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Encyclopedia > Regional rail
A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia
A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia

Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains providing such services may be termed commuter trains. The development of commuter rail services has become popular today, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, and other environmental issues, as well as rising automobile costs. Image File history File links An XTrapolis train operated by Connex pulls into Melbournes Glenferrie railway station. ... Image File history File links An XTrapolis train operated by Connex pulls into Melbournes Glenferrie railway station. ... Connex is the brand name of the transport services division of the French-based multinational company Veolia Environnement. ... The City of Melbourne Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3. ... Trains can travel at very high speed, are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop. ... Downtown Honolulu in Hawaii, United States, an example of an urban downtown district Central business district (CBD) and downtown are terms referring to the commercial heart of a city. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... There are various types of trains designed for particular purposes, see rail transport operations. ...

Contents


Characteristics

Commuter trains are usually optimized for maximum passenger volume, in most cases without sacrificing too much comfort and luggage space, though they seldom have all the amenities of long-distance trains. The general range of commuter trains varies between 15 to 180 km (9 and 111 miles), with operating speeds from 55 - 175 km/h (30 to 110 mph). Passenger coaches are either single- or double-level cars, with a capacity of between 80 and 110 passengers for single-level cars and 145 - 170 for double-level cars. Baggage can be synonymous with luggage, or can refer to the train of people and goods, both military and of a personal nature, which commonly followed pre-modern armies on campaign. ... A double decker is a bus, airplane, train, tram, ferry, or any public transit vehicle that has two levels for passengers, one deck above the other. ...


Defining aspects

In general, commuter trains are built to heavy rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Metro and Subway redirect here. ...

  • being larger;
  • having (in most cases) a lower frequency of service;
  • having scheduled services (i.e. trains run at specific hours rather than at specific intervals); and
  • serving lower-density areas, typically by connecting suburbs to the city centre.
  • sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains

Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs. However, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays. Right-of-way is a legal term which may have any of several meanings: priority at a crossing, or in traffic. ... Cargo is a term used to denotes goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or lorry. ... Right-of-way is a legal term which may have any of several meanings: priority at a crossing, or in traffic. ...


Generally such trains run on the local standard gauge track, 4 ftin (1435 mm). Some broader gauges include 1520/1524 mm (Russia and countries of the former Russian Empire), 1600 mm (Ireland, Brazil, and parts of Australia), 1668 mm (Spain and Portugal), 1676 mm (Pakistan, India, and Argentina). Light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge. Narrow gauge trains generally run on either 1067 mm (3 ft 6 in) track or on the metre gauge (39.37 inches). Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Switzerland and India, and in the Brisbane (CityTrain) and Perth systems in Australia. Ireland uses what is usually standard gauge as a "narrow gauge" for its Luas tram system. The world's largest commuter railway, the East Japan Railway Company, exclusively uses narrow-gauge track for all commuter trains. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Gauge (sometimes spelled gage) vb. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1. ... Brisbane city by night, looking north along the Brisbane River towards the CBD. Brisbane city by day, looking westerly over the southern approaches to the Story Bridge. ... CityTrain is the name given to the electric passenger railway network for South-East Queensland, Australia, based around Brisbane. ... Perth is the capital city of Western Australia. ... Luas (from the Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... Yamanote Line, Tokyo JR Yamanote Line train in Tokyo, Japan Above Yurakucho in Tokyo East Japan Railway Company (東日本旅客鉄道 Higashi-Nihon Ryokyaku Tetsudo or JR東日本; JR Higashi-Nihon) (TYO: 9020) is a Japanese private railroad company, the largest passenger railway company in the world and one of the seven JR companies. ...


In some cases, hybrids between a train and a metro have been created. They run underground in the dense city centres and on ordinary outdoor tracks in lower-density areas. Examples include the Madrid Cercanías network, in Dublin the Dublin Area Rapid Transit, the Paris RER, lines 6-8 of the Barcelona Metro, the S-Bahn systems of Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munich, Stuttgart, and Zürich, the rail systems of Sydney (CityRail) and Melbourne, and the suburban railway (HÉV) in Budapest. In Hong Kong, the East Rail provides a metro-like service in terms of capacity of its cars (over 300 each), more standees and few seats, and high frequencies, except sharing some of its track with inter-city service. This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ... Plaza de Cibeles (Cibeles square) and the Palacio de Comunicaciones (Communications Palace) Coat of arms. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... An 8200 class DART unit, Iarnród Éireann 8203, at Grand Canal Dock station in 2001 The Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) is a suburban railway system in Dublin, Ireland, running primarily along the coastline of Dublin Bay, from Greystones in Wicklow to Howth and Malahide. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... An RER train at Gare de lEst. ... The Barcelona Metro, part of the mass transit public transport system of Barcelona, Catalonia, is an extensive network of electrified railways that run underground in central Barcelona and above ground into the citys suburbs. ... (Translated from the German wikipedia article) The S-Bahn is a suburban metro railway network in Germany. ...   Berlin? (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city; down from 4. ... Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ...   Frankfurt am Main[?] [ˈfraÅ‹kfÊŠrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German state of Bavaria. ... Stuttgart, a city located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of approximately 600,000 as of May 2005. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich? (in English often Zurich, IPA ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Sydney Harbour looking south from the vicinity of the Sydney Harbour Bridge towards the CBD skyline; the Opera House is visible in the background on the left. ... CityRail is the name of the extensive system of urban, suburban and interurban passenger railways based on metropolitan Sydney, the capital city of the State of New South Wales, Australia. ... The City of Melbourne Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3. ... HÉV carriages near Szentendre HÉV is the name of the four suburban railways in and around Budapest. ... Budapest (pronounced ) is the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre. ... Opening Date 10 October 1911 Stations 14 Number of trains 34 Service Area North District, Tai Po, Sha Tin, Yau Tsim Mong, Kowloon City The East Rail is one of the three lines of the KCRC network in Hong Kong. ... This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ...


In some European countries the distinction between commuter trains and long-distance / intercity trains is very hard to make, because of the relatively short distances involved. For example, so called "intercity" trains in Belgium and the Netherlands carry many commuters and their equipment, range and speeds are similar to those of commuter trains in some larger countries.


In the United States and Canada, regional passenger rail service is performed by commuter railroads, which are usually governmental or quasi-governmental agencies. A Virginia Railway Express locomotive in push-pull commuter service (www. ...


Traffic types

Commonly they are based on diesel multiple units (DMUs), which are self-propelled, bidirectional, articulated passenger rail cars with diesel engines, electric generators and electric motors located below the passenger compartment (strictly speaking, these are diesel-electric multiple units, or DEMUs). In some areas with electrified rail, most notably Japan, electric multiple units (EMUs) are used. Electric and diesel-powered multiple units are almost invariably equipped with control cabs at both ends, which is why such units are so frequently used to provide commuter services, due to the associated short turn-around time. Diesel multiple units (DMUs) are regional rail cars which contain both passenger accommodations and propulsion. ... The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the high temperature of a compressed gas, rather than a separate source of energy (such as a spark plug). ... Generator redirects here. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... A classic Belgian multiple unit of type 74 A multiple unit is a passenger train whose carriages have their own motors, either diesel (DMUs) or electric (EMUs), and do not need to be hauled by a locomotive. ... A classic Belgian multiple unit of type 74 A multiple unit is a passenger train whose carriages have their own motors, either diesel (DMUs) or electric (EMUs), and do not need to be hauled by a locomotive. ...


Locomotive hauled services are used in some countries or locations. This is often a case of asset sweating, by using a single large combined fleet for intercity and regional services. Loco hauled services are usually run in push-pull formation, that is, the train can run with the locomotive at the "front" or "rear" of the train (pushing or pulling). Trains are often equipped with a "driving van trailer" (DVT), a control cab at the other end of the train from the locomotive, allowing the train driver to operate the train from either end. The motive power for locomotive-hauled commuter trains may be either electric or diesel-electric, although some countries, such as Germany and some of the former Soviet-bloc countries, also use diesel-hydraulic locomotives. Push-Pull train in Austria Push-pull is a mode of operation for locomotive-hauled trains. ... Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ...


Seat plans

Since regional rail rides are usually within one or two hours, their designers may use every conceivable methods to cram as many passengers as possible. One frequently used seat plan is two rows of facing benches on the right and left sides of the train. This arrangement is uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous. However, it leaves much room for people who stand in the center.


In the U.S. and other countries, a three-and-two seat plan is also used. However, most passengers prefer not to use the middle seat if all other seats are taken. Therefore, people may stand in the passageway rather than taking the middle seat. It is said one Metro-North's industrial designer had told people: "I designed the aisle seat with a half-back and no upholstery, so it will be very uncomfortable to sit there. They'll move in and take the center seat!" [1] Marble Hill station The Metro-North Railroad (officially the Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, and usually abbreviated as Metro-North) is a suburban commuter railroad service between New York City to its northern suburbs in New York State and Connecticut. ... Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved. ...


People hate the middle seat so much that many latest airliners such as Airbus A380 and Boeing 787 abandoned such unconfortable economy class seat plan. An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft (an aeroplane/airplane) initially designed for the transport of paying passengers, and usually operated by an airline company (which owns or leases the aircraft). ... The A380s first landing on April 27, 2005 The Airbus A380 is a double-decker, four-engined airliner manufactured by Airbus S.A.S. It first flew on April 27, 2005 from Toulouse, France. ... Rendering of a Boeing 787-8 in Northwest Airlines colors (final design) The Boeing 787, or Dreamliner, is a mid-sized passenger airliner currently under development by Boeing Commercial Airplanes and scheduled to enter service in 2008. ... Economy class, also known as coach class, is the third or lowest class of seating in airline travel. ...


See also

A Virginia Railway Express locomotive in push-pull commuter service (www. ... This is an alphabetical listing of cities which have commuter or suburban railways. ... Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the 地下鉄サリン事件 (chikatetsu sarin jiken subway sarin incident) was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of the religious group Aum Shinrikyo on March 20, 1995. ... In 1995, the GIA Islamist militant group staged a series of attacks against the French public, targeting public transportation. ... The scene of one of the Madrid bombings. ... On Thursday 7 July 2005 a series of four bomb attacks struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ...

External links

  • For Train Riders, Middle Seat Isn't the Center of Attention

  Results from FactBites:
 
Regional rail - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1081 words)
Regional rail or commuter rail usually provide a rail service between a central business district and suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis.
In the United States and Canada, regional passenger rail service is performed by commuter railroads, which are usually governmental or quasi-governmental agencies.
Commuter rail trains are usually composed of multiple units, which are self-propelled, bidirectional, articulated passenger rail cars with driving motors on each (or every other) bogie.
TTA Regional Rail :: Frequently Asked Questions :: (3244 words)
Funding for the Regional Rail Transit System is coming from a combination of federal transit funds, state funds, and a local share - the 5% tax on rental vehicles in the three counties is levied specifically for the purpose of funding transit.
And, according to the latest U.S. Census data, growth in the region is expected to continue, with a projected increase in population of 110% between 1995 and 2025.
Diesel powered rail vehicles are self-propelled and therefore independent from an outside power source, eliminating the need for expensive electrification of the rail corridor through electric power lines (catenary) and substations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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