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Encyclopedia > Refraction (metallurgy)

In metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat. Metals with a high degree of refraction are referred to as refractory. These metals derive their high melting points from their strong intermolecular forces. Large quantities of energy are required to over come intermolecular forces. The strong intermolecular forces are a result of metallic bond. In this type of bonding, electrons in the metal atom's outer most shell become de-localized, forming a pool of free electrons and ionized atoms. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ...


Some refractory metals include molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, and tantalum. These materials are also noted for their high elastic modulus and hardness. General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Atomic mass 180. ... An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Refraction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (816 words)
Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed.
Refraction of light is the most commonly seen example, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another.
Refraction is also responsible for rainbows and for the splitting of white light into a rainbow-spectrum as it passes through a glass prism.
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