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Encyclopedia > Regions of England
Regions of England
Image:EnglandRegions.png
  1. London
  2. South East England
  3. South West England
  4. West Midlands
  5. North West England
  6. North East England
  7. Yorkshire and the Humber
  8. East Midlands
  9. East of England

The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links numbered map of the regions of England File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London and forms one of the nine regions of England. ... South East England is one of the official regions of England. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... The West Midlands is a geographical term describing the western half of central England, known as the Midlands. ... North West England is one of the regions of England. ... North East England is one of the regions of England. ... Yorkshire and The Humber is one of the regions of England. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... East of England is one of the official regions of England. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population...

Contents


History

The United Kingdom was divided into regions by John Major's government in 1994 following the Maastricht Treaty. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland had each constituted a region with England requiring further division. The English regions, which initially numbered ten, replaced the existing regional structure. Merseyside originally constituted a region in itself. In 1998 it was merged into the North West England region; creating the nine present-day regions. [1] Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 - 1997. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ... Historical and alternative regions of England. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... North West England is one of the regions of England. ...


Powers and functions

Current

In 1998, regional assemblies were created in each English region. The powers of the assemblies are limited and, outside London, they are not directly elected. The functions of the English regions are essentially devolved to them from Government departments or have been taken over from pre-existing regional bodies, such as regional planning conferences and regional employers' organisations.


Each region has a Government Office and associated institutions, including a Regional Development Agency. As there are no regional elections, outside London, local representatives on regional assemblies are nominated by the councils within each region and 30% of members represent regional stakeholders. Government Offices are the primary means by which a wide range of policies and programmes of the Government of the United Kingdom are delivered in the regions of England. ... Regional Development Agencies are Non-Departmental Public Bodies, sponsored by Central Government Departments, for the development of each of the UKs Government Office regions. ...


Since 1999, the nine regions have also been used as England's European Parliament constituencies [2] and as statistical NUTS level 1 regions. Since 1 July 2006, there have been ten NHS Strategic Health Authorities, each of which corresponds to a region, except for South East England, which is divided into western and eastern parts. The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The inside of the building The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) in the United Kingdom is a subdivision of the UK devised by Eurostat. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NHS Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) are part of the structure of the National Health Service in England. ... South East England is one of the official regions of England. ...


Each regional assembly makes proposals for the UK members of the Committee of the Regions, with members drawn from the elected councillors of the local authorities in the region. The final nominations are made by central government. [1] The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ...


Future

The regions are to be used for fire brigade co-ordination in the future, with one headquarters for each region. [3] The current plans for consolidating the number of police forces propose merging forces within the confines of the current Government Office regions. Ofcom has tentatively proposed a telephone numbering plan with a wide area code (020, 021, 022 etc.) used for each government office region. [4] [5] Fire brigades in the United Kingdom are organised on a territorial basis. ... A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom has a number of similar but independent police services. ... Government Offices are the primary means by which a wide range of policies and programmes of the Government of the United Kingdom are delivered in the regions of England. ... The Office of Communications, usually known as Ofcom, is the UKs communications regulator. ...


Elected assemblies

As power was to be devolved to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales without a counterweight in England, a series of referendums were planned to establish elected regional assemblies in some of the regions. The first was held in London in 1998 and was successfully passed. The London Assembly and Mayor of London of the Greater London Authority were created in 2000. A referendum was held in North East England on 4 November 2004 but was rejected. Plans to hold further referendums in other regions were then cancelled. Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... For more coverage on London, see the London Portal. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sub divisions

Local government in England does not follow a uniform structure. Therefore each region is divided into a range of further sub divisions. London is divided into London boroughs while the other regions are divided into metropolitan counties, shire counties and unitary authorities. Counties are further divided into districts and some areas are also parished. Regions are also divided into sub-regions which usually group socio-economically linked local authorities together. However, the sub-regions have no official status and are little-used other than for strategic planning purposes. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains 32 London Boroughs, of which 12 (plus the City of London) make up Inner London and 20 Outer London. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is an administrative county which is not a metropolitan county. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ...


Criticism

There is opposition to an increased role for the regions and of the introduction of further elected regional assemblies. The Conservative Party's current policies do not include further regionalisation. The Conservative Party is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting MPs, and the largest by of public membership. ...


Criticisms range from claims that regions remove powers from other levels of local government or that as regions of the EU they are unsuited to English needs for local governance. The geographical scope of the regions has also been criticised with claims that places too socio-economically diverse are contained within the same region and regional boundaries have been set without consultation. The European Union created the Regions of Europe as the layer of EU government administration directly below the nation-state level. ...


Alternative proposals range from retaining the current structure, replacement with city regions or providing an elected body for the whole of England. The term city region has been in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean not just the administrative area of a recognisable city or conurbation but also its hinterland that will often be far bigger. ...


See also

Historical and alternative regions of England. ... This is a list of articles relating to local government in the United Kingdom and does not include specific entities or authorities: 1990s UK local government reform Administrative county Administrative counties of England Administrative counties of Scotland Ceremonial counties of England Civil parish Community County County borough County corporate County...

References

  1. ^ Committee of the Regions - Appointing the UK delegation

External links


 
The United Kingdom (UK)
Flag of the United Kingdom
 England | Flag of Scotland Scotland |  Northern Ireland |  Wales
Regions of England: East of England | East Midlands | London | North East | North West | South East | South West | West Midlands | Yorkshire and the Humber


Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Ireland_(bordered). ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Languages English (De facto) 3, Irish, Ulster Scots 4 Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_(bordered). ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... East of England is one of the official regions of England. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London and forms one of the nine regions of England. ... North East England is one of the regions of England. ... North West England is one of the regions of England. ... South East England is one of the official regions of England. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... The West Midlands is a geographical term describing the western half of central England, known as the Midlands. ... Yorkshire and The Humber is one of the regions of England. ...

Structure of subnational entities in England (since 1995)
Region level: Region Region Region Region
County level: Metropolitan county Shire county Unitary authority Greater London
District level: Metropolitan district Shire district n/a London borough
Parish level: (Civil parish) (Civil parish) (Civil parish) n/a

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