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Encyclopedia > Reginald Cardinal Pole
Reginald Cardinal Pole

Archbishop of Canterbury

Enthroned 1556
Ended November 17, 1558
Predecessor Thomas Cranmer
Successor Matthew Parker
Born March 1500
Died November 17, 1558
Buried Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, Kent

Reginald Pole (1500November 17, 1558) was an English prelate, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Image File history File links Reginald_Pole. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Matthew Parker Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504 - May 17, 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559. ... The new east end of Canterbury cathedral, named after the severed crown of Thomas Becket, whose shrine it was built to contain. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic...

Contents

To the reign of Queen Mary I

He was a son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury. His maternal grandparents were George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and Isabella Neville, Duchess of Clarence. Margaret Pole (1473 - 1541), Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Isabella Neville . ... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... Isabella Neville (1451-1476) was the elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker of the Wars of the Roses. ...


The last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Pole was born in at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England in March 1500.[1] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Stourton is a hamlet in Staffordshire, England a few miles to the northwest of Stourbridge and close to the village of Kinver, and the hamlets of Prestwood and Dunsley. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total...


He was a member of Magdalen College, Oxford from about 1512 until about 1519. He was taught by William Latimer and Thomas Linacre, and admitted BA on 27 June 1515. In February 1518 Henry granted him the deanery of Wimborne Minster, Dorset. College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... William Latimer, (c. ... Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c. ... The Minster Wimborne Minster is a market town in the East Dorset district of Dorset in South West England and the name of the church in that town. ...


In 1521, Pole went to Padua, where he met such leading Renaissance figures as Pietro Bembo, Gianmatteo Giberti (formerly pope Leo X's datary and chief minister), Jacopo Sadoleto, Gianpietro Carafa (the future Pope Paul IV), Rodolfo Pio, Otto Truchsess, Stanislaus Hosius, Cristoforo Madruzzo, Giovanni Morone, Pier Paolo Vergerio the younger, Pietro Martire Vermigli and Vettor Soranzo. The last three were eventually condemned as heretics by the Catholic Church, with Vermigli - as a well-known Protestant theologian - having a significant share in the Reformation at Pole's native England. Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... Gian Matteo Giberti (born at Palermo in 1495; died at Verona, 30 December 1543) was an Italian diplomat, Bishop of Verona and Cardinal. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... The Apostolic dataria was one of the five Ufficii di Curia which were part of the Roman Curia until its abolition in the 20th century. ... Jacopo Sadoleto (1477-1547), Italian humanist and churchman, was born at Modena in 1477, and, being the son of a noted jurist, was designed for the same profession. ... Pope Paul IV (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559), né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... Rodolfo Pio da Carpi (February 22, 1500 – May 2, 1564) was an Italian Cardinal, humanist and patron of the arts. ... Otto Truchsess von Waldburg (b. ... Stanislaus Hosius (May 5, 1504 - August 5, 1579, born in Cracow, legate to Poland, cardinal and Ermland Warmia Prince-Bishop. ... Cristoforo Madruzzo (1512-1578), politician, cardinal, studied at the University of Padova and University of Bologna. ... Giovanni Morone (25th January 1509 - 1st December 1580) was an Italian cardinal born in Milan, where his father, Count leronimo Morone (d. ... Vergerios bust at Koper, Slovenia Pier (also: Pietro) Paolo Vergerio (1498–October 4, 1565), was an Italian Reformer. ... Pietro Martire Vermigli, known as Peter Martyr (1500-1562), was a theologian of the Reformation period. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...

Styles of
Reginald Cardinal Pole
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See Canterbury

His studies were partly financed by his election as a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 14 February 1523, which allowed him to study abroad for three years. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x741, 86 KB) Description: Vestments of a cardinal: red cassock, rochet trimmed with lace, red chimere, apostolical cross. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... College name Corpus Christi College Named after Corpus Christi, Body of Christ Established 1517 Sister College Corpus Christi College President Sir Tim Lankester JCR President Binyamin Even Undergraduates 239 Graduates 126 Homepage Corpus Christi College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...


Pole returned home in July 1526, when he went to France, escorted by Thomas Lupset. Henry VIII offered him the archbishopric of York or the diocese of Winchester if he would support his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Pole withheld his support and went into self-imposed exile in France and Italy in 1532, continuing his studies in Padua and Paris. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Arms of the see of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Diocese of Winchester forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Gymnasivm Patavinum: The Universitys main Bo palace shown in a 1654 woodcut The University of Padua (Italian Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) located in Padua, Italy was founded in 1222. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


The final break between Pole and the King followed upon Thomas Cromwell, Cuthbert Tunstall, Thomas Starkey, and others addressing questions to Pole on behalf of the King. He answered by sending Henry a copy of his published treatise Pro ecclesiasticae unitatis defensione which, besides being a theological reply to the questions, was a strong denunciation of the king's policies. Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Cuthbert Tunstall (or Tonstall) (1474 - November 18, 1559) was an English church leader, twice Bishop of Durham. ... Thomas Starkey (c. ...


The incensed King, with Pole himself out of his reach, took a terrible revenge upon Pole's family members. Though Pole's mother and his elder brother had written to him in reproof of his attitude and action, the King did not spare them. In November 1538, Reginald Pole's eldest brother Henry Pole, Baron Montagu, another son and other relatives were arrested on a charge of treason, though Thomas Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [the Cardinal] is of their kin", they were committed to the Tower, and in January, with the exception of Geoffrey Pole, they were executed. Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ...


Reginald Pole's mother Margaret was also arrested, kept for several years under severe conditions in the Tower, and finally executed in 1541, protesting her innocence until the last - a highly publicised case which was considered a grave miscarriage of justice both at the time and later. Pole is known to have said that he would "...never fear to call himself the son of a martyr". (She was later regarded by Catholics, though only formally beatified many centuries later, in 1886 by Pope Leo XIII). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ...


Aside from the aforementioned oppositional treatise, King's Henry's harshness towards the Pole family might have derived from Pole's mother being the last descendant of the House of Plantagenet, which under some circumstances could have made Reginald - until he definitely chose for the Church - a possible contender for the throne itself. Indeed, in 1535 Pole was considered by Eustace Chapuys, the Imperial ambassador to England, as a possible husband for Princess Mary, later Mary I of England. The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Eustace Chapuys (1491?-1545) served as the Imperial Ambassador to England (1529-45) and is best known for his extensive and detailed correspondence. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ...


Pole was made cardinal under Pope Paul III in 1536, over Pole's own objections. In 1542 he was appointed as one of the three papal legates to preside over the Council of Trent, and after the death of Pope Paul III in 1549 Pole at one point had nearly the two-thirds of the vote he need to become Pope himself [2] at the papal conclave, 1549-1550. Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson, Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma The papal conclave from November 29, 1549 to February 7, 1550, which was convened after the death of Pope Paul III, was the second-longest papal conclave of the 16th...


Later Years

His tomb at Canterbury Cathedral

The death of Edward VI Tudor on 6 July 1553 and the accession of Mary I to the throne of England hastened Pole's return from exile, as papal legate. In 1554 Cardinal Pole came England to receive the kingdom back into the Roman fold. However, Mary and Emperor Charles V deliberately delayed him until 20 November 1554, due to apprehension that Pole might oppose the Queen's forthcoming marriage to Charles' son, Philip II of Spain.[3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord...


Pole's return was followed by an Act of Parliament, the Revival of the Heresy Acts. This revived three former Acts against heresy; the letters patent of 1382 of King Richard II, an Act of 1401 of King Henry IV, and an Act of 1414 of King Henry V. All three of these laws had been repealed under King Henry VIII and King Edward VI.[4] On 13 November 1555, Cranmer was officially deprived of the See of Canterbury.[5] Under Mary's rule, Pole was finally ordained as a priest on 20 March 1556 and raised to Archbishop of Canterbury, an office he would hold until his death. As well as his religious duties, he was in effect the Queen's chief minister and adviser. Many former enemies, including Thomas Cranmer, signed recantations affirming their religious belief in transubstantiation and papal supremacy.[6] Despite this, which should have absolved them under Mary’s own Heresy Act, the Queen could not forget their responsibility for her mother's unhappy divorce.[7] Executions continued to be the order of the day. In November 1554, the Revival of the Heresy Acts revived three former Acts against heresy; the letters patent of 1382 of King Richard II, an Act of 1401 of King Henry IV, and an Act of 1414 of King Henry V. All three of these laws had been repealed under... There is also a play entitled Richard II by Shakespeare. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England, as depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry V Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 - August 31, 1422), King of England, son of Henry IV of England by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in September... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... In November 1554, the Revival of the Heresy Acts revived three former Acts against heresy; the letters patent of 1382 of King Richard II, an Act of 1401 of King Henry IV, and an Act of 1414 of King Henry V. All three of these laws had been repealed under...


Pole shares responsibility for these persecutions and mass burning of Protestants which became the norm during Mary's reign and - contrary to his intention - contributed to making the Roman Catholic Church hated for many generations in England. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Pole died in London on 17 November 1558, a few hours after Queen Mary. He was buried on the north side of the Corona at Canterbury Cathedral. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The new east end of Canterbury cathedral, named after the severed crown of Thomas Becket, whose shrine it was built to contain. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...


Writings

He was the author of a book De Concilio and treatises on the authority of the Roman pontiff and the Anglican Reformation of England, and of many important letters, full of interest for the history of the time, edited by Quirini (five volumes, Brescia, 1744-57).


Pole is known for his strong condemnation of Machiavelli's book The Prince, which he read while in Italy, and on which he commented: "I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race. It explains every means whereby religion, justice and any inclination toward virtue could be destroyed" [Dwyer, p. xxiii]. Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


In Fiction

Cardinal Pole is a major character in the historical novel The Trusted Servant by Alison Macleod. The book's (fictional) protagonist is sent by King Henry VIII to assassinate Pole in Italy. He relents and saves the Cardinal from a fellow assassin, and is taken into Pole's service. A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


As first presented to the reader, Cardinal Pole is a kindly, indeed almost saintly man, highly liberal and tolerant by the standards of the Catholic Church of the time, and the protagonist becomes very devoted to his service. But when Pole returns to England after King Henry's death and the accession of Mary, he becomes more and more tyrannical and oppressive: exasperated with the recalcitrance of the English, their refusal to embrace Catholicism and their sympathy for the underground Protestant sects.


Macleod also suggests that Pole was subconsciously guided by vindictiveness against the English, for having failed to stand by his mother when she was put to death under the old King. Finally, the protagonist breaks with him and helps condemned Protestants to escape.


When last seen in the book, Pole is presented as a tragic, broken man, whose dreams and ideals have all turned to ashes, and who while facing the hostility the Protestants is suddenly also attacked by the Pope in Rome, his former friend Caraffa.

Religious posts
Preceded by
Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop of Canterbury
1556–1558
Succeeded by
Matthew Parker
Academic offices
Preceded by
John Mason
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1556–1558
Succeeded by
Earl of Arundel

Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Matthew Parker Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504 - May 17, 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559. ... Sir John Mason (1503 – April 20, 1566) was an English diplomat and spy. ... Chancellors of the University of Oxford include: 1224 Robert Grosseteste (Master of the School of Oxford since 1208) 1231 Ralph Cole (surname queried) 1231 Richard Batchden 1233 Ralph Cole 1238 Simon de Bovill 1239 John de Rygater 1240 Richard of Chichester 1240 Ralph de Heyham 1244 Simon de Bovill 1246... Henry Fitzalan, 19th Earl of Arundel (c. ...

Bibliography

  • T. Phillips, History of the Life of Reginald Pole (two volumes, Oxford, 1764), the earliest English.
  • A. M. Stewart, Life of Cardinal Pole (London, 1882)
  • F. G. Lee, Reginald Pole, Cardinal Archbishop of Canterbury: An Historical Sketch (London, 1888)
  • Athanasius Zimmermann, Kardinal Pole: sein Leben und seine Schriften (Regensberg, 1893)
  • James Gairdner, The English Church in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1903)
  • Martin Haile, Life of Reginald Pole (New York, 1910)
  • Cardinal Pole is a major character in the historical novel "The Loyal Servant" by Alison Macleod.
  • This article incorporates text from an edition of the New International Encyclopedia that is in the public domain.

James Gairdner (March 22, 1828 - November 4, 1912), English historian, son of John Gairdner, M.D., was born in Edinburgh. ... The New International Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia first published in the 1910s. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

External links

  • "The role of the Venetian Oligarchy" by Webster Tarpley (includes detailed discussion of Pole's activities in Italy)
  • "Queen Mary" by Alfred Tennyson, "Enter Cardinal Pole"
  • Henry Cole, Cardinal Pole's Vicar General, tries to restore Catholicism at Cambridge University

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reginald Cardinal Pole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (679 words)
Reginald Pole (1500 – November 17, 1558) was an English prelate, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
The last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Pole was born in at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England in March 1500.
Cardinal Pole is a major character in the historical novel "The Loyal Servant" by Alison Macleod.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Reginald Cardinal Pole (2593 words)
Pole, however, while using courteous and respectful language to the king, and craving his mother's pardon in another letter for the action he felt bound to take, decided to disobey the summons.
Though the cardinal was absent from Rome, Julius III at once appointed him legate in England, and Pole wrote to the queen to ask her advice as to his future procedure.
On the other hand, the cardinal does not seem to have been at all anxious to add to his responsibilities, and when Archbishop Cranmer was deprived, he showed no great eagerness to succeed him in his functions as archbishop.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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