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Encyclopedia > Reichstag (building)

Coordinates: 52°31′7″N, 13°22′34″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The Reichstag building. The dedication DEM DEUTSCHEN VOLKE – "To the German people" – can be seen on the architrave.
The Reichstag building. The dedication DEM DEUTSCHEN VOLKE – "To the German people" – can be seen on the architrave.

The Reichstag building in Berlin was constructed to house the Reichstag, the original parliament of the German Empire. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Reichstag until 1933. It again became the seat of the German parliament in 1999 after a reconstruction led by internationally renowned architect Norman Foster. Download high resolution version (1252x687, 226 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1252x687, 226 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Hearst Tower (New York City) Expo MRT Station, Mass Rapid Transit, Singapore. ...


Today's parliament of Germany is called the Bundestag. The Reichstag as a parliament dates back to the Holy Roman Empire and ceased to act as a true parliament in the years of Nazi Germany (1933-1945). In today's usage, the German term Reichstag refers to the building, while the term Bundestag refers to the institution. The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...

Contents


History of the building

The Reichstag in the late 20th century
The Reichstag in the late 20th century

Construction of the building began only well after 1871. Previously, the parliament had assembled in several other buildings in the Leipziger Straße in Berlin; but these were generally considered too small, so in 1872 an architectural contest with 103 participating architects was carried out to erect an all-new building. Work did not start until ten years later though, due to various problems with purchasing property for the new building and arguments between Wilhelm I, Otto von Bismarck, and the members of the Reichstag about how the construction should be performed. Download high resolution version (976x718, 175 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (976x718, 175 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ... Bismarck redirects here. ...


In 1882, another architectural contest was held, with 189 architects participating. This time the winner, the Frankfurt architect Paul Wallot, would actually have his plan executed. On June 9, 1884, the foundation stone was finally laid by Wilhelm I. Before construction was completed in 1894, Wilhelm I died (in 1888, the Year of Three Emperors). His successor, Wilhelm II, objected to parliament as an institution to a much greater extent. The original building was most acclaimed for the construction of an original cupola of steel and glass, a technical masterpiece of the time. 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Skyline of Frankfurt at night is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... Paul Wallot (June 26, 1841 Oppenheim am Rhein - August 10, 1912) was a German architect, best known for producing the Reichstag. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The year 1888 is commonly called Year of Three Emperors (Dreikaiserjahr) in Germany. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ...


After World War I had ended and the Kaiser had abdicated, during the revolutionary days of 1918, Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the institution of a republic from one of the balconies of the Reichstag building on November 9. The building continued to be the seat of the parliament of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), which was still called Reichstag. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Kingdom of Italy Russian Empire Kingdom of Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nikolay II Nikolay Yudenich Radomir Putnik Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Philipp Scheidemann ( 26 July 1865– 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was responsible for the proclamation of the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the common name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Third Reich

The Reichstag building was set on fire in 1933.
The Reichstag building was set on fire in 1933.

After Adolf Hitler had been appointed Reichskanzler on January 30, 1933, the building was set on fire on February 27, 1933, under circumstances not yet entirely clear (see Reichstag fire). This proved to be a valuable excuse for the Nazis to suspend most human rights provided for by the 1919 constitution in the Reichstag Fire Decree. Image File history File links Reichstagsbrand. ... Image File history File links Reichstagsbrand. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag...


Contrary to popular belief, during the 12 years of National Socialist rule, the Reichstag building was not used for parliamentary sessions. Instead, the few times where the Reichstag convened at all, it did so in the Krolloper building, a former opera opposite the Reichstag building. This applies as well to the session of March 23, 1933, in which the Reichstag disposed of its powers in favor of the Nazi government in the Enabling Act another step of the so-called Gleichschaltung, the legal steps through which the Nazis seized power. The building (which was unusable after the fire anyway) was instead used for propaganda presentations and, during World War II, for military purposes. It was also considered to be turned into a Flak Tower, due to its general similarity, but was found to be structurally unsuitable. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... 1900 1938 Krolloper was an opera building in Berlin, opposite of the Reichstag. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ... One of six Flak towers built during World War II in Vienna. ...

A Red Army soldier flies the Soviet flag over the Reichstag as Berlin falls near the end of World War II.
A Red Army soldier flies the Soviet flag over the Reichstag as Berlin falls near the end of World War II.

The building was further damaged by air raids. During the Battle of Berlin in 1945, it became one of the central targets for the Red Army probably mostly for its symbolic significance. Today, visitors to the building can still see Soviet graffiti on smoky walls inside as well as on some of the roof, discovered and preserved during the reconstructions after reunification (see below). ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... We dont have an article called Victory Banner Start this article Search for Victory Banner in. ... Berlin was captured by the Russians on May 2nd, 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Example of a legal piece on a skateboard shop Graffiti is a type of deliberate application of a media made by humans on any surface, both private and public. ...


Cold War

When the Cold War emerged, the building was within West Berlin, but only a few meters from the border of East Berlin, which in 1961 was closed by the Berlin Wall. During the Berlin blockade, an enormous number of West Berliners assembled before the building on September 9, 1948, and Mayor Ernst Reuter held a famous speech that finalized in the call, Ihr Völker der Welt, schaut auf diese Stadt! (Peoples of the world, look upon this city!) The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... occupation zone after 1945 The Berlin Blockade (June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949) became one of the first major crises of the new Cold War, when the Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Ernst Reuter, 1950 Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter (born July 29, 1889 in Apenrade (today Aabenraa, Denmark); died September 29, 1953 in Berlin) was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. ...


After the war, the building was essentially a ruin. In addition, there were no real use for it, since the capital of West Germany had been moved to Bonn in 1949. Still, in 1956, after some debate, it was decided that the Reichstag should not be taken down, but instead be restored. Unfortunately, the cupola of the original building, which had also been heavily damaged in the war, was demolished. Another architectural contest was held, and the winner, Paul Baumgarten, reconstructed the building from 1961-1964. The artistic and practical value of his work was the subject of much debate after German reunification. Due to the provisions set forth for Berlin by the Allies in the 1971 Four Power Agreement on Berlin, the Bundestag, the parliament of West Germany of that time, was not allowed to assemble formally in West Berlin (even though East Germany was in violation of this provision since it had declared East Berlin its capital anyway). Until 1990, the building was thus used only for occasional representative meetings and for a widely lauded permanent exhibition about German history called Fragen an die deutsche Geschichte (Questions to German history). Bonn is a city in Germany (19th largest), in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the north of the Siebengebirge. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... GDR redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ...


Reunification

The Wrapped Reichstag
The Wrapped Reichstag

The official German reunification ceremony on October 3, 1990, was held at the Reichstag building, including Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl, Bundespräsident Richard von Weizsäcker, former Bundeskanzler Willy Brandt and many others. It was a touching event with huge fireworks, fondly remembered by many. One day later, the parliament of the united Germany would assemble in an act of symbolism in the Reichstag building. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1473x792, 203 KB) Summary Author: Martin Morgenstern (Dresden, Germany) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1473x792, 203 KB) Summary Author: Martin Morgenstern (Dresden, Germany) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... Dr. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a Catholic German conservative politician and statesman. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ...


However, at that time, the role of Berlin had not yet been decided upon. Only after a fierce debate, considered by many one of the most memorable sessions of parliament, the Bundestag concluded on June 20, 1991, with a quite slim majority that both government and parliament should return to Berlin from Bonn. Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1992, Norman Foster won yet another architectural contest for the reconstruction of the building. His winning concept looked very different from what was later executed. Notably, the original design did not include a cupola. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Hearst Tower (New York City) Expo MRT Station, Mass Rapid Transit, Singapore. ...


Before reconstruction began, the Reichstag was wrapped by the Bulgarian artist Christo and his wife Jeanne-Claude in 1995, attracting millions of visitors. Christo (born Hristo Yavashev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев) and Jeanne-Claude are an artistic couple practicing environmental, installation art. ... Christo (born Hristo Yavashev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев) and Jeanne-Claude are an artistic couple practicing environmental, installation art. ... Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon (born June 13, 1935), also known simply as Jeanne-Claude, is married to environmental artist Christo. ...


During the reconstruction, the building was first almost completely gutted, taking out everything except the outer walls, including all changes made by Baumgarten in the 1960s. The seat of parliament was transferred to the Reichstag in April 1999. The reconstruction is widely regarded as a success; the Reichstag, most importantly the huge glass cupola that was erected on the roof as a gesture to the original 1894 cupola, is one of the most visited attractions in Berlin, giving an impressive view over the city, especially at night. The main hall of the parliament below can also be seen from the cupola, and natural light from above radiates down to the parliament floor. A large sun shield tracks the movement of the sun electronically and blocks direct sunlight which might blind those below. It is open to anyone without prior registration, although the waiting queues can be very long, especially in the summer.


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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reichstag (building) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1266 words)
The Reichstag building in Berlin was constructed to house the Reichstag, the original parliament of the German Empire.
The original building was most acclaimed for the construction of an original cupola of steel and glass, a technical masterpiece of the time.
The building continued to be the seat of the parliament of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), which was still called Reichstag.
Reichstag fire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1773 words)
The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany.
The Reichstag fire, a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany, began at 9:14 PM on the night of February 27, 1933, when a Berlin fire station received an alarm that the Reichstag building, assembly location of the German Parliament, was ablaze.
As a consequence of the Reichstag Fire Decree, the police and the SA, actually a paramilitary organization of Hitler's party, seized all Communist Party buildings in Germany, along with weapons they claimed were to be used in the coup.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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