious trip to the guillotine in an open wooden cart (the tumbrel). Loaded onto these carts, the victims would proceed through throngs of jeering men and women. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Painted rendition of a sans-culottes. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Law of Suspects is a term which is used to refer to an enactment passed on September 17, 1793 during the course of the French Revolution. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price. ... Marie Antoinette Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2, 1755 – October 16, 1793), known to history as Marie Antoinette (pronounced ), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. ... Louis-Philippe-Joseph dOrléans, by Antoine-François Callet. ... Mme Roland in a portrait by Adelaide Labille-Guiard, 1787 Viscountess Jeanne Marie Roland de la Platiere, born Manon Jeanne Philipon (March 17, 1754 – November 8, 1793), became the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere and is better known simply as Madame Roland. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ... A common scold gets her comeuppance in the ducking stool. ...


The victims of the Reign of Terror totaled approximately 40,000. Among people who were condemned by the revolutionary tribunals, about 8 percent were aristocrats, 6 percent clergy, 14 percent middle class, and 70 percent were workers or peasants accused of hoarding, evading the draft, desertion, rebellion, and other purported crimes.[6] Of these social groupings, the clergy of the Roman Catholic church suffered proportionately the greatest loss. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


Another anti-clerical uprising was made possible by the installment of the Revolutionary Calendar on 24 October. Against Robespierre's concepts of Deism and Virtue, Hébert's (and Chaumette's) atheist movement initiated a religious campaign in order to dechristianize society. The program of dechristianisation waged against Catholicism, and eventually against all forms of Christianity, included the deportation of clergy and the condemnation of many of them to death, the closing of churches, the institution of revolutionary and civic cults, the large scale destruction of religious monuments, the outlawing of public and private worship and religious education, forced marriages of the clergy and forced abjurement of their priesthood.[7] The enactment of a law on 21 October 1793 made all suspected priests and all persons who harbored them liable to death on sight.[7] The climax was reached with the celebration of the goddess "Reason" in Notre Dame Cathedral on 10 November. Because dissent was now regarded as counterrevolutionary, extremist enragés such as Hébert and moderate Montagnard indulgents such as Danton were guillotined in the Spring of 1794.[8] On 7 June Robespierre, who had previously condemned the Cult of Reason, advocated a new state religion and recommended that the Convention acknowledge the existence of God. On the next day, the worship of the deistic Supreme Being was inaugurated as an official aspect of the Revolution. Compared with Hébert's somewhat popular festivals, this austere new religion of Virtue was received with signs of hostility by the Parisian public. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The French Revolutionary Calendar or French Republican Calendar is a calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and in use by the French government for 13 years from 1793. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Atheist redirects here. ... The Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article was a word for word copy of an entry in the Rotten Library here ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Cult of the Supreme Being was a religion based on deism created by Maximilien Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. ...


The End

The execution of Robespierre.
The execution of Robespierre.

The repression brought thousands of suspects before the Paris Revolutionary Tribunal, whose work was expedited by the Law of 22 Prairial (10 June 1794) which had led to the Terror. As a result of Robespierre's insistence on associating Terror with Virtue, his efforts to make the republic a morally united patriotic community became equated with the endless bloodshed. Finally, after 26 June's decisive military victory over Austria at the Battle of Fleurus, Robespierre was overthrown by a conspiracy of certain members of the Convention on 9 Thermidor (27 July). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ... The Law of 22 Prairial, also known as the loi de la Grande Terreur, the law of the Reign of Terror, was enacted on June 10, 1794 (22 Prairial of the Year II under the French Revolutionary Calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Fleurus, fought on June 26, 1794 was one of the most decisive battles in the Low Countries during the French, under Jourdan were able to more effectively concentrate their forces in order to achieve victory against the Austrian army under Saxe-Cobourg. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thermidorian Reaction. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The fall of Robespierre had been a combination of those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety, and a more radical policy, than he was willing to allow, with the moderates who opposed the Revolutionary Government altogether. They had, between them, made the Law of 22 Prairial one of the charges against him, and after his fall, advocating Terror would mean adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the Republic, endangering the advocate's own head.


The reign of the standing Committee of Public Safety was ended. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre's death, and term limits were imposed (a quarter of the committee retired every three months); its powers were reduced piece by piece.


This was not an entirely or immediately conservative period; no government of the Republic envisaged a Restoration, and Marat was reburied in the Pantheon in September, although he had been more extreme than Robespierre. But politicians united in opposing the Jacobins, and the period has become known as the Thermidorian Reaction.[9] The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ...


See also

  • Bals des victimes

The Bals des victimes, or victims balls, were balls that may have been put on by dancing societies after the Reign of Terror. ... The Great Fear (French: ) occurred in July and August of 1789 in France at the start of the French Revolution. ...

Further reading

Secondary sources

  • Andress, David (2006). The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-27341-3. 
  • Beik, William (August 2005). "The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration: Review Article". Past and Present (188): 195-224. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 
  • Kerr, Wilfred Brenton (1985). Reign of Terror, 1793-1794. London: Porcupine Press. ISBN 0-87991-631-1. 
  • Moore, Lucy (2006). Liberty: The Lives and Times of Six Women in Revolutionary France. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0007206011. 
  • Steel, Mark (2003). Vive La Revolution. London: Scribner. ISBN 0743208064. 
    • Reviewed by Adam Thorpe in The Guardian, December 23, 2006.
  • Jordan, David P. (1985). The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre. New York: Free Press, 150-164. ISBN 0-02-916530-X. 
  • Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens – A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 678-847. ISBN 0-394-55948-7. 
  • Scott, Otto (1974). Robespierre, The Fool as Revolutionary – Inside the French Revolution. Windsor, New York: The Reformer Library. ISBN 9-781887-690058. 
  • Loomis, Stanley (1964). Paris in the Terror. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 0-88029-401-9. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1981). The Days of the French Revolution. New York: Quill-William Morrow. ISBN 9-780688-169787. 

New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Farrar, Straus and Giroux is a book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 - June 11, 2002) Robert Roswell Palmer, commonly known only as Palmer or R.R. Palmer, is best known for his work as a history text writer. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Free Press is an imprint of Simon & Schuster with headquarters in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... Windsor, New York may refer to either: The Town of Windsor in Broome County, New York or The Village of Windsor, which lies within the Town of Windsor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Treatment in fiction

Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... Hilary Mary Mantel CBE (born 6 July 1952) is an English novelist. ... Baroness Emma (Emmuska) Orczy (September 23, 1865 – November 12, 1947) was a British novelist, playwright and artist of Hungarian origin. ... For the eponymous flower, see Scarlet pimpernel. ... Stanislawa Przybyszewska (1901 - 1935) was a Polish dramatist who wrote exclusively about the French Revolution. ... Honor Harrington from Honor Among Enemies cover, by David Mattingly. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the Honorverse. ... George Alfred Henty (December 8, 1832 - November 16, 1902), commonly referred to as G. A. Henty, was a prolific British novelist, war correspondent, and Imperialist born in Trumpington, England. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... Rafael Sabatini (April 29, 1875 - February 13, 1950) was an Italian/British writer of novels of romance and adventure. ... Scaramouche is a historical novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1921 and subsequently adapted into a play by Barbara Field and into feature films in 1923 starring Ramón Novarro and 1952 with Stewart Granger. ... Balzac redirects here. ...

Treatment in film

  • Andrzej Wajda, Danton (1983)
  • Robert Enrico and Richard T. Heffron, La Révolution française, part 2 (1989)

Andrzej Wajda (born March 6, 1926 in Suwałki) is a Polish film director. ...

Treatment in television

This article is about the television series. ... The Reign of Terror is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in six weekly parts from August 8 to September 12, 1964. ... For the eponymous flower, see Scarlet pimpernel. ... Baroness Emma (Emmuska) Orczy (September 23, 1865 – November 12, 1947) was a British novelist, playwright and artist of Hungarian origin. ...

Treatment in music

Voltaire (real name Aurelio Voltaire Hernández) (born January 25, 1967, in Havana, Cuba[2]), is a musician popular in the goth scene. ... Almost Human (2000) is an album by the Dark Cabaret/Darkwave artist Voltaire. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer. ... Dialogues of the Carmelites ( in French, Dialogues des Carmélites) is an opera in three acts by Francis Poulenc. ...

References

  1. ^ Secher, Reynald. A French Genocide: The Vendee. University of Notre Dame Press, (2003). ISBN 0268028656
  2. ^ Scurr, Ruth (2006). Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution. Metropolitan Books. p. 282 ISBN 0805079874
  3. ^ Faria, Miguel (2004-07-15). Bastille Day and the French Revolution, Part I:The Ancien Régime and the Storming of the Bastille. La Nueva Cuba. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  4. ^ Faria, Miguel (2004-07-14). Bastille Day and the French Revolution, Part II: Maximilien Robespierre --- The Incorruptible. La Nueva Cuba. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  5. ^ Faria, Miguel (2004-11-21). Reinventing Radicals: Girondins vs. Jacobins in the French Revolution (A Book Review) Part II. La Nueva Cuba. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  6. ^ French Revolution. History.com. The History Channel. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  7. ^ a b Latreille, A. "French Revolution". New Catholic Encyclopedia (Second Ed. 2003) 5. Thomson-Gale. 972–973. ISBN 0-7876-4004-2. 
  8. ^ Faria, Miguel (2004-11-18). Reinventing Radicals – Girondins vs. Jacobins in the French Revolution (A Book Review) Part I. La Nueva Cuba. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  9. ^ Palmer, ch. XV

The University of Notre Dame Press is a university press that is part of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, United States. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Nueva Cuba (LNC) is the first independent Cuban daily online newspaper founded in November 1, 1998. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Nueva Cuba (LNC) is the first independent Cuban daily online newspaper founded in November 1, 1998. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Nueva Cuba (LNC) is the first independent Cuban daily online newspaper founded in November 1, 1998. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Nueva Cuba (LNC) is the first independent Cuban daily online newspaper founded in November 1, 1998. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
FBI Misconduct - Pine Ridge "Reign of Terror" & Leonard Peltier Petition (544 words)
FBI Misconduct - Pine Ridge "Reign of Terror" & Leonard Peltier Petition
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The FBI Misconduct - Pine Ridge "Reign of Terror" & Leonard Peltier Petition to The Judiciary Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Congress was created by BA-LPSG, an affiliate of the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee and written by John Gallagher.
Reign of Terror - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1381 words)
The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression.
The stated aim of the Terror was to defend the Revolution by destroying internal enemies and conspirators and chasing the external enemies from French territory.
During The Terror, a centralized political regime suspended most of the politically democratic achievements of the Revolution, while pursuing the Revolution on many social matters.
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