Protector is historical title with multiple meanings; this article also includes a few litteral equivalents thus rendered
Political & Administrative
Heads of State
- in Iceland: one Sovereign was styled Beskytter af hele e Island ("Protector of Land of Iceland") 25 Jun - 22 Aug 1809 (an intermezzo between Danish Governors styled Stiftamtmadur): Jürgen Jürgensen (b. 1780 - d. 1841; nicknamed Hundadagakonungur "the Dog-Day King") .
- in Estonia: State-protector is a common rendering of Riigihoidja, a single Head of state and - of government of that Baltic republic 24 Jan 1934 - 24 Apr 1938 (acting to 3 Sep 1937), Konstantin Päts (b. 1874 - d. 1956), earlier five times State Elder, thereafter the first of two Presidents before the Soviet takeover.
- in Finland (linguistically close to Estonian): State Prtotector is a common rendering, besides Regent, of two Heads of State 18 May 1918 - 27 Jul 1919, the first incumbent being also the last of the previous untitled Acting heads of state
- in the elective kingdom called 'Commonwealth' of Poland & Lithuania: Aug 1655 – 23 Feb 1660, King Karl X Gustaf (b. 1622 - d. 1660), king of Sweden, in Polish Karol X Gustaw was styled Protektor Rzeczypospolitej ('Protector of the (Polish-Lithuanian) Commonwealth') as challenger to the duly elected king Jan II Kazimierz during the middle part of his reign (17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668)
Riigihoidja (often translated from Estonian as, state-protector) was the name of the office of the head of state and head of goverment of Estonia from 24 January 1934 to 24 April 1938. ...
in the Americas
- in the Dominican Republic: 4 Aug 1865 - 15 Nov 1865, his first non-consecutive presidential term: José María Cabral y de Luna (b. 1819 - d. 1899)
- in Haiti: Sylvain Salnave (b. 1826 - d. 1870), one of the three members of the previous Provisional Government, was President 4 May 1867 - 27 Dec 1869 and Protector of the Republic to 16 Jun 1867
- in Nicaragua: Granada
- in Peru: 3 Aug 1821 - 20 Sep 1822 general José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
- in the Peru-Bolivian Confederation: José Andrés de Santa Cruz y Villavicencio y Calumana (b. 1792 - d. 1865; Military) Supreme Protector 28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839 (also Bolivian President 24 May 1829 - 20 Feb 1839)
San Martin or San MartÃn may refer to: San Martin, California, a census-designated place and an unincorporated town JosÃ© de San MartÃn, an Argentine general (1778 - 1850). ...
- in Germany, 25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813 the French Emperor, Napoléon I Bonaparte, bore the additional title of protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin, i.e. Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, generally known as Rheinbund ('Rhenan League'), uniting the German princes that had bowed to the conqueror.
The actual presidency of its diet and council of Kings was held by a German, the Fürstprimas ('Prince-primate')
- nazi Germany was represented by a Reichsprotektor ('imperial protector'), who had the real executive power, not the native President and Prime Minister, in the Czech puppet-state it installed on 16 Mar 1939 under the explicit name Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren "protectorate Bohemia and Moravia"; the German incumbents, after a month under a Military Governor, were:
- 5 Apr 1939 - 20 Aug 1943 Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (b. 1873 - d. 1956) NSDAP
- 27 Sep 1941 - 4 Jun 1942 Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (b. 1904 - d. 1942) NSDAP (acting for Neurath)
- 27 May 1942 - 28 May 1942 Karl Hermann Frank (b. 1898 - d. 1946) NSDAP (acting for Heydrich)
- 28 May 1942 - 14 Oct 1943 Kurt Daluege (b. 1897 - d. 1946) NSDAP (acting [to 5 Jun 1942 for Heydrich])
- 14 Oct 1943 - 8 May 1945 Wilhelm Frick (b. 1877 - d. 1946) NSDAP
- 26 Apr 1945 - 8 May 1945 Ferdinand Schörner (b. 1892 - d. 1973) (military commander with unrestricted executive power)
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian provinces Bohemia and...
Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ...
British colonial administration
The Chinese Protectorate was an administrative body responsible for the well-being of ethnic Chinese residents of the Straits Settlements during that territorys British colonial period. ...
Famous Chinese or Chinese-speaking/writing people. ...
The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ...
In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...
- Cardinal protector ...
- In the SMOM
Protector of the Holy Cities
The Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland was the title of the head of state during part of the Commonwealth period. ...
Sources and References
- WorldStatesmen click on each present country mentioned