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Encyclopedia > Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.[1][2] The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Map of the Earth Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Regional powers in the world.
The Regional powers in the world.
GDP is an indicator of a state's economic power.
GDP is an indicator of a state's economic power.
Military expenditure is a factor in a state's military power.
Military expenditure is a factor in a state's military power.

Contents

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1515x628, 61 KB) Summary Countries by GDP, (purchasing power parity) in billions of US dollars for 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1515x628, 61 KB) Summary Countries by GDP, (purchasing power parity) in billions of US dollars for 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x624, 52 KB) Summary Military expenditures by country in US dollars based on CIA factbook figures accessed 31 March 2006 Grey indicates no data (such as Russia). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1435x624, 52 KB) Summary Military expenditures by country in US dollars based on CIA factbook figures accessed 31 March 2006 Grey indicates no data (such as Russia). ... Source: SIPRI Military Expenditure Project Website Military expenditure is an indicator of the economic resources devoted to military purposes. ...

Definition

There are slightly differing definitions of what makes a regional power:


According to the European Consortium for Political Research a regional power can be defined as "a state belonging to a geographically defined region, dominating this region in economic and military terms, able to exercise hegemonic influence in the region and considerable influence on the world scale, willing to make use of power resources and recognized or even accepted as the regional leader by its neighbours".[3] The European Consortium for Political Research is an association of scholarly institutions supporting the study of political science. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // A resource is that natural and human wealth which can be used to satisfy human needs. ...


According to the German Institute of Global and Area Studies a regional power must ;

  • be part of a definable region with an identity of its own
  • claim to be one (self-image of a regional power)
  • exert decisive influence on the geographic extension of the region as well as on its ideological construction
  • dispose over comparatively high military, economic, demographic, political and ideological capabilities
  • be well integrated into the region
  • define the regional security agenda to a high degree
  • be appreciated as a regional power by other powers in the region and beyond, especially by other regional powers
  • be well connected with regional and global fora. [4]

Some states may be regarded as both a Great power and a regional power. Likewise some states may be regarded as a Middle power and a regional power. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ...


Current regional powers

Below are states that have been described as regional powers by international relations and political science academics, analysts, or other experts. These states to some extent meet the criteria to have regional power status, as described above. Different experts have differing views on exactly which states are regional powers. States are arranged by their region. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...


East Asia

China Geographic East Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...


Considered an emerging superpower by some political analysts and a significant regional power by others. [5][6][7] Some academics think China is now a regional power in Southeast Asia, as well as East Asia. [8] [9] The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


It has the world's largest population, 1.3 billion people.[10] It is currently the 4th largest economy in the world in nominal GDP and growing at a rate of over 9% a year, [11] and has the largest reserves of foreign exchange and gold in the world. [12] China is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


In terms of manpower, China has the biggest military in the world, with 2,250,000 active troops. [13] Chinese defence expenditure is the highest in East Asia, and the second highest in the world. [14] China has nuclear weapons, inter-continental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The Redoutable, a French SNLE (now a museum) A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles (SLBMs), such as the Russian SS-N-18 or the American Trident. ...


Japan Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...


Japan is considered a regional power by academics at the City University of Hong Kong, [15] and is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute. [16] Main campus of CityU The City University of Hong Kong (CityU) (Traditional Chinese: ) is one of the eight universities in Hong Kong. ...


Japan has the second highest nominal GDP in the world, and the largest in East Asia. [17] It also has the second largest population and defence budget in the region, after China. [18] Japan has technologically advanced armed forces; however has limited real power projection capability due to its post-war constitution, but has the ability to rebuilt quickly if it normalized. USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ...


Europe

France World map showing the location of Europe. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


France has been described as a regional power by the Global Policy Forum [19], and Samuel P. Huntington [20], and is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute. [21] Global Policy Forum, or GPF, is an organization seeking to promote accountability of international organizations such as the United Nations and strengthen international law. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


France has the third-largest economy in Europe.[22] France is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. It is a NATO member, and has the second largest defence expenditure in Europe. [23] France has nuclear weapons, inter-continental ballistic missiles, ballistic missile submarines, and is the only nation besides the United States to operate a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea...



Germany Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...


Germany has been described as a regional power by Samuel P. Huntington[24], and other academics.[25]It is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute. [26] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Germany is the worlds largest exporter. [27] Germany has the highest GDP in Europe, [28] and is also the most populous nation in the E.U, giving it the most seats in the European Parliament, and influence within the E.U. Germany is a member of NATO, and has the third largest defence expenditure in Europe [29] Economics In economics, an export is any good or commodity, shipped or otherwise transported out of a country, province, town to another part of the world, typically for use in trade or sale. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Political parties 8 Committees 22 Last election June 2004 (785 MEPs) Meeting place Brussels and Strasbourg Secretariat Luxembourg and Brussels Website europarl. ...



Italy Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...


"From a central position in the Mediterranean sea, Italy has a regional preeminence in the very strategical area situated between South-central Europe, North Africa and Middle East. " [30] The regional importance of the country is also attested by CIA : " ...strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe" [31] and " Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. "[32]


Italy is among the majors EU countries in terms of population and GDP with "...roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK"[33] About military expenditures Italy is the fifth contributor of Nato (not far from Germany) and in the world is among the top ten, with roughly the same expenditures of Russia (see references about NATO military budget and military expenditures). NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... A military budget of an entity, most often a nation or a state, is the budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining armed forces for that entity. ... Military spending in 2005 This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ...



Russia Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ...


Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace[34] and the CSBA policy research institute[35] state that Russia is a regional power. The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ...


Russia has a larger population and land area than any other European country. It has the sixth largest GDP in Europe.[36] It has a permanent seat on the U.N Security Council. Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and inter-continental ballistic missiles in the world. [37] It also has ballistic missile submarines, and is the only country in Europe with a strategic bomber force. However Russian defence spending is only the fourth highest in Europe. Boeing B-52 strategic bomber taking off A strategic bomber is a large aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance on a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemys capacity to wage war. ... Military spending in 2005 This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ...


Russia is the second largest producer [38] and exporter [39] of oil in the world, after Saudi Arabia. It has the largest proven oil reserves of any European country.[40] Russia is also the world's largest producer, [41] and exporter [42] of Natural gas, with the largest proven reserves in the world. [43] Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...


United Kingdom Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...


The U.K is described as a regional power by scholars at the University of Cambridge [44] It has been called a European power by a professor at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies. [45] The U.K is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute. [46] The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


The U.K has the second largest economy in Europe. [47] The U.K is also a permanent member of the U.N security council. It has the largest defence budget in Europe, and is a NATO member. [48]The U.K possesses nuclear weapons, inter-continental ballistic missiles, ballistic missile submarines, and is the only European country with more than one aircraft carrier.


Latin America

Brazil Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ...


Brazil is considered a regional power by academia [49][50][51]. Condoleezza Rice has said, "I think it is a fact that Brazil is a regional power and, in fact, Brazil is a growing global presence". [52] Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


Brazil is the largest state by area and population in the region. Its GDP in 2006 was $1.616 trillion PPP, the largest in the region. [53] In addition, it has the largest defense budget and armed forces in Latin America [54][55], and is the only country in the region with an aircraft carrier. [56]. On the global stage Brazil is a member of the G8+5, a political and economic group composed of emerging economic powers and the G8. The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ...


Argentina Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ...


Argentina has been called a regional power by the Council on Hemispheric Affairs[57] and by the Internationale Politik journal.[58]. Argentine leadership on specific issues like peacekeeping missions[59] and nuclear development [60] has also been denoted. The Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1975, with the goal of promoting awareness of hemispheric issues and encouraging the formulation of rational political and economic U.S. policies towards the region. ... Internationale Politik is the journal of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für auswärtige Politik (German Council on Foreign Relations). ...


Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.[61] Argentina tops the Human Development Index Ranking in Latin America. It comes in second place in terms of area extension (8th in the world) and literacy rate, it has the third highest GDP in the whole region, and it is also the fourth most populated country. Argentina is known to be a strong proponent of enhanced regional stability in South America. For example, it has discouraged military takeovers in Ecuador and Paraguay and served with the U.S., Brazil, and Chile as one of the four guarantors of the Ecuador-Peru peace process.[62] It is also the largest natural gas producer in the region[63] with a production of 44,880,000,000 cu m. Countries by area This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ...



Mexico Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ...


Mexico has been called a Latin American regional power by academics and the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs[64][65]. Mexico has the second largest GDP in the region[66] with $1.134 USD trillion. It has the second largest defence budget ($6.07 billion USD) [67] and armed forces[68] in Latin America.


Mexico is the largest exporter in the region, in 2006 it exported 248.8 billion USD, almost equivalent to the exports of all members of Mercosur combined, which total 258.4 billion USD [69]. It is also the largest producer of oil in Latin America and the 6th largest in the world [70] For other uses, see Export (disambiguation). ... Official Languages Portuguese, Spanish and Guaraní Members  Argentina (1991)  Brazil (1991)  Paraguay (1991)  Uruguay (1991)  Venezuela (2006)2 Associate Members  Bolivia (1997)  Chile (1996)  Colombia (2004)  Ecuador (2004)  Peru (2003) Observer  Mexico (2004)3 Presidency Carlos Chacho Álvarez Seat of Secretariat Montevideo Area 12. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes...


Mexico is also part of the G8+5 and the only Latin American member of the OECD. The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Middle East

Egypt A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ...


Egypt has been called a regional power in the Middle East by former U.S Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen. [71] Efraim Inbar of Bar-Ilan University calls Egypt a Middle Eastern regional power and the "most important Arab state". [72] The Power and Interest News Report has called Egypt "one of the most important players in the Middle East". [73] Vladimir Putin has called the country a key regional power. [74] Egypt has also been called an African regional power by academics. [75] The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... William Sebastian Cohen (born August 28, 1940) is an American Republican politician from Maine. ... Bar-Ilan University (BIU, אוניברסיטת בר-אילן) is a university in Ramat Gan, Israel. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ...


However Professor Asher Susser of Tel Aviv University talks of the "decline of the relative importance" of Egypt and says, "During Gamal Abdul Nasser’s presidency, Egypt was a leading force in setting the regional agenda. Nowadays, Egypt has very little influence beyond its borders." [76] Saad Eddin Ibrahim also says Egypt's status as a regional power under Hosni Mubarak has weakened steadily. [77] The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Saad Eddin Ibrahim (Arabic: سعد الدين ابراهيم) (born in Shubra-el-Khema in 1938) is an Egyptian American sociologist and human rights activist who was imprisoned in 2000 under suspicion of espionage and corruption. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ...


Egypt's population is the largest in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Arab world, and the second largest in Africa. It has the second largest GDP in North Africa, which is the third largest in the Arab world, and fourth largest in Africa and the Middle East. [78] Egypt has the largest military in the Arab world and Africa by manpower, and the second largest in the Middle East. [79] Egypt's military budget is the third largest in Africa, fourth largest among Arab states, and fifth largest in the Middle East. [80] Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ...


Iran Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ...


Iran is considered by academics and experts to be a regional power in the Middle East.[81] [82] John Simpson (World affairs editor, BBC News) named Iran as the region's superpower:"Iran is now a regional superpower, and ever since the Islamic revolution in 1978-9, we in the West have consistently misunderstood it." [83] Barry Rubin professor at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel published result of his research in 'The Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA)': "Iran is the sole regional great power today in the Middle East, because no Arab state can claim that title. It has expanded influence in Iraq, Lebanon, and among the Palestinians as well as in parts of Afghanistan. In many ways it is the patron of Syria. The growing Shi'a-Sunni rift is adding to Iran's influence, which is also helped by the high price of oil; even without nuclear weapons." [84] John Simpson has been World Affairs Editor for BBC News since 1998. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Barry Rubin is a professor at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel and the Director of the Global Research in International Affairs (GLORIA) Center of the IDC. He is also Research Director of the IDC’s Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy; the editor of the journal Turkish... It has been suggested that Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya be merged into this article or section. ... Ben-GÅ«ryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a non-profit publication owned and edited by Professor Barry Rubin in conjunction with the Global Research in International Affairs Center (GLORIA) of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


Iran has the third largest GDP in the region.[85] It has the fourth largest defence budget in the region,[86] although Iran's military was called the Middle East's most powerful by General John Abizaid chief of United States Central Command. [87] Iran has developed Medium-range ballistic missiles. The Islamic Republic of Iran has two kinds of armed forces: the regular forces and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Philip Abizaid (Arabic: جون أبي زيد) (born April 1, 1951) is a General in the United States Army and the Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM), overseeing American military operations in a 27-country region, from the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to South and Central Asia, covering much... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... A Medium Range Ballistic Missile, commonly abreviated to MRBM, is a type of ballistic missile with a range between 1500 and 2000 km. ...


Iran is the world's fourth largest producer, [88] and fifth largest exporter [89] of oil. It has the third largest proven reserves of oil in the world. [90] Iran is also the sixth largest producer of natural gas, [91] with the second largest proven reserves. [92]


Israel Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...


Israel is called a regional power in a report written in conjunction with the U.S. Army War College. [93] It has also been called a Middle Eastern regional power by other academics. [94][95] In the opinion of Avner Cohen and a former acting director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; "Israel is a regional power, in fact the strongest military power in the region." [96] The United States Army War College is a United States Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500 acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks, a military post dating back to the 1770s. ... Avner Cohen is writer, historian, and professor, and is well known for his works on nuclear weapons. ... Scud Missile The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat. ...


Israel has the fourth largest GDP in the region.[97] It has the third largest defence budget in the region.[98] Israel is the only country in the region thought to have nuclear weapons, which could be delivered by the Jericho medium-range ballistic missile. Jericho is a general designation given to the Israeli medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM). ...


Saudi Arabia Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ...


Saudi Arabia has been called a regional power by former Japanese foreign minister Yoriko Kawaguchi.[99] BBC News has called Saudi Arabia a "regional power-house".[100] YaleGlobal Online has an article describing Saudi as "a leading regional power".[101] CNN,[102] and PBS[103] have also described the country as a regional power. Yoriko Kawaguchi (川口 順子 Kawaguchi Yoriko) (born January 14, 1941) is a Japanese politician. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... YaleGlobal Online is a publication of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...


Saudi Arabia has a special significance in the Muslim world, as it contains Islam's two most holy sites, Mecca and Medina. It has the second largest GDP in the region after Turkey,[104] and the largest defence budget in the region.[105] The Kingdom is also the worlds largest producer [106] and exporter [107] of crude oil, and has the worlds largest proven reserves of crude oil.[108] Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...


Turkey Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ...


Turkey is situated in Asia-Minor with a small part in Southeast Europe. Although it is not normally considered part of the Middle East, it borders Iran, Iraq, and Syria, and has been called a regional power in the Middle East by academics.[109][110][111] [112] According to Professor Asher Susser of Tel Aviv University; "What is new about the Middle East is the rise of non-Arab players, namely Turkey, Israel and particularly Iran, as regional powers in parallel with the decline of the relative importance of what were once key Arab players in the region, namely Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia." And "Turkish participation in the Middle East is unavoidable and its territorial proximity to the Middle East alone is significant" [113] Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


Turkey's GDP is larger than any Middle Eastern countries.[114] Turkey is a member of NATO. Its military expenditure is second, after Saudi Arabia but ahead of Iran. [115]


North America

U.S.A World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


The U.S.A is considered a Superpower. [116] The Encyclopedia Britannica states that "the Soviet collapse left the United States with undisputed status as the world's most powerful country", and calls the U.S "the world's sole superpower". [117] The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still...


It has the largest GDP in the world.[118] The U.S also has the third largest population in the world, and is a permanent member of the U.N security council. The U.S defence budget is the largest in the world, [119] and is almost equal to the combined military spending of all other nations. [120] The U.S.A has the second largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and inter-continental ballistic missiles in the world. [121]It also has more aircraft carriers and ballistic missile submarines than any other country, and is the only country apart from Russia that operates strategic bomber aircraft. The U.S.A is the most influential member in NATO.


U.S oil production is the third highest in the world [122] It is the world's second largest producer of natural gas. [123]


Oceania

Australia World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Australia is considered a regional power by academics at the Australian National University. [124] Australian foreign minister Alexander Downer has claimed "Australia is an especially significant regional power in our neighbourhood". [125] The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ... Alexander John Gosse Downer, MP (born 9 September 1951), Australian politician, became Foreign Minister of Australia in March 1996. ...


Australia is the world’s sixth largest country by area. It has by far the largest GDP in Oceania, and the fourth largest in the wider Asia-Pacific region. [126] Australia's defence spending is also the largest in Oceania, and fourth largest in Asia-Pacific. [127] Australia is a member of the ANZUS military alliance with the USA and New Zealand. Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia Pacific or Asia-Pacific, sometimes abbreviated as APAC, generally applies to the littoral East Asia and South East Asia states that are near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ...


South Asia

India Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ...


India has been identified as an emerging [128][129] or existing [130] [131] regional power.


India is the world's most populous democracy. It has by far the largest GDP in the region,[132] and has impressive GDP growth which sits today at 9.2%[133] According to political analyst C. Raja Mohan: "India's omnidirectional engagement with the great powers has paid off handsomely. Never before has India had such expansive relations with all the major powers at the same time—a result not only of India's increasing weight in the global economy and its growing power potential, but also of New Delhi's savvy and persistent diplomacy." [134] The world economy can be represented various ways, and broken down in various ways. ...


It has the largest defence budget in the region. [135] India possesses nuclear weapons, intermediate-range ballistic missiles, and is the only South Asian country with an aircraft carrier. In 2007, India became the fourth nation to complete atmospheric reentry, an indication of its recent scientific progress.[136] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Reentry redirects here. ...


Southeast Asia

Indonesia Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ...


Indonesia has been described as a regional power in Southeast Asia by academia. [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] According to the Power and Interest News Report; "Given Jakarta's powerful military establishment and continuing investment in military hardware and development, Indonesia will emerge as an even more powerful player in Southeast Asia. If the state is able to hold together in the face of the mounting social, economic and natural challenges, it will potentially emerge as an even more powerful regional player." [143] Power and Interest News Report (PINR) is an independently funded international organization that provides analysis of global conflicts and political events. ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Indonesia has by far the largest population in Southeast Asia, and the fourth largest in the world. It has the largest GDP in the region, [144] but only has the fourth largest defence spending. [145]


Southern Africa

South Africa Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ...


South Africa has been described by academics as an emerging or existing regional power. [146] [147] [148] [149] According to academics at Sheffield University; "since 1994, the economic and political power of democratic South Africa has enjoyed unfettered access to the entire (Southern Africa) region. Take-overs of local firms and direct investment by South African companies dominate neighbouring economies dependent on Pretoria for transport links and energy supplies. No less important are those occasions when Pretoria chooses not to flex its muscles, notably the current crisis in Zimbabwe." [150] University of Sheffield Rerum Cognoscere Causas (To discover the causes of things) Shield image © University of Sheffield The University of Sheffield is a university located in Sheffield, England. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ...


South Africa has the largest GDP in Africa [151], and the largest defence budget of any African country. [152]


West Africa

Nigeria  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ...


Nigeria has been called an "emerging regional power",[153] "a regional power in West Africa," [154] and "the undisputed regional power in the West African region"[155] by academics. Former U.S Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas R. Pickering has called Nigeria "a regional power house", that plays "an important role in West Africa". [156] Ambassador R. Nicholas Burns The Under Secretary for Political Affairs is the third ranking position in the United States Department of State, after the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary. ... Thomas Reeve Tom Pickering (born November 5, 1931), is a retired United States Ambassador. ...


Nigeria has the largest population in Africa, and the 9th largest in the world. Nigeria's GDP is by far the largest in West Africa, and the third largest in Africa. [157] Nigeria has the largest defence budget in West Africa, and the 7th largest in Africa. [158] Nigeria is Africa's largest and the world's 12th largest producer of Crude oil.[159] It also has the 10th largest Oil reserves in the world. [160] This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have some influence internationally. ... The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The British Moment The British Moment is a term, first used by The Henry Jackson Society, to describe the growth of British global influence in recent years. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing, PRC - Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Regional power markets planned (435 words)
In regional power markets, power companies are expected to be stripped of the current guaranteed profit returns, and have to compete to sell part of their electricity through a "power pooling system,'' or bidding system.
Some analysts said the establishment of regional power markets is welcome news for generating companies, given that half of the nation's territory are experiencing tightened power supply.
Shanghai, for instance, has to cut off power frequently these days because the grid could not meet the surging electricity consumption when more air conditioners are used in the sweltering summer.
Regional power - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1878 words)
A regional power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe a state with power and influence that allows it to have a certain element of control over its geographical region.
If there are any major powers or superpowers in a region, they are automatically accepted as a regional power, even though their power and influence spreads well beyond the boundaries of their region (this can be seen with China in East Asia, India in South Asia and the United States in North America).
Most regions would only have one dominant regional power, with the remaining powers under its influence, however, in places like Europe, this is not always the case.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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