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Encyclopedia > Reginald Punnett
Image:Reg Punnet.jpg
Reginald Punnett

Professor Reginald Crundall Punnet, F.R.S. (June 20, 1875January 3, 1967) was a British geneticist who co-founded, with William Bateson, the Journal of Genetics in 1910. Punnet is probably best remembered today as the creator of the Punnet square, a tool still used by biologists to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring. His Mendelism (1905) is sometimes said to have been the first textbook on genetics; it was probably the first popular science book to introduce genetics to the public. The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... William Bateson (August 8, 1861—February 8, 1926) was a British geneticist. ... The Journal of Genetics (not to be confused with another journal called Genetics) is a scientific journal concerning genetics. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... A Punnett square is a tool in genetics developed by British geneticist Reginald Punnett, and which biologists still use to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Probability is the extent to which something is likely to happen or be the case[1]. Probability theory is used extensively in areas such as statistics, mathematics, science, philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying mechanics of complex systems. ... The genotype is the specific genetic genome of an individual, in the form of DNA. It is basically ones DNA including the influence of environmental variation, it codes for the phenotype of that individual. ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ...

Contents

Biography

Reginald Punnet was born in 1875 in the town of Tonbridge in Kent, England. While recovering from a childhood bout of appendicitis, Punnet became acquainted with Jardine's Naturalist's Library and developed an interest in natural history.


Attending Gonville and Caius College at the University of Cambridge, Punnet earned a degree in zoology in 1898, and a masters in 1902. Between these degrees he worked as a demonstrator and part-time lecturer at the University of St. Andrew's Natural History Department. However, by 1902 Punnet was back at Cambridge working in zoology, primarily the study of worms, specifically nemerteans. It was during this time that he and William Bateson began a research collaboration, which lasted several years.[1] Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto - Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348 Sister College Brasenose College Master Neil McKendrick Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Graduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, generally known as Caius (though pronounced... The University of Cambridge (usually abbreviated as Cantab. ... University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410-1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the United Kingdom. ... Classes Anopla Enopla The phylum Nemertea (also Nemertina, Nemertinea or Nemertini) contains the ribbon worms or proboscis worms, which are a group of unsegmented marine invertebrates. ...


When Punnet was an undergraduate, Gregor Mendel's work on inheritance was largely unknown and unappreciated by scientists. However, in 1900, Mendel's work was rediscovered by Carl Correns, Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries. William Bateson became a proponent of Mendelian genetics, and had Mendel's work translated into English. It was with Bateson that Reginald Punnet helped established the new science of genetics at Cambridge. He and Bateson co-discovered genetic linkage through experiments with chickens and pea plants. Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] – January 6, 1884) was an Austrian[2] Augustinian priest and scientist often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Carl Erich Correns (September 10, 1864, in Munich - February 14, 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist, who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity, and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendels earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independent of... Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1871 – 1962) was an Austrian agronomist. ... Hugo Marie de Vries (16th February 1848-21st May 1935), a Dutch biologist, was one of three men - see also Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak - who in 1900 rediscovered Gregor Mendels work on genetics. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Genetic linkage occurs when particular alleles are inherited jointly. ...


In 1908, unable to explain how a dominant gene would not become fixed and ubiquitous in a population, Punnett introduced one of his problems to the mathematician G. H. Hardy, with whom he played cricket. Hardy went on to formulate the Hardy-Weinberg principle, independently of the German Wilhelm Weinberg. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... G. H. Hardy Professor Godfrey Harold Hardy FRS (February 7, 1877 – December 1, 1947) was a prominent English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. ... For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... Hardy–Weinberg principle for two alleles: the horizontal axis shows the two allele frequencies p and q, the vertical axis shows the genotype frequencies and the three possible genotypes are represented by the different glyphs In population genetics, the Hardy–Weinberg principle (HWP) (also Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), or Hardy... Wilhelm Weinberg Dr Wilhelm Weinberg (1862 — 1937) was a German physician who in 1908 independently of the British mathematician G.H. Hardy, formulated the Hardy-Weinberg principle. ...


In 1910 Punnet became professor of biology at Cambridge, and then the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics when Bateson left in 1912. In the same year, Punnet was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He received the society's Darwin Medal in 1922. The Arthur Balfour Professorship of Genetics is one of the senior professorships in biochemistry at the University of Cambridge, founded in 1912. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... The Darwin Medal is given by the Royal Society on even years to a biologist or a husband and wife team of biologists. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


During World War I, Punnet successfully applied his expertise to the problem of the early determination of gender in chickens. Since only females were used for food, early identification of male chicks, who were destroyed, meant that more of the limited food supplies could be given to the females. Punnet's work in this area was summarized in Heredity in Poultry (1923).


Reginald Punnet retired in 1940, and died at the age of 91 in 1967 in Bilbrook, Somerset. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Bilbrook is a village just outside Wolverhampton, England. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ...


Partial bibliography

  • Mendelism (1905) with 6 further editions
  • Mimicry in Butterflies (1915)
  • Heredity in Poultry (1923)

External links

  • A brief biographical sketch of Punnett
  • A briefer biographical sketch of Punnett
  • A Brief History of the Cambridge University Department of Genetics

Notes

  1. ^ Dates from http://www.bookrags.com/biography/r-c-punnett-wob/ World of Biology, 2005, Thomson Gale

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reginald Punnett - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (236 words)
Punnett was also the creator of the Punnett square, a tool in genetics which is still used by biologists today to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring.
Punnett became the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge, when Bateson left Cambridge in 1912 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in the same year.
Punnett received the society's Darwin Medal in 1922.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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