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Encyclopedia > Reformed Baptist
Calvinism
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... This article is becoming very long. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

Distinctives
Calvin's Institutes
Five Solas
Five Points (TULIP)
Regulative principle
Confessions of faith Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... Calvinist theology is often identified in the popular mind as the so-called five points of Calvinism (remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP), which are a summation of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt and which were published in the Quinquarticular Controversy... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
Synod of Dort
Puritan theology
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
Karl Barth
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 — March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Karl Barth (May 10, 1886–December 10, 1968) (pronounced Bart) was an influential Swiss Reformed Christian theologian. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Reformed Baptist
The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine, which first arose especially in the Swiss Reformation led by Huldrych Zwingli, but soon afterward appeared in nations throughout Western Europe. ... Presbyterianism is a form of Protestant Christianity, primarily in the Reformed branch of Western Christendom, as well as a particular form of church government. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Afrikaner Calvinism is a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, or historically as the French Calvinists. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject. ...

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The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the church's theological leaning. Not all churches that are reformed in doctrine identify themselves as such. A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ...


Reformed Baptists are both Baptists and Calvinists, and typically adhere to the 1644 or 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith. They can trace their history through the early modern Particular Baptists and Fullerites of England. A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church or any follower of Jesus Christ who believes that baptism is administered by the full immersion of a confessing Christian. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written by Calvinistic Baptists in England to give a formal expression of the Reformed and Protestant Christian faith with an obvious Baptist perspective. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct denomination but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...

Contents

Beliefs

Reformed Baptist churches quite often adhere to either the First or Second London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1644 and 1689 respectively. These two statements are usually not considered exhaustive or completely infallible, but instead are convenient summaries of a church's belief. Reformed Baptists attempt to derive all of their doctrine directly from the Bible, which they see as the sole authority of faith and practice. The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written by Calvinistic Baptists in England to give a formal expression of the Reformed and Protestant Christian faith with an obvious Baptist perspective. ...


Reformed Baptist Churches are distinct in that they are both Reformed (adhering to and showing respect for much of the theology defined by John Calvin) as well as Baptists (believing in baptism for believers only, and that by immersion). Historically, the five points of Calvinism have been central tenets of the Reformed faith, which all Reformed Baptist churches agree with by definition. However, conservative Reformed theology is normally committed to Covenant theology, one application of which is to justify the practice of infant baptism. For this reason more traditional Reformed branches of Christianity (Presbyterian, etc) sometimes refuse to accept their Reformed Baptist brothers as truly Reformed. Nevertheless, Reformed Baptists are distinctly Covenantal in their theology, regarding the Covenant of Grace as made only with the elect. Baptism is seen as a sign of the New Covenant administration - made with those who have been regenerated by having the law written on their hearts, their sins forgiven and who savingly know the Lord (Jeremiah 31:31-34). Only those who can credibly profess this reality are to be baptized. John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church or any follower of Jesus Christ who believes that baptism is administered by the full immersion of a confessing Christian. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. ... An infant is held over a baptismal font as holy water is poured over the head at a Catholic Church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine, which first arose especially in the Swiss Reformation led by Huldrych Zwingli, but soon afterward appeared in nations throughout Western Europe. ... Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


Modern Reformed Baptists usually consider themselves the spiritual heirs of English Baptists John Bunyan and Charles Spurgeon. The Calvinist theology of the Reformed Baptist is akin to if not descended directly from that of early English Particular Baptists. John Bunyan. ... Spurgeon in his late twenties. ...


Common traits

Some common traits of Reformed Baptists are:

  • The centrality of the Word of God: the traditional Christian Scriptures (both Old and New Testaments) are considered to be the "only rule of faith and practice". However, any interpretation of Scripture must always have an orthodox founding.
  • Creedalism: the ancient Creeds (Apostle's, Nicaene, & Athanasian), historic Confessions (London Confessions of 1644 & 1689), as well as Catechisms (Orthodox Catechism of 1680 & London Catechism of 1689) are all considered summaries of Church teaching but none are held in the same authoritative position as the Christian Scriptures.
  • Regulative principle of worship: the belief that "the acceptable way of Worshipping the true God, is instituted by himself; and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be Worshipped according to the imaginations, and devices of Men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representations, or any other way, not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures," (from chapter 22, paragraph 1 of the 1689 London Baptist Confession of Faith). Every element of the regular weekly liturgy must be expressly commanded from Scripture. Whatever is expressly commanded must be included; whatever is not expressly commanded must be excluded. This is usually manifested in a relatively simple liturgy.
  • Covenant Theology: most hold to the classic Reformed contrast between the Covenant of Works in Adam and the Covenant of Grace in Christ (the last Adam) - and the Elect who are united to Him. This eternal Covenant of Grace is progressively revealed through the historic Biblical covenants.
  • Congregational & Associational: there is considered to be no earthly church authority above the local body of elders. However, traditionally congregations "associate" with other like-minded congregations. These "Associations" are formed on the basis of a common doctrinal statement (usually the Second London Confession of 1689). Congregations which ardently teach contrary to what is considered orthodox are finally put out of Association.
  • Ecclesiastical Office: There are two church offices: the Elder and the Deacon. Each local church has multiple Elders (also known as plurality of elders). Amongst Reformed Baptist this local elder body is traditionally called the presbytery (not to be confused with the Presbyterian definition of 'presbytery'). The pastor is also considered one of the elders. The Presbytery usually is concerned with the spiritual up-keep of the church, while the Deaconate is concerned with the physical concerns of church members and the physical up-keep of church property.
  • Moderate Cessationalism: the supernatural gifts of the Holy Spirit in general, and revivals specifically, are considered exceptional measures sovereignly bestowed by God, not to be searched as a common policy. Thus a rejection of revivalism in general and Pentecostalism specifically. However, there are some Baptists who are self-confessedly Calvinist but who reject cessationism.
  • Sunday as the Christian Sabbath. Sunday, usually called "Lord's Day", is considered the only Holy Day of Christianity. On Sundays, Reformed Baptists believe that they are to rest from all "earthly" work and business, attend public worship (called "Sabbath Meeting" or "Meeting" by traditionalists), and be about good works. There is not full agreement whether or not recreation is permittible on the Sabbath, but this is rarely debated and either opinion is usually allowed.

The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written by Calvinistic Baptists in England to give a formal expression of the Reformed and Protestant Christian faith with an obvious Baptist perspective. ... Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. ... The gifts of the Holy Spirit are spiritual gifts described in the New Testament. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... It has been suggested that Great Awakening be merged into this article or section. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... This artyicle concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ...

Associations

Reformed Baptist congregations sometimes join national or international associations and unions to assist with co-operation. Examples are:

The Association of Reformed Baptist Churches of America (ARBCA) is a denomination of Protestant churches that was founded March 11, 1997. ... Sovereign Grace Fellowship of Canada (SGF) - a fellowship for Baptist churches in Canada holding to either the Baptist Confession of 1646 or 1689. ... The Fellowship of Independent Reformed Evangelicals (F.I.R.E.) is a fellowship of baptistic and Reformed churches and individuals. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based cooperative ministry agency serving Baptist churches around the world. ...

Related History

In the early 17th century, Baptists in England developed along two different theologies. The General Baptists were so-called because they held the General Atonement. The General view of the atonement is that Christ in His death undertook to make possible the salvation of all men who would believe. This position is identified with Arminianism. Early General Baptist leaders included John Smyth and Thomas Helwys. The Particular Baptists were so-called because they held the Particular Atonement. The Particular view of the atonement is that Christ in His death undertook to save particular individuals, usually referred to as the elect. This position is often identified with Calvinism. Some early Particular Baptist leaders included Benjamin Keach, Hanserd Knollys, William Kiffin, and Isaac Backus. Present day Strict Baptists of England are descendants of the Particular Baptists. Sometimes they are referred to as "Strict and Particular" Baptists. The terminology "strict" refers to the strict or closed position they held on membership and communion. The majority of early Particular Baptists rejected open membership and open communion. One notable exception was the author of Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan. Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Baptists were first identified by the name General Baptists in 17th century England. ... // For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Thomas Jefferson I know, and Roger Williams I have heard of, but who is Isaac Backus? Thus might the secular spirit of our age answer to the invocation of this name in the conflict over religious liberty. ... In the early 17th century, Baptists in England developed along two different theologies. ... John Bunyan. ...


Over the 18th century, General Baptists lapsed into theological liberalism and practically disappeared from the scene in England. During this same period, the Particular Baptists moved toward extreme doctrinal conservatism, which some have described as Hyper-Calvinism and Antinomianism. In 1785, Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) published The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation. This helped turn many Particular Baptists toward a new evangelicalism that was dubbed "Fullerism," and would lead to eventual division among the Particular Baptists of England. The "Fullerites" are probably best represented by Fuller and William Carey (1761-1834), Baptist missionary to India. The leading spokesman for strict Calvinism was John Gill (1696-1771), perhaps best known for his Exposition of the Whole Bible, the only commentary to comment on every verse of the Bible. Among the "Fuller strain" of Particular Baptists, Calvinism declined and the practice of open communion grew. In 1891, most of the remaining General Baptists merged with the Particular Baptists in the Baptist Union of Great Britain (formed 1813). The Old Baptist Union represents General Baptists that did not participate. Hyper-Calvinism is a theological position that historically arose from within the Calvinist tradition among the early English Particular Baptists in the mid 1700s. ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) was an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, and settled at Kettering. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... John Gill (theologian) is a famed Calvinist theologian. ...


Calvinistic Baptists

The term "Reformed" is often seen to include two characteristics:

  1. Confessional, that is holding to one of the Reformed Confessions, and for Baptists this is the 1689 London Confession.
  2. Holding to Covenant Theology as described in these same Confessions. This is seen in the common traits above.

The Reformed (as described above) see Baptists who are not confessional, especially those who eschew Covenant Theology, yet having a Calvinist soteriology (concept of salvation), better described as Calvinistic Baptists. In this view, holding to the five points of Calvinism does not make one “Reformed” in the fuller sense. The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith was written by Calvinistic Baptists in England to give a formal expression of the Reformed and Protestant Christian faith with an obvious Baptist perspective. ... Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. ... Covenant Theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. ... In Christianity, salvation is arguably the most important spiritual concept, second only to the divinity of Jesus. ... Calvinist theology is often identified in the popular mind as the so-called five points of Calvinism (remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP), which are a summation of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt and which were published in the Quinquarticular Controversy...


Notable Reformed Baptists

  • Benjamin Keach- 17th century Baptist Divine.
  • Hercules Collins- edited the 1680 Orthodox Catechism, a "Reformed Baptist" version of the Heidelberg Catechism
  • Hansard Knollys- 17th century Baptist Pastor.
  • William Kiffin- 17th century Baptist Leader.
  • John Bunyan – 17th century Puritan author of The Pilgrim's Progress
  • Gen. Robert Overton- personal friend of Oliver Cromwell.
  • Rev. John Gano- Baptist Chaplin. Administered baptism by immersion to George Washington during the American Revolution.
  • Isaac Backus – American revolutionary, delegate to the First Continental Congress
  • William Carey – missionary and co-founder of the Baptist Missionary Society
  • John Gill – 18th century theologian
  • Charles Spurgeon – 19th century evangelist
  • A. N. Martin - Pastor of Trinity Baptist Church in Monteville, New Jersey. One of the leaders of the Reformed Baptist re-surfacing in the mid to late 20th Century.
  • Erroll Hulse – editor of Reformation Today magazine and "roving ambassador" for Reformed Baptists
  • John Pipertheologian
  • R. Albert Mohler, Jr. – 9th president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
  • Pr. Mark Chanski - Pastor of the Reformed Baptist Church of Holland, Michigan and author of "Manly Dominion".
  • Michael A. G. Haykin – the Principal of Toronto Baptist Seminary

John Bunyan. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Pilgrims Progress The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published 1678) is an allegorical novel. ... Thomas Jefferson I know, and Roger Williams I have heard of, but who is Isaac Backus? Thus might the secular spirit of our age answer to the invocation of this name in the conflict over religious liberty. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of Great Britain in 1774. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... The Baptist Missionary Society (from 2000 BMS World Mission) is a Christian missionary society founded by Baptists from England around 1792AD. The original name of the society was the Particular Baptist Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Amongst the Heathen. ... John Gill (born at Kettering, Northamptonshire on November 23, 1697 and died October 14, 1771) was an English Baptist, Biblical scholar. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Spurgeon in his late twenties. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... John Piper John Stephen Piper (born 1946) is a reformed Baptist minister and author, currently serving as senior pastor of Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, MN. // Biography Piper was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee to Bill and Ruth Piper January 11, 1946. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is located in Louisville, Kentucky and is the flagship seminary of the Southern Baptist Convention, or SBC. Southern Seminary or SBTS is the oldest of the seminaries in the SBC and was founded in Greenville, South Carolina in 1859 by James Petigru Boyce who served...

See also

Believer Baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who first proclaim to believe in Jesus as their personal savior, resurrected by the power of God the Father. ...

References

These books are written from a Reformed Baptist perspective:

  • History of the English Calvinistic Baptists 1791-1892, by Robert Oliver (2006), ISBN 0-85151-920-2
  • Kiffin, Knollys and Keach - Rediscovering our English Baptist Heritage, by Michael A. G. Haykin (1996), ISBN 0-9527913-0-7
  • An Introduction to the Baptists, by Erroll Hulse (1976), ISBN 0-85479-780-7
  • Baptist Roots in America, by Sam Waldron (1991), ISBN 0-9622508-3-X
  • Exposition of the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, by Sam Waldron (1989), ISBN 0-85234-268-3

External links

  • Sovereign Grace Bible Church of Cebu — Philippines
  • Reformed Baptist Academic Press — publisher
  • ExeGia Publication — Reformed Apologetics & Exegesis, web and internet radio publisher (Rafael H. Garcia and Jonathan J. Goundry)
  • IRBS — Institute of Reformed Baptist Studies
  • Johnny Farese's Reformed Baptist Church Directory — an incomplete international directory of congregations
  • Reformed Baptist Theological Review — theology journal
  • Unchained Radio — daily internet radio program hosted by a Reformed Baptist pastor (Gene Cook Jr. of Covenant Baptist Church San Diego, California)
  • Reformed Baptist? What is a Reformed Baptist Church? ... — article summarising Reformed Baptist beliefs (published by Truth for Eternity, Grand Rapids, Michigan)

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is a Reformed Baptist? (3519 words)
Reformed Baptist congregations are distinguished by their conviction regarding the sufficiency and authority, in addition to the inspiration and infallibility, of the Word of God.
Reformed Baptist Churches are distinguished by their conviction that the local church is central to the purposes of God on the earth.
Reformed Baptist have a conviction that the Law of God (as expressed in the Ten Commandments) is regulative in the life of the new covenant believer.
WhoAreTheReformedBaptists? (1473 words)
The beliefs of the Reformed Baptists are summarized in the London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1689.
Reformed Baptists are confessional subscribing fully to this Confession of Faith as a subordinate standard and summary of those things most surely believed among us.
Reformed Baptists are of the view that only believers should make up the membership of the church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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