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Encyclopedia > Reggaeton
Reggaetón
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Late 1980s Puerto Rico and Panama
Typical instruments
Dem Bow (rhythm) - Sampler - Bass - Synthesizer - Drum machine
Mainstream popularity Since mid-1990s in Puerto Rico, worldwide beginning around 2004.
Subgenres
Bachateo - Spanish dancehall - Salsaton - Bhangraton - Fussion Music - Reggaecrunk - Reggaeton Pop - Malianteo - Romantikeo - Rocketon-Electro Flow
Regional scenes
Puerto Rico - Dominican Republic - New York - Panama - Cuba - Japan - Los Angeles - Miami
Other topics
Puerto Rico - Gasolina - Luny Tunes - Machete Music - Perreo -Tempo (artist)

Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. Originating in Panama, Reggaeton blends Jamaican music influences of reggae and dancehall with those of Latin America, such as bomba, plena, salsa, merengue, latin pop and bachata as well as that of hip hop, R&B, and electronica. The music is also combined with rapping or singing in Spanish. Reggaeton has given the Hispanic youth, starting with those from Panama, a musical genre that they can consider their own. The influence of this genre has spread to the wider Latino communities in the United States, as well as the Latin American audience. While it takes influences from hip hop and Jamaican dancehall, it would be wrong to define reggaeton as the Hispanic or Latino version of either of these genres; Reggaeton has its own specific beat and rhythm, whereas Latino hip hop is simply hip hop recorded by artists of Latino descent. The specific rhythm that characterizes reggaeton is referred to as “Dem Bow.”[1][2] The name is a reference to the title of the dancehall song by Shabba Ranks that first popularized the beat in the early 1990s. Reggaeton's origins represents a hybrid of many different musical genres and influences from various countries in the Caribbean, Latin America and the United States. The genre of reggaeton however is most closely associated with Puerto Rico, as this is where the musical style later popularized and became most famous, and where the vast majority of its current stars originate from. [3][4][5][6] Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ... There are a range of musical instruments that can be collectively be regarded as bass instruments since they are in the bass range. ... Synth redirects here. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... Nueva bachata is a musical movement in the Dominican Republic which combines bachata-style melodies and song subjects with reggaeton-style beats, rapping, and disc jockeying. ... Spanish Dancehall sounds similar to Dancehall, the exception is that its in spanish and has the Dembow beat. ... Salsaton is a subgenre of both salsa and reggaeton. ... Fussion Music was first introduced by Reggaeton Producer Danny Fornaris. ... Malianteo is a sub-genre of Reggaeton. ... |Romantikeo is a sub-genre of Reggaeton. ... This article is about the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Miami redirects here. ... This article is about the song named Gasolina. ... Luny Tunes are a Dominican reggaeton production duo composed of Francisco Saldaña (Luny) (born June 23, 1979) and Víctor Cabrera (Tunes) (born April 12, 1981) . Both members were born in Dominican Republic but grew up in the Boston metropolitan area until they moved to Puerto Rico where their... Machete Music is Universal Music Groups Latin urban music holdings including such genres such as Hip-Hop and Reggaeton. ... Perreo is the name of a dance originating in Puerto Rico and which is commonly danced to reggaeton music. ... David Sánchez Badillo (born on 1979 in Ponce, Puerto Rico), known publicly as Tempo, or TEMPO, is a reggaeton and rap artist. ... Urban is in or having to do with cities, as distinct from rural areas. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... For other uses, see Bomba (disambiguation). ... Plena is a folkloric genre native of Puerto Rico. ... Look up salsa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Merengue can mean either: A style of music from Hispainolia based from either Domininican or Haitian origin [1][2]  ; see merengue music See also Méringue, style of music. ... Ritchie Valens album cover Latin Pop (Pop Latino, in Spanish) is pop music from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hispanic American artists who sing in languages spoken in Latin America, mainly Spanish, Italian and Portuguese. ... Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of Dominican Republic. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Rap redirects here. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Hip-Hop music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ...


Reggaeton lyrics tend to be more derived from hip hop than dancehall. Like hip hop, reggaeton has caused some controversy, albeit less, due to alleged exploitation of women [7], and to a lesser extent, explicit and violent lyrics. Further controversy surrounds perreo, a dance with explicit sexual overtones which is sometimes, but not always, associated with reggaeton music. Perreo is the name of a dance originating in Puerto Rico and which is commonly danced to reggaeton music. ...

Contents

History

Reggaeton's roots are from Panama, [7] [8][3] with the music evolving and coming to prominence in Puerto Rico. Reggaeton started as an adaptation of Jamaican reggae (and later Jamaican dancehall) to the Spanish-language culture in Panama [2]. The origins of reggaeton begin with the first reggae recordings being made in Panama during the 1970s. Reportedly, the Jamaican reggae influence on Panamanian music has been strong since the early 20th century, when Jamaican laborers were used to help build the Panama Canal. [2] Afro-Panamanians had been performing and recording Spanish-language reggae since the 1970s. Artists such as El General, Chicho Man, Nando Boom, Renato, and Black Apache are considered the first raggamuffin DJs from Panama. El General has been identified as one of the fathers of reggaeton, blending Jamaican reggae into a Latin-ised version. It was common practice to translate the lyrics of Jamaican reggae song into Spanish and sing them over the original melodies, a form termed “Spanish reggae” or “Reggae en español.” Meanwhile, during the 1980s the Puerto Rican rapper Vico C released Spanish-language hip hop records in his native island. His production of cassettes throughout the 1980s, mixing reggae and hip hop, also helped spread the early reggaeton sound, and he is widely credited with this achievement [9]. The widespread movement of “Spanish reggae” in the Latin-American communities of the Caribbean and the urban centres of the United States help increase its popularity [2]. Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... El General, (born Edgardo A. Franco) is a Panamanian musical artist best known as the father of reggaeton. ... Nando Boom is a reggae singer from Panamá. His real name is Fernando Brown and he began singing in 1977. ... Renato is a first name of Latin origin which means born again (renatus). ... Raggamuffin (or ragga) is a kind of reggae that includes digitized backing instrumentation. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Vico C (born Armando Lozada Cruz on September 8, 1971) is a Puerto Rican rapper and singer who is considered one of the founders of reggaeton. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


During the 1990s reggae production took off seriously in Panama; this also occurred separately in Puerto Rico due to the increased popularity of Jamaican ragga imports. Towards the middle of the decade, Puerto Ricans were producing their own "riddims" with clear influences from hip hop and other styles. These are considered the first proper reggaeton tracks, initially called “under,” a short form of “Underground.” As Caribbean and African-American music gained this momentum in Puerto Rico, Reggae Rap in Spanish marked the beginning of Boricua underground rap and served as an expression for millions of young people. This created an entire invisible, yet prominent underground youth culture that sought to express themselves through Reggae Rap in Spanish. As a youth culture that exists on the fringes of society and criminal illegality, it has often been publicly criticized. The Puerto Rican police launched a raid against underground rap by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under Penal codes of obscenity, issuing fines, and the demoralization of rappers through radio, television, and newspaper media. [10] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Jamaican music (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... Boricua a word of origin from Boriken (or Boriquén, Borinquen, or Borinquén) used by the original Taino Indian population to refer to Puerto Rico before the coming of the Spanish, which translated as The Valiant People of the Sacred House. The word has come to identify any resident...


The term "underground", coming out of hip-hop discourse, associates underground artists as asserting a self-identification that rejects the commercialization of music. In San Juan "underground", however, it was not just about authenticity or ideology, but was literally about position in the market. "Underground" music was circulated via informal networks, copied from cassette to cassette, until the mid 1990s.


DJ Playero was one of the most famous producers of "Underground" at the time, releasing several underground cassettes that featured early performances of some soon-to-be-famous artists like Daddy Yankee. DJ Playero is a Puerto Rican producer of reggaeton artists and albums. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ...


The basis for reggaeton was laid in Puerto Rico at this time, with the melding of Panamanian Spanish reggae, with influences from dancehall, hip-hop and various other Latin American musical genres [2].

The genre morphed through the years, at various points being termed “Melaza,” “música underground,” and “Dem Bow.” This last name originated from reggaeton's distinguishing rhythmic feature: the Dem Bow (alternately spelled “Dembow”) beat, relying heavily on the snare drum, which is used in nearly all Reggaeton songs today. [1] [2] This beat, or riddim, was produced under the direction of Jamaican record producer Bobby "Digital" Dixon and performed by Steely & Clevie. It first became popular in the song “Dem Bow” (They Bow) performed by Jamaican dancehall artist Shabba Ranks in 1991.[11] The song and beat achieved greater popularity among Spanish-speaking Latin Americans when Panamanian artist El General released the song “Son Bow” in 1991, a Spanish language cover of “Dem Bow” using the same musical track.[12]. It should be pointed out that neither Shabba or El General sang reggaeton as neither the genre nor its title were as yet formed. Additionally “Dem Bow” was just a single song in Shabba's catalog, with Ranks not singing another significant song using the “Dem Bow” beat. However the influence of the original Bobby Digital beat is undeniable, and modern Reggaeton often still reflects the original instrumentation, as well as the original rhythmic structure. Image File history File links Dem_Bow_sample. ... Robert Bobby Digital Dixon (born in Kingston, Jamaica) is an influential dancehall producer. ... Steely & Clevie are a Jamaican dancehall duo. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Jamaican music (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... Robert Bobby Digital Dixon (born in Kingston, Jamaica) is an influential dancehall producer. ... Steely & Clevie are a Jamaican dancehall duo. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... El General, (born Edgardo A. Franco) is a Panamanian musical artist best known as the father of reggaeton. ...


Reggaeton's popularity in the U.S. may also owe some credit to popular Latin Rap artists such as Mellow Man Ace (who produced "Mentirosa", the first platinum single by a Latin rapper, in 1989) or even Gerardo with his Latin hip-hop hit "Rico Suave", a top 40 in the U.S. in 1991. Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Hip-Hop music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... Ulpiano Sergio Reyes (born April 12, 1967) is an Afro-Cuban rapper known as Mellow Man Ace. ... Gerardo, real name Gerardo Mejia, is a rapper and singer, born in Ecuador. ...


Rise to popularity

The name reggaeton only gained prominence in the mid-1990s (from the 1994 to 1995 period), with the Dem Bow beat characterizing the genre; this is in contrast to the more reggae, dancehall and hip hop-derived tracks previously created. The name was created in Puerto Rico to signify the hybrid sound, and distinguish it from the previous Spanish reggae, created from the years of mixing the different genres.[2] Today, the music flourishes throughout Latin America. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Reggaeton soon increased in popularity with Latino youth in the United States when DJ Blass worked with artists such as Plan B and Speedy in albums such as Reggaeton Sex. Born in Guayama, Puerto Rico,Orlando Javier Velasque Vega A.K.A Chencho and Edwin Vázquez Vega A.K.A Maldy, they are one of the youngest acts in reggaeton. ...


Reggaeton expanded and became known when other producers followed the steps of DJ Playero, like DJ Nelson and DJ Eric. In the early 90s albums like DJ Playero's Playero 37 (in which Daddy Yankee became known) and The Noise: Underground, The Noise 5 and The Noise 6 were very popular in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Singers like Don Chezina, O.G. Black & Master Joe, Baby Rasta & Gringo, and Lito Y Polaco among others were very popular. DJ Playero is a Puerto Rican producer of reggaeton artists and albums. ... DJ Nelson is a reggaeton producer best known for his work Flow la Discoteca and Flow la Discoteca 2, acting as a producer for those two albums. ... DJ Playero is a Puerto Rican producer of reggaeton artists and albums. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Born Ricardo Garcia Ortiz in Georgia of Puerto Rican parents in 1976, the reggaeton artist is better known by his stage name: Don Chezina. ... O.G. Black (Adolfo Ramírez) y Master Joe (Joel Hernández Rodríguez) are a Dominican/Puerto Rican reggaeton duo. ... Baby Rasta y Gringo, real names Wilmer Alicea and Samuel Gerena, respectively, are a Reggaeton duo from Puerto Rico, famous for their track El Carnaval (The Carnival). ... Lito y Polaco (born Rafael Sierra September 30, 1979 and Rafael Omar Polaco Molina) from Carolina, Puerto Rico are considered the most violent duo in reggaeton. ...


Many now popular producers, such as Luny Tunes, Noriega and Eliel, first appeared in the reggaetón scene in 2003. Albums such as Mas Flow, The Last Don, and Las Gargolas 4 expanded reggaeton's popularity among Latinos in the United States. Luny Tunes are a Dominican reggaeton production duo composed of Francisco Saldaña (Luny) (born June 23, 1979) and Víctor Cabrera (Tunes) (born April 12, 1981) . Both members were born in Dominican Republic but grew up in the Boston metropolitan area until they moved to Puerto Rico where their... Norgie Noriega best known only as Noriega is a reggaeton producer known for making #1 hits in reggaeton along with reggaeton producers Luny Tunes. ... (li) Á ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stated simply, Mas Flow is a landmark reggaeton album. ... This was Don Omars solo debut album. ...


2004 was the year that reggaeton gained widespread popularity in the United States, eventually gaining attention in many “Western” countries. This was due to N.O.R.E. introducing the genre to mainstream America with the song “Oye Mi Canto,”[citation needed] followed by Daddy Yankee who came out with his album “Barrio Fino” and his mega hit single “Gasolina.” Another important artist who contributed to reggaeton's increasing popularity, especially in Europe, is Don Omar, with singles like “Pobre Diabla” and “Dale Don Dale.”[13] Other very popular reggaetón artists include Alexis Y Fido, Angel & Khriz, Nina Sky, Nicky Jam, Zion y Lennox, Rakim & Ken-Y, Voltio, Calle 13, Héctor El Father, Ivy Queen, Wisin & Yandel, Tito El Bambino and Tego Calderon. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people with a similar name, see Noriega. ... Oye Mi Canto is a reggaeton single by N.O.R.E.. The song was originally released in 2004 as the lead single from the album 1 Fan a Day, which is heretofore unreleased. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Barrio Fino, Daddy Yankees third solo album, was released on July 13, 2004. ... La Gasolina (Gasoline in English) is a popular song by Daddy Yankee. ... William Omar Landrón (born February 10, 1978 in Carolina, Puerto Rico), is a Latin Grammy Award-nominated reggaeton singer/rapper. ... Alexis & Fido, often nicknamed Los Pitbulls[2] or Los Reyes Del Perreo are a reggaeton duo from Puerto Rico. ... Khriz y Angel are Ángel Rivera Guzmán and Chrístian Colón, a Puerto Rican reggaeton duo. ... Natalie and Nicole Albino (born March 13, 1986 in Queens, New York) are identical twin sisters who sing under the name Nina Sky. // Their parents moved to New York from Puerto Rico and were divorced when the girls were younger. ... Nick Rivera Caminero (born February 25, 1980 in the Dominican Republic) is known artistically as Nicky Jam. ... They have been in the music business for a long time, but have failed to get any recognition for the majority of those years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Calle 13 is a five-time Latin Grammy Award-winning and Grammy Award-nominated Puerto Rican hip hop and alternative-reggaeton duo formed by step-brothers who call themselves Residente (lead singer, writer) and Visitante (keyboards, vocals, writer, beat producer). ... Héctor Delgado Román, known as Héctor El Father and previously known as Héctor El Bambino (born September 4, 1979 in Carolina, Puerto Rico) is a known Puerto Rican reggaeton singer and producer, that rose to fame as a member of the duo Héctor y Tito. ... Ivy Queen (born Martha Ivelisse Pesante on March 4, 1972) is a Latin Grammy and Billboard Latin nominated composer and singer most commonly known as La Reina del Reggaeton (The Queen of Reggaeton). ... Wisin & Yandel (also known as W & Y, El Dúo Dinámico and El Dúo de la Historia) are a Latin Grammy-nominated Puerto Rican reggaeton duo. ... Efrain Finez Nevarez (better known as Tito El Bambino) is a reggaeton singer from Puerto Rico. ... Tegui Calderón Rosario —better known as Tego Calderón— is a rapper from Loíza Aldea, Loíza, Puerto Rico. ...


Don Omar’s May 2006 album, King of Kings, became history’s highest ranking reggaeton LP in the top 10 US charts, with its debut at #5 on the Latin sales charts and the #1 spot on the Billboard Latin Rhythm Radio Chart with the single “Angelito.”[14] King of Kings also peaked at #7 in the Billboards top 200 albums. Don Omar was also able to beat the in-store appearance sales record at Downtown Disney's Virgin music store previously set by pop star Britney Spears, further demonstrating reggaeton's massive rise to popularity in the United States. On January 4, 1936, Billboard magazine published its first music hit parade and on July 20, 1940 the first Music Popularity Chart was calculated. ... Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is a Grammy Award-winning[1] American pop singer, dancer, actress, author and songwriter. ...


Musical Characteristics

Reggaeton beat

Reggaeton’s most notably unique feature is a driving drum-machine track which was derived from a popular Jamaican dancehall rhythm. As stated previously this beat is called “Dem Bow,” from the Bobby Dixon-produced Shabba Ranks song of the same title. The beat that can be heard throughout Reggaeton is an interplay of a steady kick drum and a syncopated snare. The kick drum emphasizes a 4/4 beat, while the snare comes on the "and" of the 2nd 16th note and right on the 4th 16th. Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ...


Many of the sounds found in a typical reggaeton beat are electronically synthesized. Simple melodies may be produced with keyboards, electric guitars, and other electronic instruments. Other forms of electronic dance music have significantly influenced reggaeton beats, such as techno, house, and genres such as the merengue hip hop (also called merenhouse) of groups such as Proyecto Uno and Zona 7. Techno is a form of electronic music that emerged in the mid-1980s and primarily refers to a particular style developed in and around Detroit and subsequently adopted by European producers. ... House music refers to a collection of styles of electronic dance music, the earliest forms beginning in the early- to mid- 1980s. ... Merenhouse is a style of music developed in the US and Latin America by groups such as Proyecto Uno and Zona 7. ... Proyecto Uno is a dominican merengue/hip hop/reggaeton group from New York, composed of Nelson Zapata, Magic Juan, Johnny Salgado and Erik Boog. ...


Reggaeton beats are highly versatile. The great variety and flexibility of reggaeton beats can be illustrated by Luny Tunes' CD The Kings of the Beats, which is a collection of purely instrumental beats. Reggaeton beats can be based on merengue, bachata, bolero, salsa and hip-hop beats. Other subgenres of reggaeton include Romantikeo, Bachateo and Salsaton. Luny Tunes are a Dominican reggaeton production duo composed of Francisco Saldaña (Luny) (born June 23, 1979) and Víctor Cabrera (Tunes) (born April 12, 1981) . Both members were born in Dominican Republic but grew up in the Boston metropolitan area until they moved to Puerto Rico where their... Disc 1 Introduction (2:10) Rap: Beat (3:52) Reggaeton: Beat 1 (2:34) Reggaeton: Beat 2 (2:27) Reggaeton: Beat 3 (2:32) Reggaeton: Beat 4 (2:27) Merengue Beat (2:32) Bachata: Beat (3:35) Reggaeton: Beat 5 (3:03) Bolero: Beat (2:59) Reggaeton: Beat 6 (2... Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic [1]. It is popular in the Dominican Republic. ... Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of Dominican Republic. ... Lineart drawing of a man dancing the Bolero, with castanets For other uses, see Bolero (disambiguation). ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... Hip-Hop music is a style of popular music. ... |Romantikeo is a sub-genre of Reggaeton. ... Nueva bachata is a musical movement in the Dominican Republic which combines bachata-style melodies and song subjects with reggaeton-style beats, rapping, and disc jockeying. ... Salsaton is a subgenre of both salsa and reggaeton. ...


Reggaeton and hip-hop

Reggaeton bears many resemblances to hip-hop. The most notable resemblance to hip-hop is that reggaeton, in most cases, is rapped instead of being sung. Reggaeton also has hooks throughout a song that may include a chorus of singers. Reggaeton artists also adopt pseudonyms comparable to those of hip-hop artists. Overall, reggaeton and hip-hop are both thought of as street-styled music popular among urban youth. Reggaeton also features "beef"-like rivalries similar to those found in hip-hop called "tiraera" ("throwing" in Puerto Rican Spanish slang). Hip-Hop music is a style of popular music. ... Rap redirects here. ...


Despite the similarities, reggaeton only roughly fits into the Latin hip-hop category but is not synonymous with hip-hop. True Latin hip-hop has beats that almost exactly resemble mainstream hip-hop beats. These “hardcore” Latin hip-hop artists include Big Pun, Fat Joe, Akwid, and Jae-P. Reggaeton, though, has rap-styled lyrics but has a very different beat that is influenced not by hip-hop, but by reggae, dancehall, merengue and techno. Although reggaeton has been influenced by hip-hop, it has also borrowed features from many other genres as well and is not considered to be Latin hip-hop. Christopher Lee Rios (November 9, 1971 - February 7, 2000), better known as Big Punisher or Big Pun, was an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent who emerged from the underground rap scene in The Bronx in the late 1990s. ... Joseph Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent, and is signed to Imperial Records. ... Akwid is a Mexican-American Hip Hop group, combining hip hop-style vocals with regional Mexican music. ... Jae-P is Chicano rapper. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic [1]. It is popular in the Dominican Republic. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ...


Reggaeton and hip-hop are often remixed together, and reggaeton songs and live concerts may feature hip-hop artists such as Lil Jon, 50 Cent, and Eminem. Hip-hop songs such as Usher's Yeah and Snoop Dogg's Drop It Like It's Hot have been remixed by replacing the original beat with a reggaeton beat. In other remixes, reggaeton DJs may rap out an English song in Spanish. Jonathan Smith (born January 27, 1972), better known by his stage name Lil Jon, is an American rapper, hype man, and producer. ... 50 cent redirects here. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... Usher Raymond IV (born October 14, 1978), is an American R&B/pop singer and actor who rose to fame in the mid-late 1990s. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ...


As Reggaeton has gained popularity, there is a new trend of Hip-Hop and Reggaeton artists collaborating on songs. Snoop Dogg was featured on Daddy Yankee's Gangsta Zone in his album Barrio Fino En Directo ; as was Paul Wall on remix to Yankee’s earlier hit song entitled “Machete.” The remix of Daddy Yankee’s song Rompe featured Lloyd Banks and Young Buck of G-Unit. And Yankee’s first U.S. hit Gasolina was remixed, adding Miami rapper Pitbull, and Crunk music producer Lil Jon to the track. Sean Paul collaborated with him on the song ‘Oh Man’ on his most recent album, The Trinity. Hip hop producer Pharrell Williams produced and sang on the track ‘Mamacita’ with Daddy Yankee as well. American rapper Juelz Santana was featured on Don Omar's song Conteo on Omar’s album King of Kings which was featured in the movie The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift. Luny Tunes produced the R.Kelly song ‘Burn It Up’ with Wisin Y Yandel on his album TP3 Reloaded as well as producing the remix to Paris Hilton’s song Stars are Blind again featuring Wisin y Yandel, which has sold over 300,000 songs on iTunes. Popular Reggaeton producer Héctor El Father produced the hit song ‘Here We Go Yo’ with Jay-Z, whom he collaborated with to produce his most recent album “Los Rompe Discotekas” (The Club Bangers) which came out in early summer 2006. Reggaeton artist Voltio raps alongside with R&B group Jagged Edge on the song ‘So Amazing'. The song ‘Wanna Ride’ was recited and sung by distinguished Reggaeton artists Wisin y Yandel together with veteran rap group Bone Thugs N'Harmony, and which was featured in the movie Take the Lead starring Antonio Banderas. A remix of the song 'Rakata' by Wisin y Yandel features rapper Ja-Rule. The official "Chosen Few" remix to the song "Hello Mama" by Hector El Father features American rapper Jim Jones. Both genres are accepting influences from each other today as these musical blends also signify a cultural blending pot in today’s urban scene. Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Barrio Fino En Directo is an album by reggaeton artist Daddy Yankee. ... Paul Slayton, (born March 11, 1981)[1] better known by his stage name Paul Wall, is a rapper and DJ, promoter and jeweller, originally one half of Houston hip-hop group The Color Changin Click. ... Rompe (Break it in English) is a popular Spanish-language song by Daddy Yankee. ... Christopher Charles Lloyd (born April 30, 1982 in Baltimore, Maryland), better known as Lloyd Banks, is an American rapper and is a member of G-Unit. ... David Darnell Brown (born March 15, 1981), better known as Young Buck, is an American rapper who is a member of the popular rap group G-Unit. ... This article is about the song named Gasolina. ... Armando Christian Pérez (born 14 January 1981, in Miami, Florida) better known by his stage name Pitbull, or his other nicknames, Lil Chico or Mr. ... Jonathan Smith (born January 27, 1972), better known by his stage name Lil Jon, is an American rapper, hype man, and producer. ... This article is about the Jamaican reggae artist. ... Pharrell Williams (born April 5, 1973) is an American producer, singer, rapper,and songwriter. ... LaRon Louis James (born on February 18, 1983), better known by his stage name Juelz Santana, is a rapper, producer and small time actor. ... William Omar Landrón (born February 10, 1978 in Carolina, Puerto Rico), is a Latin Grammy Award-nominated reggaeton singer/rapper. ... Luny Tunes are a Dominican reggaeton production duo composed of Francisco Saldaña (Luny) (born June 23, 1979) and Víctor Cabrera (Tunes) (born April 12, 1981) . Both members were born in Dominican Republic but grew up in the Boston metropolitan area until they moved to Puerto Rico where their... The name Robert Kelly can refer to: Robert Kelly the poet. ... Burn It Up is a single by R. Kelly off of his album TP-3: Reloaded in 2005. ... Yandel (left) and Wisin (right) Wisin y Yandel are a pair of reggaeton artists from Cayey, Puerto Rico. ... Paris Whitney Hilton (born February 17, 1981) is an American celebrity and socialite. ... Maxi-Single cover Audio sample Info Stars Are Blind (help· info) Stars Are Blind is a pop song recorded by Paris Hilton for her debut album Paris. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ... Héctor Delgado Román, known as Héctor El Father and previously known as Héctor El Bambino (born September 4, 1979 in Carolina, Puerto Rico) is a known Puerto Rican reggaeton singer and producer, that rose to fame as a member of the duo Héctor y Tito. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jagged Edge is an American R&B singing group that were originally signed through Jermaine Dupris So So Def Records to Columbia Records. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... José Antonio Domínguez Banderas (born August 10, 1960), better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film actor and singer who has starred in high-profile Hollywood films including Assassins, Interview with the Vampire, Mariachi sequels, Philadelphia, The Mask of Zorro, and the Shrek sequels. ... For other persons named Jim Jones, see Jim Jones (disambiguation). ...


Lyrics and themes

Reggaeton lyrical structure resembles hip-hop lyrics. Like hip-hop, most reggaeton artists recite their lyrics rap-fashion rather than sing it melodically. Unlike hip-hop music, however, a significant percent of reggaeton artists are also singers, may blend rapping and singing, and may also have a "street" image, similar to Akon. Like hip-hop music, reggaeton songs have hooks that are repeated throughout the song. Kishan Aliaune Damala Bouga Time Puru Nacka Badara Akon Thiam,[1][2] often going by the shorter Aliaune Thiam[3] (born October 14, 1981),[4] and better known by his stage name Akon, is an American R&B singer, rapper, songwriter, record producer, and record executive. ...


Reggaeton started as a genre composed of mostly male artists, with a slowly increasing number of female artists debuting over the years. Notable female reggaetón artists include Ivy Queen, Mey Vidal, Adassa, and Glory. Ivy Queen (born Martha Ivelisse Pesante on March 4, 1972) is a Latin Grammy and Billboard Latin nominated composer and singer most commonly known as La Reina del Reggaeton (The Queen of Reggaeton). ... Mey Vidal (born October 10, 1984) is a Cuban singer, also known as Esa Cubana and La Cubanasa. ... Adassa (born February 5 in Miami, Fl. ... Glory (birthname: Glorimar Montalvo Castro, also known as La Gata Gangster) was born in Santurce, Puerto Rico. ...


Reggaeton lyrical themes are versatile. Typical themes may include dancing, love stories, partying, short anecdotes of the rapper's life, and problems in life. Popular reggaeton songs are mainly intended to be danceable, rhythmic, party-like songs for young people. Reggaeton may or may not be objectionable depending on the artists, song, and the listener's interpretation, as one reggaeton song may have many interpretations because a song's meaning may not be very clear and direct; Many of the songs are highly subliminal. For example, the song Gasolina is often considered appropriate for children and has made it into the Reggaeton Niños series.[citation needed] However, because of the various possible connotations and literal interpretations of the song, some people criticize Gasolina as having possibly inappropriate sexual content. Subliminal may refer to: Subliminal messages Subliminal (rapper), an Israeli rapper and producer Subliminal (record label), an electronic music label known for the Subliminal Sessions compilation series. ... This article is about the song named Gasolina. ... Reggaeton Niños Are a series of CDs for children made up of popular reggaeton songs. ...


Usually, reggaeton CDs are not labeled “explicit” like many hip-hop CDs are. One exception is that Daddy Yankee’s Barrio Fino en Directo (Barrio Fino Live) was labeled explicit for objectionable content in the live concerts (and for explicit language by Snoop Dogg in the song "Gangsta Zone"), even though the regular studio version of Barrio Fino was not labeled explicit. Some reggaeton artists, such as Alexis Y Fido, are able to circumvent radio and television censorship by using sexual innuendo and lyrics with double meanings in their music. Some songs have also raised concerns about women's depiction on their lyrics [15] For the book of the same name, see Parental Advisory: Music Censorship in America. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Barrio Fino En Directo is an album by reggaeton artist Daddy Yankee. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Barrio Fino, Daddy Yankees third solo album, was released on July 13, 2004. ... A double entendre or innuendo is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...


Racial identity has been a common theme in reggaeton, articulated musically, lyrically, and visually.


Reggaeton across the world

Latin America

Reggaeton is very popular in Latin American countries such as Panama, Dominican Republic, Cuba,Venezuela and Colombia. Reggaeton has become staple music in many parties and events, complementing the common mix of merengue, salsa and electronic music, and has paved a huge fan base. In some countries such as Peru with MC Francia, Los TNT and Mr. Fresh, Venezuela with Doble Impakto, Honduras with DJ Sy and El Salvador with Pescozada and Heavy Clan, domestic “reggaetoneros” have arisen, expanding the Pan-Latin feel of the genre. Pescozada is a hip-hop group formed in Chalatenango, El Salvador. ...


In some Latin American countries such as Cuba, where ideas and language are an integral part of the appreciation of music, there is an alleged critical backlash against the increasing popularity of Reggaeton. This rift supposedly exists often among members of the Cuban Hip Hop community. According to British music lecturer Geoff Baker, many critics claim that the music’s lyrics do not explore any subjects past “sex, dancing, and the singer himself, in various combinations.” Baker also believes that because Reggaeton has an allegiance to so many Caribbean and Latin American countries, it overshadows distinctly Cuban forms and variations of music, such as Cuban Hip Hop. [16]


Puerto Rico

Reggaeton derives from the post-Salsa music youth generation of the 80's and early 90's in Puerto Rico. Before reggaeton exploded in the mid-nineties, young street artists, heavily influenced by East Coast hip hop and turntablism, rapped over cassette tracks easily acquired within their Commonwealth (United States insular area) status. Alongside this early hip hop influenced reggae-rap, evolved the Panamanian reggae style which eventually fused into reggaeton. East Coast hip hop is a style of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the early-1970s. ... In the terminology of the United States insular areas, a Commonwealth is an organized territory or colony that has established with the Federal Government a more highly developed relationship, which may be embodied in a written mutual agreement. ...


This new genre was simply called “underground.” It contained very explicit lyrics about drugs, violence, poverty, homophobia, friendship, love, and sex. These common themes, which in many cases depict the troubles of an inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton today. “Underground” music was recorded in “marquesinas” (or Puerto Rican open garages) and distributed in the streets via cassettes. These marquesinas were crucial to the development of Puerto Rico's underground scene due to the state's "fear of losing the ability to manipulate 'taste'". [17] Marquesina's were often in "housing complexes such as Villa Kennedy and Jurutungo." [18] Despite being recorded in the projects of Puerto Rico, the majority of the recordings made in marquesinas were of high quality, which helped in increasing their popularity to the Puerto Rican youths of not only the projects but those of the middle and upper class as well. The availability and quality of these cassettes led to the genre's popularity, crossing over socio-economic barriers in the Puerto Rico music scene. The most popular cassettes in the early 1990's were DJ Negro's The Noise I and II, and DJ Playero's #37 and #38. These recordings spread out the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society, particularly into private schools. By the mid 90s “underground” cassettes were being sold in commercial music stores. The genre caught up with the middle class youth and inevitably found its way to the media.


By this time Puerto Rico had a few clubs dedicated to the underground scene. Club Rappers in Carolina, and club PlayMakers in Puerto Nuevo were the most notable. Bobby “Digital” Dixon's dembow track was exploited in order to appeal in the context of the club. Underground music wasn't intended originally to be club music. Robert Bobby Digital Dixon (born in Kingston, Jamaica) is an influential dancehall producer. ...


Underground rap music in Puerto Rico faced harsh criticism. In February of 1995, there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influences. Puerto Rican police launched six raids at records stores in San Juan[19], in which hundreds of cassettes were confiscated from record stores and fines were imposed (in accordance with Laws 112 and 117 against obscenity.) [20] The Department of Education banned baggy clothing and underground rap music from the school systems. [21] In the following months after the raids, local media demonized rappers, claiming they were “irresponsible corrupters of the public order.” [22]


The Puerto Rican chapter of Morality in Media asked the local authorities to intervene and ban selling underground music, which subsequently required that all local productions being sold displayed a Parental Advisory label[citation needed]. By 1998 DJ Negro released The Noise 3 with a mock up label that read Non-Explicit Lyrics. The album contained no cursing until the last song. The album was a hit and underground music further crept into the mainstream. Senator Velda González of the Popular Democratic Party and the media continued to view the movement as a social nuisance.[23] Morality in Media, Inc. ... For the book of the same name, see Parental Advisory: Music Censorship in America. ... PPD logo and accompanying motto: Bread, Land, Freedom. The Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico, PPD) is a political party that supports the continuation of Puerto Ricos current status as a free associated state of the United States, which is also...


In the mid 1990's, the Puerto Rican Police and National Guard even went as far as to confiscate reggaeton tapes and CDs in an effort to get the "obscene" lyrics out of the hands of consumers.[24]. Schools also banned hip-hop style clothing and music in an effort to quell the influence of reggaeton in the educational environment. In 2002, Senator Velda González led public hearings in an attempt to regulate the sexual “slackness” of reggaeton’s lyrics and the perrero style of dance associated with the genre. While the effort did not seem to negatively effect the general public’s opinion about reggaeton, it did reflect the unease of the government and upper social classes with what the music represented. Due to its often sexually charged content and because of its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle and upper class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton to be threatening, “immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical, [and] misogynist.” [25]


Despite earlier controversy, reggaeton slowly began gaining acceptance as an important part of Puerto Rican culture, helped in part by politicians, including Velda González, who used reggaeton in election campaigns to appeal to younger voters, starting in Puerto Rico’s 2003 elections. [26] Currently, Puerto Rican mainstream acceptance of reggaeton has grown increasing more visible with reggaeton's appearance in popular culture, including a 2006 Pepsi commercial featuring Daddy Yankee. [27] Other examples of a change in sentiment within the greater population of Puerto Rico can be seen in some religiously and educationally influenced lyrics. "Reggae School" for example is a rap album produced for the sole purpose of teaching math skills to children, reminiscent of School House Rock. [28] Pepsi Cola is a non-alcoholic carbonated beverage produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Schoolhouse Rock! is a series of 46 educational shorts featuring rock songs about schoolroom topics, including grammar, science, economics and American history and politics. ...


Despite the impoverished condition of the Puerto Rican economy, reggaeton stars have been able to achieve success not only as global stars but as local entrepreneurs; this has been evidenced in industry labels such as DJ Nelson’s Flow Music, Daddy Yankee’s El Cartel Records, and Wisín and Yandel’s WY Records. Through production models derived from U.S. hip-hop artists and based in grassroots movements, reggaeton has been an artistic vehicle gaining worldwide popularity, a far cry from its previous reputation as an infamous underground product of urban youth. [29]


United States

With the help of N.O.R.E, a New York-based rapper, and his producing of Nina Sky's 2004 hit [[Oye Mi Canto]], which featured prominent reggaeton artists Tego Calderón and Daddy Yankee, reggaeton quickly gained popularity in the US[30]. Soon after, Daddy Yankee caught the attention of many big names in hip hop with his song Gasolina, propelling the style across the country[31]. Also in 2004, XM Radio launched a channel called Fuego (XM), which played exclusively Reggaeton music. The genre has also provided the foundation and basis for a modern Latin-American commercial radio phenomenon known as Hurban[32], a combination of the terms Hispanic and Urban that is used to evoke the musical influences of hip-hop and Latin-American music. Reggaeton forming from hip-hop and reggae has helped Latin-Americans contribute to the urban American culture while still keeping many aspects of their Hispanic heritage. The music relates to many of the socio-economic issues happening in America including gender and race which highly connects to hip-hop in America today. [33] N.O.R.E., formerly known as Noreaga, is a rapper and member of the rap group C-N-N. N.O.R.E. stands for Niggaz on (the) run eatin. His birth name is Victor Santiago. ... Natalie and Nicole Albino (born March 13, 1986 in Queens, New York) are identical twin sisters who sing under the name Nina Sky. // Their parents moved to New York from Puerto Rico and were divorced when the girls were younger. ... Tegui Calderón Rosario (born February 2, 1972 in Santurce, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican rapper. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... This article is about the song named Gasolina. ... XM Satellite Radio (NASDAQ: XMSR) is a satellite radio service in the United States based in Washington, DC and controlled by News Corporations DirecTV, General Motors, American Honda, Hughes Electronics, and several private investment groups. ... Fuego is a channel on the XM Satellite Radio network that specializes in playing Reggaeton and Hispanic Rhythmic. ... Hurban is a relatively new radio programming format from radio chain giant Clear Channel Communications. ...


Underground clubs, youths in the inner-city ghettos, and huge hip-hop moguls all participated in pushing the genre to the top of the charts.[34]


Europe

Reggaeton has not become as popular in Europe as in Latin America. However, It has a great appeal to Latin American immigrants, especially in Spain; and it is also known in Portugal and Italy where it may be more popular among natives than it is in Spain. [35]. A Spanish concept called “La Canción del Verano” (The Summer Song), under which a particular song or two define the mood for the season and are regarded unofficially as such by Spanish media, served as the basis for the appearance popularity of reggaeton songs such as Panamanian rapper Lorna’s “Papi Chulo (Te traigo el Mmm) ” in 2003, and Daddy Yankee's Gasolina in 2005. Puerto Rican and Panamanian reggaeton artists have toured Spain to give concerts mainly to Latin American people[36]. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Lorna Zarina Aponte (born 1983 in Panama), better known simply as Lorna, is a female rapper and reggaeton artist best known for her song Papi Chulo (Te Traigo el Mmmm). This song got wide spread popularity in US and Europe (Reaching No. ... Ramón (Raymond) Ayala (born February 3, 1977 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), known artistically as Daddy Yankee El puerco de los puercos, is a Latin Grammy Award-winning reggaeton recording artist. ... This article is about the song named Gasolina. ...


Reggaeton is known in Italy, due partially to artists like Don Omar who filmed the video for his song Angelito in Rome, featuring many of the city's historic landmarks. There is also a growing Reggaeton scene in Italy, thanks to Italian hip-hop artists such as Malos Cantores, DJ Mesta, Esa, Big Fish, etc; who have embraced it in the same way rappers like N.O.R.E and Fat Joe have in the United States. William Omar Landrón (born February 10, 1978 in Carolina, Puerto Rico), is a Latin Grammy Award-nominated reggaeton singer/rapper. ... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Malos Cantores is a rap duo from Sardinia, Italy. ... N.O.R.E., formerly known as Noreaga, is a rapper and member of the rap group C-N-N. N.O.R.E. stands for Niggaz on (the) run eatin. His birth name is Victor Santiago. ... Joseph Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an American rapper of Puerto Rican descent, and is signed to Imperial Records. ...


See also

Puerto Rico Portal
  • List of reggaeton artists

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is an incomplete list of noted reggaeton artists (musicians, singers and producers) and groups. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Grow Dem Bow", Village Voice. Retrieved on 2006-07-24. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Wayne Marshall. "Rise of Reggaetón", The Phoenix, 2006-01-19. Retrieved on 2006-07-24. 
  3. ^ a b AskMen.com - "5 Things You Didn't Know About Reggaeton"
  4. ^ Phoenix New Times - "Phoenix sizzles with the latest dance music from Puerto Rico"
  5. ^ Jamaicans.com - "a new genre of Caribbean dance music"
  6. ^ Mundo Reggaeton - “Reggaeton History”
  7. ^ a b BBC News - "Puerto Rico shakes to a new beat"
  8. ^ USA Today - reggaeton article
  9. ^ Ask Men - Vico C and El General Reggaeton founders
  10. ^ Santos, Mayra. 1996. "Puerto Rican Underground." Centro 8, no. 1 & 2: 219-231.
  11. ^ Shabba Ranks - “Dem Bow” Sample - Disc 1, Track 7
  12. ^ El General - Son Bow Sample - Track 12
  13. ^ El Reggaeton
  14. ^ Reggaeton Music News - “Don Omar On Top of Charts with ‘King of Kings’ Debut”
  15. ^ - “Denuciation to Instituto Canario de la Mujer”
  16. ^ Baker, Jeff. 2008. "The Politics of Dancing: Reggaetón and Rap in Havana, Cuba." Royal Holloway, University of London
  17. ^ {{cite author=Mayra Santos | Centro vol. 8 1&2 | title = Puerto Rican Underground
  18. ^ {{cite author=Mayra Santos | Centro vol. 8 1&2 | title = Puerto Rican Underground
  19. ^ Sara Corbett. The King of Reggaetón. Retrieved on 2008-1-30.
  20. ^ Santos, Mayra. 1996. "Puerto Rican Underground." Centro 8, no. 1 & 2: 219-231.
  21. ^ Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. Reggaeton Nation. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  22. ^ Santos, Mayra. 1996. "Puerto Rican Underground." Centro 8, no. 1 & 2: 219-231.
  23. ^ Hilda Garcia and Gonzalo Salvador. Reggaeton: The Emergence of a New Rhythm. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
  24. ^ John Marino, "Police Seize Recordings, Say Content Is Obscene,” San Juan Star, February 3, 1995; Raquel Z. Rivera, “Policing Morality, Mano Dura Style: The Case of Underground Rap and Reggae in Puerto Rico in the Mid-1990s,” in Reading Reggaeton.
  25. ^ Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. Reggaeton Nation. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  26. ^ Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. Reggaeton Nation. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  27. ^ Matt Caputo. Daddy Yankee: The Voice of His People. Retrieved on 2008-1-29.
  28. ^ Giovannetti, Jorge L. (2003), Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez, ed., "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols" Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas, New York: Palgrave 
  29. ^ Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. Reggaeton Nation. Retrieved on 2008-1-31.
  30. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton." [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  31. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton." [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  32. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton." [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  33. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton." [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  34. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton." [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  35. ^ Reggaeton in Spain
  36. ^ MTV Music Review
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... This article is about the genre. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ... The term reggae, in a proper sense, only covers the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 (or 1985 depending on opinion). ... Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... The Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album has been awarded since 1985. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... The dance halls of Jamaica in the 1950s and 60s were home to public dances usually targeted at younger patrons. ... A dubplate is an acetate disc — usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... A sound system is a group of DJs and engineers contributing and working together as one, often playing and producing one particular kind of music. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Jamaican music (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Reggae musicians. ... Dub music is a form of reggae which developed in the early 1970s. ... Chris Blackwell Lloyd Barnes Richard Browne Clive Chin Lloyd Daley Clement Dodd Clancy Eccles Rupie Edwards Roy Francis Boris Gardiner Joe Gibbs (record producer) Jeremy Harding Derrick Harriott Harry Johnson Niney the Observer Joseph Hoo Kim Keith Hudson Clive Hunt King Jammy Tony CD Kelly Dave Kelly King Tubby Leslie... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rap redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... putang ina. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... DJ Mixer. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ... A boy hitting (holding) a pike Breakdance (media coined phrase), also known as breaking, b-girling or b-boying, is a street dance style that evolved as part of the hip hop movement that originated among African American youths in the South Bronx of New York City during the early... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... Faada Freddy of the Senegalese rap crew Daara J in Germany, 2005. ... Hip hop dance refers to dance styles, mainly street dance styles, primarily danced to hip hop music, or that have evolved as a part of the hip hop culture. ... Hip Hop Theatre is a sub-genre of Hip-Hopera that came to the American stage in the late 20th century. ... The roots of hip hop can be found in 1970s block parties in New York City, specifically The Bronx[1]. Hip hop culture, including rapping, scratching, graffiti, and breakdancing. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... New school hip hop is a rarely-heard term referring to hip hop created later in the forms development, contrasted with old school hip hop. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, was probably introduced with the popularity of Run-DMCs 1986 album Raising Hell. ... See also: Category:Hip hop genres Hip hop music can be subdivided into subgenres, fusions with other genres and regional hip hop scenes. ... This is a list of influential albums in the history of hip hop music. ... Hip hop music was primarily limited to its country of origin, the United States, until the 1980s, at which point it reached into other countries and continents until its presence was worldwide. ... Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. ... Cover of sampler CD (2003) This article is about hip hop music and culture originating in the Arabic-speaking world. ... Asian Hip Hop is a heterogeneous musical genre that covers all hip hop music as recorded and produced by artists of Asian origin. ... European hip hop is hip hop music created by European musicians. ... Latin rap is not a homogeneous musical style but rather a term that covers all Hip-Hop music recorded by artists of Latino origin. ... This article is about hip hop music and culture originating in the Middle East. ... Hip hop is quite a new style of music for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it has nevertheless proven very popular. ... Dominican hip hop has its own style of hip hop music by mixing its native music and rapping to it like in the genres Merenrap or Merenhouse where they just take a blend of their native dance music called Merengue and rap to it. ... Greenlandic hip hop began in 1985 with the formation of the Inuit rap crew Nuuk Posse, though hip hop music first came to Greenland a year earlier. ... Rap marocain Moroccan rap ---- (more info) Stage 2 : In Progress (How-to) Its an interesting translation about Morocco Spy-jones 13:44, 31 May 2007 (UTC) This article didnt exist in English-language Wikipedia Spy-jones 20%   00:16, 1 June 2007 (UTC) Join this translation   ---   Update this... Native American hip hop is popular among Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada. ... Nepalese hip hop music, also referred to as NEPHOP, has a slight blend of Nepalese traditional music, western popular music, with lyrics that are usually altruistic and depicting the present Nepalese political and economic situation. ... Serbian hip hop refers to all genres of hip hop music in the Serbian language, mostly from Serbia, Republika Srpska (BiH), and Montenegro. ... Taiwanese hip hop music started in the early 1990s, popularized by early hip hop trio L.A. Boyz. ...

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Reggaeton - ReggaetonFever.com (704 words)
The REGGAETON brand, which shares the name of the explosive music genre that has fueled Latino music growth, will be sponsoring the conferences being held from April 23-26.
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Reggaeton.FM, la primera y unica emisora de reggaeton en internet directamente desde Puerto Rico!
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