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Encyclopedia > Reggae
Reggae
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Late 1960s Jamaica, especially Kingston
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Early 1970s onward, worldwide
Derivative forms Trip hop - Drum and bass - Dancehall
Subgenres
Roots reggae - Dub - Dub poetry - Toasting - Lovers rock - Dancehall - Ragga
Fusion genres
Reggaeton - Seggae - 2 Tone
Regional scenes
African - Kanéka - New Zealand
Other topics
Jamaica - Rastafari movement - Haile Selassie - Marcus Garvey - List of reggae musicians

Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. R&B redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Brazen redirects here. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... The term Reggae is, in a proper sense, only supposed to cover the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 or 1985 (depending on how you look at it). ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... Seggae is a music genre invented in the mid 80s by the Mauritian rasta singer, Joseph Reginald Topize (Sometimes known as Kaya after a song title by Bob Marley) and is a fusion of sega and reggae. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Reggae is a kind of Jamaican popular music that has spread to much of the world, especially including Africa. ... Cultural flag of the Kanak community, showing a flèche faîtière (a spear-like wooden totem monument placed atop Kanak traditional dwellings). ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... This is a list of Reggae musicians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


While sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady. Reggae is based on a rhythm style characterized by regular chops on the off-beat, known as the skank. The tempo is generally slower than that found in ska. Reggae usually has accents on the 3rd beat in each bar, there being four beats in a bar; many people think it's accentuated on the 2nd and 4th, because of the rhythm guitar. Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... The Off-beat is a musical term commonly applied to rhythms that emphasize the weak beats of a bar. ... Dampening refers to the musical technique of muting an instrument while playing it, or soon after, before it has lost its sustain (stopped ringing). ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... putang ina. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ...


Reggae is often associated with the Rastafari movement, an influence on many prominent reggae musicians from its inception. Reggae song lyrics deal with many subjects, including faith, love, relationships, poverty, injustice and other broad social issues. Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Contents

History

Toots Hibbert, lead singer of the Maytals.
Toots Hibbert, lead singer of the Maytals.

The 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a recently estab. sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The word as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by the vocal group the Maytals, but it was already being used in Kingston as the name of a slower dance and style of rocksteady. As reggae artist Derrick Morgan has reminisced,[1] Do the Reggay is a reggae song by Toots & the Maytals. ... Frederick Toots Hibbert and the Maytals are considered legends of reggae and ska music. ... Derrick Morgan** was a musical artist in 1960s and 70s. ...

"We didn't like the name rock steady, so I tried a different version of "Fat Man". It changed the beat again, it used the organ to creep. Bunny Lee, the producer, liked that. He created the sound with the organ and the rhythm guitar. It sounded like ‘reggae, reggae' and that name just took off. Bunny Lee started using the world [sic] and soon all the musicians were saying ‘reggae, reggae, reggae.'" Bunny Lee Edward OSullivan Lee, better known as Bunny Striker Lee (born August 29, 1941) was a prominent, prolific and successful Jamaican record producer in the 1960s and 1970s. ...

Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae ("loose woman") into reggae. However, by Maytals' lead singer Toots Hibbert's account,[2] Steve Barrow is a British reggae historian, writer and producer. ... Cover of the album Clancy Eccles & The Dynamites - Nyah Reggae Rock - 1969-1970 released by Jamaican Gold in 1997 Clancy Eccles (December 9, 1940, Dean Pen, Jamaica–June 30, 2005, Spanish Town, Jamaica) was a Jamaican reggae singer, promoter and record producer. ... Jamaican Patois, also known locally as Patois (Patwa), or simply Jamaican, and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English/African-based language - not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English - used primarily in Jamaica and its diaspora. ... Frederick Toots Hibbert (born 1946) is a legendary Ska and roots reggae singer and leader of the reggae band Toots and the Maytals. ...

"There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called 'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say 'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy. The girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said, 'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something that came out of my mouth. So we just start singing 'Do the reggay, do the reggay' and created a beat. People tell me later that we had given the sound it's [sic] name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records."

Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"[3]. The suggestion that reggae was derived from the Latin regis meaning "to the king"[4] is less likely to be correct, although the music style is sometimes referred to as "JAH Throne music" in Rastafari contexts. In the Caribbean, the "heavier" forms of Reggae are also sometimes known as Rockers music[5]. This article is about the reggae musician. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Origins

Music of Jamaica

Kumina - Niyabinghi - Mento - Ska - Rocksteady - Reggae - Sound systems - Lovers rock - Dub - Dancehall - Dub poetry - Toasting - Raggamuffin - Roots reggae Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. ... Kumina is both the religion and the music practiced by the people of eastern Jamaica. ... Niyabinghi chanting typically includes recitation of the Psalms, but may also include variations of well-known Christian hymns and adopted by Rastafarians. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ...

Anglophone Caribbean music
Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Bahamas - Barbados - Bermuda - Caymans - Grenada - Jamaica - Montserrat - St. Kitts and Nevis - St. Vincent and the Grenadines - Trinidad and Tobago - Turks and Caicos - Virgin Islands
Sound samples
Other Caribbean music
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Hawaii - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - St. Lucia - United States - United Kingdom

Although strongly influenced both by traditional African and Caribbean music and by American rhythm and blues, Reggae owes its direct origins to the progressive development of ska and rocksteady in 1960s Jamaica. The Cayman Islands are a Caribbean island chain, currently a territory of the United Kingdom. ... Grenada is a small Caribbean island nation that has produced several major musicians, including David Emmanuel, one of the best-selling reggae performers ever, and Mighty Sparrow, a legendary calypsonian. ... Timeline and Samples Pop genres Calypso - Chutney - Dancehall - Dub - Junkanoo - Ragga - Rapso - Reggae - Ripsaw - Rocksteady - Scratch - Ska - Soca - Spouge - Steelpan Other islands Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - Saint Lucia The Turks and Caicos Islands are an overseas dependency of the... 1966 in music Download sample of Alton Ellis rocksteady track Girl Youve Got a Date. Download sample of Cincinatti Kid by Prince Buster, a legendary ska artist. ... Aruba and the five main islands of the Netherlands Antilles are part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. ... The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... Hand drumming is significant throughout Africa The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continents many regions, nations and ethnic groups. ... The music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. ... R&B redirects here. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ska music first arose in the studios of Jamaica over the years 1959 to 1961[6], itself a development of earlier mento. Ska is characterized by a walking bass line, accentuated guitar or piano rhythms on the offbeat, and sometimes jazz-like horn riffs. Aside from its massive popularity amidst Jamaican "rude boy" fashion, it had gained a large following among "mods" in Britain by 1964. According to Barrow, rude boys began deliberately playing their ska records at half speed, preferring to dance slower as part of their "tough" image.[6] Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... In music a walking bass is a bass accompaniment generally consisting of unsyncopated notes of equal value, usually quarter notes (known in jazz as a four feel). Walking bass lines are used in rock, blues, rock-a-billy, ska, r&b, gospel, latin, country, and many other genres (Friedland 1995... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the mid-60s, many artists had begun actually playing the tempo of ska slower, while emphasizing the walking bass and offbeat aspects. The slower sound had a new name: Rocksteady, taken from a single of the new genre by Alton Ellis. This phase of Jamaican music lasted only until 1968, when the musicians began to slow the tempo of rocksteady into yet another gear, and add still other effects. This was the genesis of the now world-famous sound known as reggae. Alton Ellis (born 1944), from Kingston, Jamaica, is a musician best known as the innovator of rocksteady music. ...


The shift from rocksteady to reggae was caused by the organ shuffle that was pioneered by Bunny Lee, and was also featured in the transitional singles "Say What You're Saying" (1967) by Clancy Eccles, and "People Funny Boy" (1968) by Lee "Scratch" Perry[7]. The Pioneers' 1967 track "Long Shot Bus' Me Bet" has been identified as the earliest recorded example of the new rhythm sound that would soon become known by the name reggae[8]. Early in 1968 was when the first bona fide reggae records came into being; both "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall, and the Beltones' "No More Heartaches" have been claimed for this honour. Music historian Piero Scaruffi credits US artist Johnny Nash's 1968 hit "Hold Me Tight" with first putting reggae on the American listener charts[9]. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... The Pioneers is a Jamaican reggae vocal trio from the 1960s. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... John Lester Nash Jr. ...

Bob Marley Live a painting by Steve Brogdon 1992

The Wailers, started by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer in 1963, are generally agreed to be the most easily recognised group worldwide that made the transition through all three stages: from ska hits like "Simmer Down", through slower rocksteady; and they are also among the significant pioneers who can be called the literal roots of reggae, along with Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker, Jackie Mittoo, and several others. Some of the many notable Jamaican producers who were highly influential in the development of ska into rocksteady and reggae in the 1960s include Coxsone Dodd, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Leslie Kong, Duke Reid, Joe Gibbs and King Tubby. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 560 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bob Marley Live 48 x 24 Airbrushed acrylic / Mixed Media. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 438 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 560 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bob Marley Live 48 x 24 Airbrushed acrylic / Mixed Media. ... The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Peter Tosh (October 19, 1944 – September 11, 1987[1]) was the guitarist in the original Wailing Wailers, a pioneer reggae musician, and a trailblazer for the Rastafari movement. ... Bunny Wailer, also known as Bunny Livingston (born April 10, 1947), was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. ... Simmer Down was the second single released by Bob Marley and the Wailers (Peter Tosh & Bunny Livingstone). ... Cecil Bustamente Campbell (born May 28, 1938), better known as Prince Buster, is a musician from Kingston, Jamaica and regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of ska and rocksteady music. ... Desmond Dekker (July 16, 1941 – May 25, 2006) was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer and songwriter. ... Jackie Mittoo (March 3, 1948–December 16, 1990), born in Browns Town, Saint Ann, Jamaica), was a Jamaican pianist. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... Leslie Kong (1933–August 9, 1971) ran the Beverleys label. ... Duke Reid was a Jamaican record producer, DJ and label owner. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... King Tubby King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. ...


Among these early producers was Chris Blackwell, who founded Island Records in Jamaica in 1959, then relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote Jamaican music. He formed a partnership with Trojan Records, founded by Lee Gopthal in 1968, which lasted until 1972. Trojan continued to produce reggae artists in the UK until 1974, when it was bought by Saga. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ...


1970s and 1980s

The 1972 film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff, generated considerable interest and popularity for reggae music in the United States, and Eric Clapton's 1974 cover of the Bob Marley song "I Shot the Sheriff" is thought to signify reggae's acceptance as a global phenomenon by the "white rock world"[10]. By the mid 1970s, reggae was getting radio play in the UK on John Peel's radio show, and Peel continued to play much reggae during his career. What is called the first "Golden Age of Reggae" corresponds roughly to the heyday of roots reggae. The Harder They Come is a 1972 Jamaican crime film directed by Perry Henzell. ... Jimmy Cliff, real name James Chambers OM (Jamaica) (born April 1, 1948, in St Catherine, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae musician, best known among mainstream audiences for songs like Sittin in Limbo, You Can Get It If You Really Want and Many Rivers to Cross from The Harder They Come... Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE[2] (born 30 March 1945) [3], nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... I Shot the Sheriff is a song written by Bob Marley. ... For other persons named John Peel, see John Peel (disambiguation). ...


In the second half of the 1970s, the UK punk rock scene was starting to take off, and some punk DJs played reggae records during their DJ sets. Some punk bands, such as The Clash, The Slits, and The Ruts, incorporated reggae influences into their music. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... The Slits are an all female punk rock band. ... The Ruts The Ruts were a reggae-influenced British punk band notable for the 1979 top 10 hit Babylons Burning (right). ...


At the same time, reggae began to enjoy a revival in the UK that continued into the 1980s, exemplified by groups like Steel Pulse, Aswad, UB40, and Musical Youth. Other artists who enjoyed international appeal in the early 80s include Third World, Black Uhuru and Sugar Minott. Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ... Aswad (Black in Arabic) is a long lasting British reggae group, that is noted for adding strong R&B and soul influences to the reggae sound. ... UB40 are a British dub band formed in 1978 in Birmingham. ... Musical Youth formed in 1979 at Duddeston Manor School, Birmingham, England. ... Third World is a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1973. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ... Sugar Minnott (born May 25, 1956) is a Jamaican singer. ...


The Grammy Awards introduced the "Best Reggae Album" category in 1985, which was won that year by Black Uhuru's Anthem LP. Winners for subsequent years have included albums by Jimmy Cliff, Steel Pulse, Peter Tosh, Ziggy Marley (four times), Bunny Wailer (three times), Shabba Ranks (twice), Inner Circle, Shaggy, Sly and Robbie, Beenie Man, Damian Marley (twice), Lee "Scratch" Perry, Sean Paul, Stephen Marley, and Toots and the Maytals. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album has been awarded since 1985. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... Inner circle may refer to: The Inner Circle, a secret organization in Max Payne The Inner Circle, an early name for the central circuit route of the London Underground that is now known as the Circle Line friendship networks, where inner circle may describe the closest of friends a social... Shaggy (born October 22, 1968, in Kingston, Jamaica as Orville Richard Burrell) is a Jamaican reggae deejay who takes his nickname from Scooby-Doos companion, a nickname given to him by his friends, during his teenage years in which his hair bore a similarity to the Scooby Doo character. ... Sly and Robbie are reggaes most prolific and long lasting production team. ... Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is among the most popular reggae entertainers and is a well established dancehall artist. ... Damian Marley (born July 21, 1978 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a three time Grammy-winning reggae artist and is the youngest son of reggae legend Bob Marley. ... This article is about the Jamaican reggae artist. ... Stephen Ragga Marley was born April 20, 1972 and is the second son of Rita and Bob Marley. ...


Musical characteristics

Reggae is always played in 4/4 time or swing time, because the symmetrical rhythm pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3/4 time. Harmonically, the music is often very simple, and sometimes a whole song will have no more than one or two chords. The Bob Marley and the Wailers song "Exodus" is almost entirely comprised of A-minor chords. These simple repetitious chord structures add to reggae's sometimes hypnotic effect. However, Marley also wrote more complex chord structures, and bands such as Steel Pulse have often used very complex chord structures. The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ...


Drums and other percussion

A standard drum kit is generally used, but the snare drum is often tuned very high to give it a timbale-type sound. Some reggae drummers use a separate additional timbale or high-tuned snare to get this sound. Rim shots on the snare are commonly used, and tom-tom drums are often incorporated into the drumbeat itself. From the mid-80s onward, electronic instruments such as synthesizers and samplers have been used for the same purpose, especially by reggae artists who write in the Stepper and Dancehall styles. The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... Timbales (or tymbales) are shallow single-headed drums, shallower in shape than single-headed tom-toms, and usually much higher tuned. ... A tom-tom (not to be confused with a tamtam) is a cylindrical drum with no snare. ...


Reggae drumbeats fall into three main categories: One drop, Rockers and Steppers. With the One drop, the emphasis is entirely on the third beat of the bar (usually on the snare, or as a rim shot combined with bass drum). Beat one is completely empty, which is extremely unusual in popular music. There is some controversy about whether reggae should be counted so that this beat falls on the 3, or whether it should be counted half as fast so that it falls on the 2 and 4. This article follows the convention of placing the beat on the 3. Many credit Carlton Barrett of The Wailers as the creator of this style, although it may actually have been invented by Winston Grennan. An example played by Barrett can be heard in the Bob Marley and the Wailers song "One Drop". Barrett often used an unusual triplet cross-rhythm on the hi-hat, which can be heard on many recordings by Bob Marley and the Wailers, such as "Running Away" on the Kaya album. Think Reggae music: A drumset playing style, popularized by Carlton Barrett (long-time drummer of Bob Marley and the Wailers), in which the backbeat is characterized by the dominant snare drum stroke and bass drum kick both sounding on the same note. ... Carlton Barrett Carlton Carly Barrett was the originator of the one drop rhythm, a percussive drumming style. ... The Wailers was a ska, rocksteady and reggae group formed in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, consisting of Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Bunny Livingston (aka Bunny Wailer), Bob Marley, Peter McIntosh (aka Peter Tosh), and Cherry Smith. ... Winston Grennan (September 16, 1944 - October 27, 2000). ... Bob Marley Robert Nesta Marley (February 6, 1945 - May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a singer, guitarist, songwriter and Rastafarian from the ghettos of Jamaica. ... In music, an irrational rhythm is any rhythm in which an odd number of beats is superimposed on an even number in the predominating tempo, or vice versa. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... The hi-hat stand has changed little since its invention. ... Kaya is a roots reggae-album released by Bob Marley & the Wailers in 1978. ...


An emphasis on beat three is in all reggae drumbeats, but with the Rockers (pronounced like "raucous") beat, the emphasis is also on beat one (usually on bass drum). This beat was pioneered by the prolific innovative duo of Sly and RobbieSly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespeare — who later also helped create the "Rub-a-Dub" sound that greatly influenced Dancehall. An example of the Rockers beat is in "Night Nurse" by Gregory Isaacs. The Rockers beat is not always straightforward, and various syncopations are often included. An example of this is the Black Uhuru song "Sponji Reggae." Sly and Robbie are reggaes most prolific and long lasting production team. ... Lowell Sly Fillmore Dunbar was born on 10 May 1952, in Kingston, Jamaica. ... Sly and Robbie are probably reggaes most prolific and long lasting production team. ... Gregory Isaacs is a Reggae singer, born on 15 July 1951 in Denham Town, Kingston, Jamaica. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ... Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae band probably best known for their hits Shine Eye Gal, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner, Sinsemilla, Solidarity, and What Is Life?. They were the first group to win a Grammy in the reggae category when it was introduced in 1985. ...


In Steppers, the bass drum plays four solid beats to the bar, giving the beat an insistent drive. An example is "Exodus" by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Another common name for the Steppers beat is the "four on the floor".


The Steppers beat was also adopted (at a much higher tempo) by some of the 2 Tone ska revival bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s. Examples include "Stand Down Margaret" by The Beat and "Too Much Too Young" by The Specials. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Beat, known in North America as The English Beat, was one of the most important 2 Tone ska music groups. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


An unusual characteristic of reggae drumming is that the drum fills often do not end with a climactic cymbal. A wide range of other percussion instrumentation is used in reggae. Bongos are often used to play free, improvised patterns, with heavy use of African-style cross-rhythms. Cowbells, claves and shakers tend to have more defined roles and a set pattern. Bongos Bongo drums or bongos are a percussion instrument made up of two small drums attached to each other. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... The cowbell is a percussion instrument. ... Claves(pronounces Clar-vays) is a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short (about 20-30 cm), thick dowels. ...


Bass

The bass guitar often plays a very dominant role in reggae, and the drum and bass is often called the riddim. Several reggae singers have released different songs recorded over the same riddim. The central role of the bass can particularly be heard in dub music — which gives an even bigger role to the drum and bass line, reducing the vocals and other instruments to peripheral roles. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasised. The bass line is often a simple two-bar riff that is centred around its thickest and heaviest note (which in musical terms is often the harmonic root note) - the other notes in the bassline often serve simply to lead you towards the bassist note. An example of this can be heard on "Sun Is Shining" by Bob Marley and the Wailers. A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Music of carribean (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... For information about Canadas fiscal transfer system, see Equalization payments. ... Riff is also an alternate spelling of Rif, a region of Morocco. ... Sun is Shining is a song by Bob Marley first appearing on the album Soul Revolution in 1971. ...


Guitars

The rhythm guitar in reggae usually plays the chords on beats two and four, a musical figure known as skank or the 'bang'. It has a very dampened, short and scratchy chop sound, almost like a percussion instrument. Sometimes a double chop is used when the guitar still plays the off beats, but also plays the following 8th beats on the up-stroke. An example is the intro to "Stir It Up" by The Wailers. Rhythm guitar is a guitar that is primarily used to provide rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment for a singer or for other instruments in an ensemble. ... Dampening refers to the musical technique of muting an instrument while playing it, or soon after, before it has lost its sustain (stopped ringing). ... Stir It Up is a song composed by Bob Marley in 1967, and first made popular by Johnny Nash, peaking on the UK chart in June 1972. ...


The lead guitar will often add a rock or blues-style melodic solo to a song, but much of the time it plays the same part as the bass line an octave higher, with a very muted and picked sound. This adds definition to the bass line (which is usually devoid of upper frequencies), and emphasizes the bass melody. Sometimes the guitar will play a counter-melody to the bass line instead. Lead guitar refers to a role within a band, that provides melody or melodic material, as opposed to the rhythm of the rhythm guitar, bass, and drums. ... This article is about the genre. ... Blues music redirects here. ... In music, counter-melody (often one word, countermelody) is a sequence of notes, perceived as a melody, written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent melody. ...


Keyboards

From the late 1960s through to the early 1980s, a piano was generally used in reggae to double the rhythm guitar's skank, playing the chords in a staccato style to add body, and playing occasional extra beats, runs and riffs. The piano part was widely taken over by synthesizers during the 1980s, although synthesizers have been used in a peripheral role since the 1970s to play incidental melodies and countermelodies. Larger bands may include either an additional keyboardist, to cover or replace horn and melody lines, or the main keyboardist filling these roles on two or more keyboards. The latter has become increasingly popular as keyboard technology improves. Dampening refers to the musical technique of muting an instrument while playing it, or soon after, before it has lost its sustain (stopped ringing). ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ... Synth redirects here. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ...


The reggae-organ shuffle is unique to reggae. Typically, a Hammond organ-style sound is used to play chords with a choppy feel. This is known as the bubble. There are specific drawbar settings used on a Hammond console to get the correct sound. This may be the most difficult reggae keyboard rhythm. The 8th beats are played with a space-left-right-left-space-left-right-left pattern. The right-hand part coincides with the rhythm guitar and piano. It makes the music sound faster than it really is. The organ often also plays melodic runs and extra beats. The organ part is typically quite low in the mix, and is often more felt than heard. Examples include the songs "Natural Mystic", "Is This Love" and "Midnight Ravers" by Bob Marley. Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company until the 1970s. ... Is This Love is a song by Bob Marley, released on his 1978 album Kaya. ...


Horns

Horn sections are frequently used in reggae, often playing introductions and counter-melodies. Instruments included in a typical reggae horn section include saxophone, trumpet and/or trombone. In more recent times, real horns are sometimes replaced in reggae by synthesizers or recorded samples. The horn section is often arranged around the first horn, playing a simple melody or counter melody. The first horn is usually accompanied by the second horn playing the same melodic phrase in unision, one octave higher. The third horn usually plays the melody an octave and a fifth higher than the first horn. The horns are generally played fairly softly, usually resulting in a soothing sound. However, sometimes punchier, louder phrases are played for a more up-tempo and aggressive sound. The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... Synth redirects here. ...


Vocals

The vocals in reggae are less of a defining characteristic of the genre than the instrumentation and rhythm. Almost any song can be performed in a reggae style. Vocal harmony parts are often used, either throughout the melody (as with bands such as the Mighty Diamonds), or as a counterpoint to the main vocal line (as with the backing group I-Threes). The British reggae band Steel Pulse used particularly complex backing vocals. An unusual aspect of reggae singing is that many singers use tremolo (volume oscillation) rather than vibrato (pitch oscillation). Notable exponents of this technique include Dennis Brown and Horace Andy. The toasting vocal style is unique to reggae, originating when DJs improvised along to dub tracks, and it is generally considered to be a precursor to rap. It differs from rap mainly in that it is generally melodic, while rap is generally more a spoken form without melodic content. Mighty Diamonds - Jamaican Vocal Group This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The I Threes were a Jamaican reggae backing band made up of 3 women that was formed in 1974 to support Bob Marley and the Wailers after Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer, the original Wailer backing vocalists, left the band. ... Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ... The Promised Land compiled by Blood and Fire Dennis Emanuel Brown (February 1, 1957 – July 1, 1999) was a Jamaican reggae singer. ... Horace Andy (born Horace Hinds, 19 February 1951 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a legendary Roots reggae singer, notable for such tracks as Government Land, You Are My Angel, Skylarking and a version of Aint no sunshine. Andy made his earliest recordings in the late 1960s, at Coxsone Dodds... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ...


Lyrical themes

Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love, sex and socializing. Some reggae lyrics attempt to raise the political consciousness of the audience, such as by criticizing materialism, or by informing the listener about controversial subjects such as Apartheid. Many reggae songs promote the use of cannabis (also known as herb or ganja), considered a sacrament in the Rastafari movement. There are many artists who utilize religious themes in their music — whether it be discussing a religious topic, or simply giving praise to the Rastafari God Jah. Other common socio-political topics in reggae songs include black nationalism, anti-racism, anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, criticism of political systems and "Babylon", and promotion of caring for needs of the younger generation. In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Haile Selassie I Rastafarian vocabulary, or Iyaric, is part of an intentionally created dialect of English. ...


Subgenres

Main article: Reggae genres

Reggae includes several subgenres, such as roots reggae, dub, lovers rock, and dancehall. The term reggae, in a proper sense, only covers the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 (or 1985 depending on opinion). ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ...


Roots reggae

Main article: Roots reggae

Roots reggae is the name given to a spiritual type of music whose lyrics are predominantly in praise of Jah (God). Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to government oppression. Many of Bob Marley's and Peter Tosh's songs can be called roots reggae. The creative pinnacle of roots reggae was in the late 1970s, with singers such as Burning Spear, Gregory Isaacs, Freddie McGregor, Johnny Clarke, Horace Andy, Ijahman Levi, Barrington Levy, Big Youth, and Linval Thompson, and bands like Culture, Israel Vibration, the Meditations, and Misty in Roots, teaming up with various studio producers including Lee 'Scratch' Perry and Coxsone Dodd. Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Jah man! Winston Rodney (born March 1, 1948) a. ... Gregory Isaacs is a Reggae singer, born on 15 July 1951 in Denham Town, Kingston, Jamaica. ... Singer, musician and producer Freddie McGregor was born on 27 June 1956 in Clarendon, Jamaica. ... Johnny Clarke was born on 12 January 1955 in Jamaica. ... Horace Andy (born Horace Hinds, 19 February 1951 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a legendary Roots reggae singer, notable for such tracks as Government Land, You Are My Angel, Skylarking and a version of Aint no sunshine. Andy made his earliest recordings in the late 1960s, at Coxsone Dodds... Ijahman Levis first album, Haile I Hymn, was released on Island Records in 1978. ... Barrington Levy (born 30 April 1964, in Clarendon, Jamaica) is a reggae and dancehall recording artist. ... Big Youth (Manley Augustus Buchanan) is a Jamaican DJ in the toasting tradition, mostly known for his albums during the 1970s. ... Linval Thompson is a reggae and dub artist and producer. ... Culture is a Jamaican roots rock reggae group founded in 1976. ... Israel Vibration is a reggae band, featuring a vocal harmony trio. ... Misty-in-Roots began life as a Southall based British roots reggae band in the late nineteen seventies. ... Lee Scratch Perry, The Upsetter in Dub Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry March 20, 1936) is one of the most influential people in the development of reggae and dub music in Jamaica. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ...


Dub

Main article: Dub music

Dub is a genre of reggae that was pioneered in the early days by studio producers Lee 'Scratch' Perry and King Tubby. It involves extensive remixing of recorded material, and particular emphasis is placed on the drum and bass line. The techniques used resulted in an even more visceral feel described by King Tubby as sounding "jus’ like a volcano in yuh head." Augustus Pablo and Mikey Dread were two of the early notable proponents of this music style, which continues today. For other uses, see Dub. ... Lee Scratch Perry Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. ... King Tubby King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 – February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954 – May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican roots reggae and dub record producer and keyboardist, active from the 1970s onwards. ... Mikey Dread, 2006 Mikey Dread Michael Campbell (born 1954 in Port Antonio, Jamaica), better known as Mikey Dread, is a Jamaican singer, producer, and broadcaster. ...


Lovers rock

Main article: Lovers rock

Lovers rock originated in South London in the mid-1970s, and is produced for a smoother, more commercial sound, with more apolitical lyrics. Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ...


Newer styles and spin-offs

Hip hop and rap

Further information: Toasting, Hip hop music and Rapping

Toasting is a style of chanting or talking over the record that was first used by 1960s Jamaican deejays such as U-Roy and Dennis Alcapone. This style greatly influenced Jamaican DJ Kool Herc, who used the style in New York City in the late 1970s to pioneer a new genre that became known as hip hop or rap. Mixing techniques employed in dub music have also influenced hip hop. Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rap redirects here. ... A Deejay (sometimes spelled DJ) is a reggae or dancehall musician who sings and toasts to an instrumental riddim (rhythm). ... U-Roy (born Ewart Beckford September 21, 1942 in Jones Town, Jamaica, also known as The Originator, Hugh Roy) U-Roys musical career began in 1961 (see 1961 in music) when he began DJing at various sound systems, eventually working with King Tubby. ... Dennis Alcapone (born Dennis Smith on August 6, 1947) is a Jamaican roots reggea musician. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... DJ Kool Herc was the originator of break-beat DJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties (AMG [1]). Later DJs such as Grandmaster Flash refined and developed the use of... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rap redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dub. ...


Dancehall

Main article: Dancehall

The dancehall genre was developed around 1980, with exponents such as Yellowman, Super Cat and Shabba Ranks. The style is characterized by a deejay singing and rapping or toasting over raw and fast rhythms. Ragga (also known as raggamuffin), is a subgenre of dancehall where the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music and sampling. Notable ragga artists include Shinehead and Buju Banton. Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Yellowman (born Winston Foster in Negril, Jamaica in 1959) is a Jamaican ragga and dancehall deejay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, 17 January 1966, Sturgetown, St Anns, Jamaica) is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ... Shinehead (born Carl Aiken) is a Jamaican reggae singer/rapper. ... Boobs Banton (performing at Ilosaarirock, 2006) Boobs Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie 1972) is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae singer & producer. ...


Reggaeton

Main article: Reggaeton

Reggaeton is a form of dance music that first became popular with Latino youths in the early 1990s. It blends reggae and dancehall with Latin American genres such as bomba and plena, as well as hip hop. Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Bomba (disambiguation). ... Plena is a folkloric genre native of Puerto Rico. ...


Reggae rock

Reggae rock is a fusion genre that combines elements of reggae and rock music.[citation needed] Notable artists who have mixed rock and reggae include: The Police, 311, Sublime, Slightly Stoopid, Pepper, Bedouin Soundclash and The Beautiful Girls. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the genre. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... Sublime was an American ska-punk band that originated in Long Beach, California. ... Slightly Stoopid is an American band based in Ocean Beach, California, who describe their music as a fusion of acoustic rock and blues with reggae, hip-hop, and punk. As a band, they have released seven albums (2 live) with their fifth studio album, entitled Chronchitis, released on August 7... Look up pepper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bedouin Soundclash is a Canadian band from Kingston, Ontario. ... The Beautiful Girls are an Australian music band who play mostly roots music, although they also play reggae, pop, rock and more. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ History of Jamaican Music 1953-1973
  2. ^ interview in The Independent Jun 4, 2004; cf. many similar statements by Hibbert in recent years. In earlier interviews, Hibbert used to claim the derivation was from English 'regular', in reference to the beat.
  3. ^ Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, Timothy White, p. 16
  4. ^ e.g., in the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian "gospel reggae"
  5. ^ Dick Hebdige, Cut 'n' Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music p.67
  6. ^ a b History of Jamaican Music 1953-1973
  7. ^ "Toots and the Maytals:Never Grow Old", Peter S. Scholtes, City Pages
  8. ^ "Shocks Of Mighty: An Upsetting Biography"
  9. ^ "A brief summary of Jamaican music" - excerpted from A History of Popular Music by Piero Scaruffi (2002)
  10. ^ "The History of Jamaican Music 1959-1973"

City Pages is an alternative weekly newspaper serving the Minneapolis-St. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

Bibliography

  • Manuel, Peter, with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (2nd edition). Temple University Press, 2006. ISBN 1-59213-463-7. 
  • O'Brien, Kevin & Chen, Wayne (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 976-8100-67-2. 
  • Larkin, Colin (ed.) (1998). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae. Virgin. ISBN 0-7535-0242-9. 
  • Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter (2004 for the 3rd edition). The Rough Guide to R.62036 publisher=Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-329-4. 
  • Morrow, Chris (1999). Stir It Up: Reggae Cover Art. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28154-8. 
  • Jahn, Brian & Weber, Tom (1998). Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80853-6. 
  • Hurford, Ray (ed.) (1987). More Axe. Erikoispaino Oy. ISBN 951-99841-4-3. 
  • Potash, Chris (ed.) (1997). Reggae, Rasta, Revolution: Jamaican Music from Ska to Dub. Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-8256-7212-0. 
  • Baek, Henrik & Hedegard, Hans (1999). Dancehall Explosion, Reggae Music Into the Next Millennium. Samler Borsen Publishing, Denmark. ISBN 87-981684-3-6. 
  • Katz, David (2000). People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry. Payback Press, UK. ISBN 0-86241-854-2. 
  • Lesser, Beth (2002). King Jammy's. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-525-1. 
  • Stolzoff, Norman C. (2000). Wake The Town And Tell The People. Duke University Press, USA. ISBN 0-8223-2514-4. 
  • Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter (1979). Reggae Bloodlines: In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80496-4. 
  • Katz, David (2003). Solid Foundation - An Oral history of Reggae. Bloomsburry, UK. ISBN 1-58234-143-5. 
  • de Koningh, Michael & Cane-Honeysett, Laurence (2003). Young Gifted and Black - The Story of Trojan Records. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-464-8. 
  • de Koningh, Michael & Griffiths, Marc (2003). Tighten Up - The History of Reggae in the UK. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-559-8. 
  • Bradley, Lloyd (2001). Bass Culture. When Reggae Was King. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-14-023763-1. 
  • Bradley, Lloyd (2000). This Is Reggae Music. The Story of Jamica's Music. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-802-3828-4. 
  • Chang, Jeff. Can't Stop Won't Stop.. St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 0-312-30143-X. 

Steve Barrow is a British reggae historian, writer and producer. ... David Katz is an American music journalist, photographer and reggae historian raised in San Francisco. ... Michael de Koningh is a contemporary British music journalist specialized in Jamaican music and reggae. ... Laurence Cane-Honeysett is a British musician, producer and music journalist specialized in Jamaican music. ... Lloyd Bradley (b 1955 London ) is a British music writer. ... Lloyd Bradley (b 1955 London ) is a British music writer. ... Jeff Chang is an American journalist and music critic on hip-hop music and culture. ...

External links

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See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Reggae
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Reggae
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Awake Zion is Monica Haims 2005 documentary that draws a connection between Jews and Rastafarians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album has been awarded since 1985. ... Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music. ... This article is about the genre. ... Blue Beat Records was a record label that released Jamaican rhythm & blues and ska music in the United Kingdom in the early and mid 1960s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... Lovers Rock is the United Kingdoms main contribution to reggae. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... Not to be confused with Rāga. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... Roots reggae is a spiritual Rastafari subgenre of reggae music with lyrics that often include praise for Jah Ras Tafari Makonnen, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia; the Emperor of Ethiopia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Ragga jungle is the name given to a substyle of Jungle that emerged circa 1991-1992, with artists such as the Ragga Twins, Rebel MC and Genaside II, and has heavy influences from ragga, roots reggae and dancehall. ... The term reggae, in a proper sense, only covers the period in Jamaican music from 1969 to 1979 (or 1985 depending on opinion). ... Jamaica is the birthplace of many popular musical genres, the most well known of which is reggae but also including raggamuffin, ska and dub music. ... Jamaican music in the United Kingdom // White Reggae White reggae has very low artistic credibility, but it laid a path for genuine reggae in Britain. ... The Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album has been awarded since 1985. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Rastaman with long locks Dreadlocks, sometimes simply called locks or dreads, are interlocked coils of hair which tend to form by themselves, in all hair types, if the hair is washed regularly and allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors, or scissors for a long period... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. ... Suedehead was an early-1970s offshoot of the skinhead subculture in the United Kingdom. ... The dance halls of Jamaica in the 1950s and 60s were home to public dances usually targeted at younger patrons. ... A dubplate is an acetate disc — usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter — used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In the context of Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music. ... A sound system is a group of DJs and engineers contributing and working together as one, often playing and producing one particular kind of music. ... A riddim is an instrumental version of a song, which applies to Music of carribean (mostly dancehall and reggae) or other forms of Caribbean music. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Studio One is one of reggaes most renowned record labels and recording studios, having been described as the Motown of Jamaica. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Reggae musicians. ... Dub music is a form of reggae which developed in the early 1970s. ... Chris Blackwell Lloyd Barnes Richard Browne Clive Chin Lloyd Daley Clement Dodd Clancy Eccles Rupie Edwards Roy Francis Boris Gardiner Joe Gibbs (record producer) Jeremy Harding Derrick Harriott Harry Johnson Niney the Observer Joseph Hoo Kim Keith Hudson Clive Hunt King Jammy Tony CD Kelly Dave Kelly King Tubby Leslie...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reggaefrance.com - Le site Francais du Reggae et du dancehall (507 words)
Le calme relatif des concerts reggae masque une autre activité : au mois de septembre, c'est dans les bacs que ça se passe.
Reggaefrance est né en 1999 de la volonté de ses membres, animés par une passion commune, de prendre part au développement et à l'activisme de la scène Reggae / Dancehall en France et de partager ses découvertes musicales.
Notre développement est basé sur un réseau de partenariats avec différents acteurs de la scène Reggae Française et internationale (artistes, labels, disquaires, producteurs...) qui nous accordent leur confiance depuis maintenant plusieurs années et nous permettent de toucher un plus large public.
Reggae - MSN Encarta (873 words)
Reggae, genre of contemporary Caribbean music developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s, one of the most influential styles of world popular music (see Worldbeat).
Reggae inverted traditional rock music by allowing the guitar to handle much of the rhythmic emphasis, often playing chords on the off beat while the bass laid down melodic patterns.
Bob Marley, one of the most prolific and influential reggae artists, was the next to rise to international popularity, and he eventually became reggae’s biggest star.
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