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Encyclopedia > Rehydration

Rehydration is the pissing of water and electrolytes lost through dehydration. It can be performed by mouth (oral rehydration) or by adding fluid and electrolytes directly into the blood stream (intravenous rehydration). A girl in a swimming pool full of water Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


As oral rehydration is less painful, less invasive, less expensive, and easier to provide, it is the treatment of choice for mild dehydration from infectious gastroenteritis. Because severe dehydration can rapidly cause permanent injury or even death, intravenous rehydration is the initial treatment of choice for that condition. Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, is an illness of fever, diarrhoea and/or vomiting caused by an infectious virus, bacterium or parasite. ...

Contents


Symptoms of dehydration

Symptoms of mild dehydration include thirst, decreased urine volume, urine that is darker than usual, tiredness, lack of tears when crying, headache, dry mouth, and dizziness when standing due to orthostatic hypotension. The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom may loosely be said to be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see... Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth, almost always largely consisting of water. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ... Tears are a liquid produced by the bodys process of lacrimation to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... A headache (medically known as cephalgia) is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Dizziness (Latin: Vertigo) is the sensation of instability. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension and, colloquially, as head rush) is a sudden fall in blood pressure that occurs when a person assumes a standing position. ...


In moderate to severe dehydration, there may be no urine output at all. Other symptoms in these states include lethargy or extreme sleepiness, seizures, sunken fontanel (soft spot) in infants, fainting, and sunken eyes. Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ... An infant Infant is a slightly more formal word for baby, the youngest category of child, meaning a human from birth to age 1. ... Fainting or syncope is a sudden (and generally momentary) loss of consciousness due to a lack of sufficient blood and oxygen reaching the brain. ...


Treatment

nick lewis is a nob If someone is sufficiently dehydrated that he or she exhibits the signs of moderate to severe dehydration listed above, medical attention should be sought.


Oral rehydration can be accomplished by drinking frequent small amounts of an oral rehydration salt solution. One standard remedy is the WHO/UNICEF glucose-based Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) solution, which contains 75 mEq/l of sodium, 75 mmol/l of glucose, 65 mEq/l chloride, 20 mEq/l potassium, and 10 mEq/l citrate, with a total osmolarity of 245 mOsm/l. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide, is one of the most important carbohydrates. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form the anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... Chemical strucutre of citric acid. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ...


It is important to rehydrate with solutions that contain electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium, so that electrolyte disturbances may be avoided. Sugar is important to improve absorption of electrolytes and water, but if too much is present in ORS solutions, diarrhea can be worsened. Oral rehydration does not stop diarrhea, but keeps the body hydrated and healthy until the diarrhea passes. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... Electrolyte disturbance refers to an abnormal change in the levels of electrolytes in the body. ... Diarrhea (American English) or diarrhoea (Commonwealth English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent and watery, chunky, or loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; lit. ...


There are several commercially available products but an inexpensive home-made solution consists of 8 level teaspoons of sugar and 1 level teaspoon of table salt mixed in 1 liter of water. A half cup of orange juice or half of a mashed banana can be added to each liter both to add potassium and to improve taste. If commercial solutions are used, true rehydration solutions should be used and sports drinks should be avoided (especially in younger children) as these solutions contain too much sugar and not enough electrolytes. Teaspoon and sugar A teaspoon is a small spoon that can hold about 5 milliliters of liquid. ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ... Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... The litre (or liter in US) is a metric unit of volume. ... Orange juice (sometimes abbreviated OJ) is a fruit juice obtained by squeezing or pressing the interior of an orange. ... For other meanings, see banana (disambiguation) Species Hybrid origin; see text A banana plant is a herb in the genus, Musa, which because of its size and structure, is often mistaken for a tree. ... A sports drink is a beverage which is supposed to rehydrate athletes, as well as restoring electrolytes, sugar, and other nutrients. ...


The amount of rehydration that is needed depends on the size of the individual and the degree of dehydration. Rehydration is generally adequate when the person no longer feels thirsty and has a normal urine output. A rough guide to the amount of ORS solution needed in the first 4-6 hours of treatment for a mildly dehydrated person is:

  • Up to 5 kg (11 lb): 200 – 400 ml
  • 5-10 kg (11-22 lb): 400 – 600 ml
  • 10-15 kg (22-33 lb): 600 – 800 ml
  • 15-20 kg (33–44 lb): 800 – 1000 ml
  • 20-30 kg (44-66 lb: 1000 – 1500 ml
  • 30-40 kg (66-88 lb): 1500 – 2000 ml
  • 40 plus kg (88 lb): 2000-4000 ml

Technique

Adults and children with dehydration who are not vomiting can be allowed to drink these solutions in addition to their normal diet. People who are vomiting should be fed small frequent amounts of ORS solution until dehydration is resolved. Once they are rehydrated, they may resume eating normal foods when nausea passes.


Vomiting itself does not mean that oral rehydration cannot be given. As long as more fluid enters than exits, rehydration will be accomplished. It is only when the volume of fluid and electrolyte loss in vomit and stool exceeds what is taken in that dehydration will continue. When vomiting occurs, rest the stomach for ten minutes and then offer small amounts of ORS solution. Start with a teaspoonful every five minutes in children and a tablespoonful every five minutes in older children and adults. If output exceeds intake or signs of moderate to severe dehydration occur, medical assistance should be sought.


External links

  • Rehydration Project

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rehydration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (678 words)
Rehydration is the pissing of water and electrolytes lost through dehydration.
As oral rehydration is less painful, less invasive, less expensive, and easier to provide, it is the treatment of choice for mild dehydration from infectious gastroenteritis.
The amount of rehydration that is needed depends on the size of the individual and the degree of dehydration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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