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Encyclopedia > Reform Treaty
Reform Treaty

(Lisbon Treaty) Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ...

Created 18 October 2007
Ratified By the end of 2008
Location Lisbon, Portugal
Signers EU heads of states
Purpose To amend previous treaties
European Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Treaties
Rome · Maastricht (Pillars)
Amsterdam · Nice · Reform
Institutions
Commission

President José Manuel Barroso
Barroso Commission The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born in Lisbon, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese to hold the post. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ...


Parliament

President Hans-Gert Pöttering
MEPs (2004-09 term) Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... This is a list giving breakdowns of the European Parliamentary session from 2004 to 2009. ...


Council

Presidency: Portugal (Luís Amado)
High Representative · Voting Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Luís Filipe Marques Amado (b. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ...


Other & Future Institutions

Court of Justice · Court of Auditors
Central Bank · European Council
There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...

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The Reform Treaty is a European Union treaty designed to reform the European Union following the failed ratification of the proposed European Constitution. The current draft is entitled the "Draft Treaty amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community". The agreement was reached on the treaty's final text at an informal summit in Lisbon on 19 October 2007. The treaty is set to be signed by European leaders on 13 December 2007, after which each member state of the Union will have to ratify it. It is generally expected that the treaty be signed in Lisbon, and therefore likely become known as the Treaty of Lisbon. A likely date for the treaty to come into force would then be 1 January 2009, in time before the 2009 European elections.[1][2] Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... European Parliament electoral system is proportional representation. ... The European political party, or formally political party at European level, is a type of political party organization in the European Union, eligible to receive funding from the Union. ... Political Groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents, into powerful coalitions. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ...


The proposed Constitution had failed ratification in referendums in France and the Netherlands in 2005. It had been ratified by 15 European Union member states but due to the requirement of unanimity in amending the EU's constitutional framework, the French and Dutch votes required EU leaders to amend the procedures and content of a new EU treaty. In June 2007, the European Council reached an agreement on the framework of a new treaty, which was finalised during an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) that started on 23 July of the same year and which lasted three months, culminating in a final treaty text agreed upon on 19 October. On 29 May 2005 a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ...

Contents

Background: the Constitution

Further information: History of the European Constitution

The need to review the EU's constitutional framework, particularly in light of the impending accession of ten new member states in 2004, was highlighted in a declaration annexed to the Treaty of Nice in 2001. The agreements at Nice had paved the way for further enlargement of the Union by reforming voting procedures, but the treaty was widely regarded as not having gone far enough. The Laeken declaration of December 2001 committed the EU to improving democracy, transparency and efficiency, and set out the process by which a constitution could be arrived at. The European Convention was established, presided over by former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, and was given the task of consulting as widely as possible across Europe with the aim of producing a first draft of the Constitution. The Convention consisted mainly of representatives of national parliaments, not only from existing member states but also from candidate countries, as well as representatives of heads of state and government. It published its final draft in July 2003. The final text of the proposed Constitution was agreed upon at the summit meeting on 18–19 June 2004 under the presidency of Ireland. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... Family photo of European leaders at the signing of the constitutional treaty in Rome This article discusses the history of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which was signed in 2004 and is currently awaiting ratification by European Union member states. ... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... In the physical sciences, specifically in optics, a transparent physical object is one that can be seen through. ... The European Convention, sometimes known as the Convention on the Future of Europe, was a body established by the European Council in December 2001 as a result of the Laeken Declaration. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


The Constitution, having been agreed by heads of government from the 25 member states, was signed at a ceremony in Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it could enter into force, however, it had to be unanimously ratified by each member state. Ratification took different forms in each country, depending on the traditions, constitutional arrangements, and political processes of each country. In 2005, Dutch and French voters rejected the European Constitution in national referendums. While the majority of the EU member states already had ratified the European Constitution, due to the requirement of unanimity to amend the constitutional treaties of the EU, this led to a "period of reflection" and the political end of the proposed European Constitution. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On 29 May 2005 a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


New impetus

In 2007, Germany took over the rotating EU Presidency and declared the period of reflection over. By March, the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration was adopted by all member states. This declaration outlined the intention of all member states to agree on a new treaty in time for the 2009 Parliamentary elections, that is to have a ratified treaty before mid-2009.[3] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ... Berlin is symbolic in European history, the divided city reflecting the divided continent, both reunited after the fall of Communism. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ...


Already before the Berlin Declaration, the Amato Group (officially the Action Committee for European Democracy, ACED) – a group of European politicians, backed by the Barroso Commission with two representatives in the group – worked unofficially on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (EU Constitution). On 4 June 2007 the group released their text in French – cut from 63,000 words in 448 articles in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe to 12,800 in 70 articles. In the Berlin Declaration, the EU leaders unofficially set a new timeline for the new treaty; Former Prime Minister of Italy Giuliano Amato was the leader of the Action Committee for European Democracy. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

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2123 June 2007 (Redirected from 21 June) June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

  

European Council meeting in Brussels, mandate for IGC

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23 July 2007 is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

launch of Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) in Lisbon, text of Reform Treaty

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78 September 2007 September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Foreign Ministers’ meeting

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1819 October 2007 (Redirected from 18 October) October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

European Council in Lisbon, final agreement on Reform Treaty

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13 December 2007 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

signing of the treaty in Lisbon

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by end of 2008 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

ratification by all member states

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1 January 2009 is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

entry into force

June 2007 European Council

Angela Merkel brokered a treaty agreement in June 2007

On 21 June 2007 the European Council met in Brussels to agree upon the foundation of a new treaty to replace the rejected Constitution. The meeting took place under the German Presidency of the Union, with Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel leading the negotiations as President-in-Office of the European Council. After the Council quickly dealt with its other business, such as deciding on the accession of Cyprus and Malta to the Eurozone, negotiations on the Treaty took over and lasted until 5 a.m. on Saturday morning, 23 June 2007. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (née Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Agreement was reached on a 16-page mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference, that proposed removing much of the constitutional terminology and many of the symbols from the old European Constitution text. In addition it was agreed to recommend to the IGC that the provisions of the old European Constitution should be amended in certain key aspects (such as voting or foreign policy). Due to pressure from the United Kingdom and Poland, it was also decided to recommend limiting the application of Charter of fundamental human rights within the EU (a potential opting-out provision for the UK). Among the specific changes were greater ability to opt-out in certain areas of legislation and that the proposed new voting system that was part of the European Constitution would not be used before 2014 (see Provisions below).[4][5] An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ...


In the June meeting, the name "Reform Treaty" also emerged, finally eliminating the name "Constitution for Europe" for the new EU treaty. Technically it was agreed that the Reform Treaty would amend both the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community to include most provisions of the European Constitution, however not to combine them into one document. It was also agreed to rename the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC-Treaty), which is the main functional agreement including most of the substantive provisions of European primary law, to "Treaty on the Functioning of the Union". In addition it was agreed, that unlike in the European Constitution where a Charter was included in the text, there would only be a reference to the existing Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union to make that document legally binding.[4] Many of the amendments followed the procedures as suggested by the Amato Group. The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC) and came into force on 1 January 1958. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... Former Prime Minister of Italy Giuliano Amato was the leader of the Action Committee for European Democracy. ...


Intergovernmental Conference

Wikinews has related news:
Work begins on "Lisbon Treaty"

Portugal had pressed and supported Germany to reach an agreement on a mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) under their presidency. After the June negotiations and final settlement on a 16-page framework for the new Reform Treaty, the Intergovernmental conference on actually drafting the new treaty commenced on 23 July 2007. The IGC opened following a short ceremony. The Portuguese presidency presented a 145 page document (with an extra 132 pages of 12 protocols and 51 declarations) entitled the "Draft Treaty amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community" and made it available on the Council of the European Union website as a starting point for the drafting process.[6] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... An Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) is the formal procedure for negotiating amendments to the founding treaties of the European Union. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ...


In addition to government representatives and legal scholars from each member state, the European Parliament sent three representatives. These were conservative Elmar Brok, social democratic Enrique Baron Crespo and liberal Andrew Duff.[7] The European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats is a group in the European Parliament. ... Elmar Brok (born May 14, 1946 in Verl, Kreis Gütersloh) is a German Member of the European Parliament and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... Enrique Barón Crespo (born March 27, 1944, Madrid) is a Spanish politician and lawyer. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope, Dutch: Alliantie van Liberalen en Democraten voor Europa) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... Andrew Duff (born 25 December 1950) is a Liberal Democrat politician and a Member of the European Parliament for the East of England region of the UK. He initially stood in the European Parliament election, 1984 coming third with 22. ...


Before the opening of the IGC, the Polish government expressed a desire to go back on the June agreement, notably over the voting system, but relented due to a desire not to be seen as the sole trouble maker over the negotiations and due to political pressure by most other European member states.[8] However, according to some media reports, during the drafting process, Poland and Ireland may join the UK in its opt-out of the Charter on human rights, and Poland may call for further codification of rules regarding the ability of countries to delay legislation.[9][10] Despite an opt-out for Ireland having been negotiated, the ICTU had stated it would push for a no vote, if the opt-out had been exercised.[11]. In the end, the opt-out for Ireland was not excercised in this area.[12] The Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), formed in 1959 by the merger of the Irish Trade Union Congress (founded in 1894) and the Congress of Irish Unions (founded in 1945), is a national trade union centre, the umbrella organisation to which trade unions in both the Republic of Ireland...


It is currently planned to close this conference, mainly consisting of legal experts of all member states, at Council meetings on 18 and 19 October 2007. As the IGC is held in Lisbon and the European Council meeting in October will take place in Lisbon as well, it is likely the treaty will be called the "Lisbon Treaty" in the style of past treaties (excluding the Constitution's IGC in Rome); the Maastricht Treaty in Maastricht (1992), the Amsterdam Treaty in Amsterdam (1997), and the Nice Treaty in Nice (2001). It would be signed either at the conclusion of the IGC or if an agreement is not reached by then, probably in December. For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of Rome, which established... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ...


October 2007 European Council

This conference, mainly consisting of legal experts of all member states, was closed at Council meetings on 18 and 19 October 2007. As the IGC is held in Lisbon and the European Council meeting in October took place in Lisbon as well, it is likely the treaty will be called the "Lisbon Treaty" in the style of past treaties (excluding the Constitution's IGC in Rome); the Maastricht Treaty in Maastricht (1992), the Amsterdam Treaty in Amsterdam (1997), and the Nice Treaty in Nice (2001). The meeting took place under the Portuguese Presidency of the Union, with Portugal's Prime Minister Jose Socrates leading the negotiations as President-in-Office of the European Council For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of Rome, which established... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... José Sócrates Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (born Vilar de Maçada, 6 September 1957) is a Portuguese politician, elected secretary-general of the Socialist Party Sócrates is a civil engineer, with a post-graduated studies in the area of sanitary engineering. ...


At the European Council meeting on 18 October and 19 October 2007 in Lisbon, a few last-minute concessions were made to ensure the signing of the treaty:[13] This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...

  • Italy gained an additional MEP, while the President of the EP will no longer be counted as an MEP (thus keeping the 750 MEP ceiling);
  • Poland got a slightly stronger wording for the revived Ioannina Compromise, plus a nomination for an additional Advocate General at the European Court of Justice. The creation of the permanent "Polish" Advocate General is formally conditioned by an increase of the number of Advocates General from 8 to 11.[14]
  • Austria got a suspension of the court case over its student quotas;
  • Bulgaria succeeded in having the Cyrillic transcription of "euro" be spelt "евро" to sound "evro" (instead of "еуро" as requested by the European Central Bank).

The Ioannina compromise takes its name from an informal meeting of foreign ministers of the states of the European Union which took place in the Greek city of Ioannina on 27 March 1994. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...

Structure

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The merge of previous EU treaties into the failed Constitution (left), and the structure of the Reform (Lisbon) Treaty's 'amending' of the old documents
Reform Treaty
Treaty on
the Functioning
of the European
Union

The Treaty is divided into several parts: Image File history File links EU_Constitution_structure_complete. ... Image File history File links Reform_Treaty_structure_complete. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...

  • Preamble
  • Changes to the Treaty on European Union (Article 1, Page 3-40)
  • Changes to the Treaty establishing the European Community (Article 2, Page 41-150)
  • Final provisions (Article 3-7, Page 151-152)
  • Protocols
  • Declarations

The “Treaty Establishing the European Community” (Treaty of Rome) will be renamed the “Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union”. In contrast to the European Constitution, which would have replaced the two main treaties of the European Union plus the Chart of Fundamental Rights and combined them into one single treaty, the Reform Treaty will simply amend them thus making a legal binding reference to the Chart of Fundamental Rights. To understand the changes proposed in the Reform Treaty one has to crossreference with the existing treaties. This has caused many observers to call the treaty unreadable and ugly. A typical example from the treaty is: The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...

Article 7 shall be amended as follows: (a) throughout the Article, the word "assent" shall be replaced by "consent", the reference to breach "of principles mentioned in Article 6(1)" shall be replaced by a reference to breach "of the values referred to in Article 2" and the words "of this Treaty" shall be replaced by "of the Treaties";



Content

Key features

The Fundamental Rights Charter, proclaimed by the EU in 2000, would be made legally binding.
The External Relations Commissioner post merged into the current seat held by Javier Solana.
  • Extended role of the European Parliament
The directly elected European Parliament gains power by extending the codecision procedure to many areas. National parliaments will also have extended roles.
  • Restructured EU policy areas
Double majority voting in the European Council expanded to more areas from 2014 on.
Would replace the currently rotating Presidency of the European Council. 2.5 year term.
Enables the EU to sign international treaties.

The Reform Treaty is intended to keep most of the institutional innovations that were agreed upon in the European Constitution, such as a permanent EU president, a foreign minister (renamed "High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy"), the same distribution of parliamentary seats, a reduced number of commissioners, a clause on withdrawal from the EU and a full legal personality (currently held only by the European Community) allowing it to sign international agreements. In addition many of the political changes and substantial amendments to the old treaties in the European Constitution have also been kept. The following points are the major changes with regard to the European Constitution and the old treaties: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... The Current Commissioner with the First Lady of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner The Commissioner for the External Relations is the member of the European Commission responsible for the Commissions external representation in the world, the current Commissioner is Benita Ferrero-Waldner (EPP-ED). ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... A double majority is the name given to a vote which requires a majority of votes according to two separate criteria. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Names and constitutional elements

The "Treaty Establishing the European Community" (Treaty of Rome) will be renamed the “Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union”. However, in contrast to the European Constitution, the two main treaties of the European Union will not be combined to one single constitutional treaty. The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...


In addition there will be some changes to the institutions of the Union: the European Council and European Central Bank will both become official institutions; the Council of the European Union will be known in the treaty as 'the Council' or the 'Council of Ministers'; the Court of Justice of the European Communities shall be known as the 'Court of Justice of the European Union', and the term 'European Commission' will also be used in the treaties instead of the Commission of the European Communities.[6] Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...


It was agreed to drop most of the state-like features such as the name "constitution", as well as reference to EU symbols (flag, anthem, motto). However all the symbols are already in use, the flag having been adopted in the 1980s, and the Constitution would have just given them a more formal status. So despite being dropped from the text, use will continue: indeed the Parliament, in response to the dropping of the symbols, announced it would make greater use of them. In line with eliminating all "state-like" terminology and symbols, new names for various types of EU legislation have been dropped, in particular the proposal to rename EU regulations and directives to be EU "laws".[15][16][4][17] The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ...


Charter of Fundamental Rights

The 54-article Charter of Fundamental Rights lists citizens' political, social and economic rights. It is supposed to make sure that EU regulations and directives do not contradict the European Convention on Human Rights which is ratified by all EU member states (and to which the EU as a whole would accede to under the treaty[6]). In the rejected EU Constitution it was integrated into the text of the treaty and was legally binding. The UK, as one of the two countries with a common law legal system in the EU[18] and a largely uncodified Constitution, was strongly against making it legally binding.[16] The German presidency suggested a reference to it with a single article in the "Reform Treaty" but maintained that it should be legally binding.[15] The article elevates the Charter to the same legal value as the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article is about constitutional concepts. ...

Article 6


1. The Union recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of 7 December 2000, as adapted [at..., on... 2007], which shall have the same legal value as the Treaties. The provisions of the Charter shall not extend in any way the competences of the Union as defined in the Treaties. The rights, freedoms and principles in the Charter shall be interpreted in accordance with the general provisions in Title VII of the Charter governing its interpretation and application and with due regard to the explanations referred to in the Charter, that set out the sources of those provisions.


2. The Union shall accede to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Such accession shall not affect the Union's competences as defined in the Treaties. The European Convention on Human Rights (1950) was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe† to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ...


3. Fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, shall constitute general principles of the Union's law."

—The Reform Treaty[6]

Foreign relations

The High Representative would be combined with the Commissioner for External Relations

Foreign Relations is a policy area which requires unanimity among the members of the EU according to the reform treaty. It will merge the post of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy with the European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy in an effort to reduce the number of Commissioners in the European Commission. The High Representative will also become a Commission vice-president and get a diplomatic corps. The Constitution called this post the Union Foreign Minister. In the Reform Treaty this post will be called High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.[4][19] Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2100 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The external relations policy of the Barroso Commission is based on three key basic propositions on the EU’s role in the emerging world order. ...


Several member states feared that this post will undermine their national foreign policy, so the EU summit mandated that the IGC will agree to the following Declaration:

In addition to the specific procedures referred to in [paragraph 1 of Article 11], the Conference underlines that the provisions covering Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) including in relation to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and External Action Service will not affect the existing legal basis, responsibilities, and powers of each Member State in relation to the formulation and conduct of its foreign policy, its national diplomatic service, relations with third countries and participation in international organisations, including a Member State's membership of the Security Council of the UN.

The Conference also notes that the provisions covering CFSP do not give new powers to the Commission to initiate decisions or increase the role of the European Parliament. The Conference also recalls that the provisions governing the CFSP do not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of the Member States. The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Javier Solana, expected to be the first combined High Representative The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is a new European Union political post envisaged under the proposed Reform Treaty. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

—Presidency conclusions[4]

The changes in foreign relations have been seen by some as the core changes in the treaty, in the same way the Single European Act had created a single market, the Maastricht Treaty had created the euro or the Treaty of Amsterdam created greater cooperation in justice and home affairs.[20] The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which...


The European Parliament and National Parliaments

See also: European Parliament

The power of the directly elected European Parliament would be increased under the Reform Treaty. Currently most policy areas fall under co-decision procedure. After ratification of the Reform Treaty this procedure (now called the "ordinary legislative procedure") would apply to virtually all areas of EU policy meaning that the Parliament would have comparable powers to those of the Council. In the few remaining areas the Consultation procedure (now called "special legislative procedures") applies. The Parliament also gains greater powers over the entirety of the EU budget, not just non-compulsory expenditure, through the ordinary legislative procedure. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The codecision procedure is the main legislative procedure by which law can be adopted in the European Community, the first of the three pillars of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Consultation procedure is one of the legislative procedures of the European Community, the 1st of the three pillars of the European Union. ...


National parliaments will be given a greater role in any reform of the EU Treaty (new Article 33 replacing Article 48) and in responding to new applications for membership (new Article 34 replacing Article 49). National parliaments will be able to veto measures furthering judicial cooperation in civil matters (new Article 69d).

Article 8c: National Parliaments shall contribute actively to the good functioning of the Union:

(a) through being informed by the institutions of the Union and having draft European legislative acts forwarded to them in accordance with the Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union;
(b) by seeing to it that the principle of subsidiarity is respected in accordance with the procedures provided for in the Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality;
(c) by taking part, within the framework of the area of freedom, security and justice, in the evaluation mechanisms for the implementation of the Union policies in that area, in accordance with Article 64 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and through being involved in the political monitoring of Europol and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities in accordance with Articles 69k and 69h of that Treaty;
(d) by taking part in the revision procedures of the Treaties, in accordance with Article 33 of this Treaty;
(e) by being notified of applications for accession to the Union, in accordance with Article 34 of this Treaty;
(f) by taking part in the inter-parliamentary cooperation between national Parliaments and with the European Parliament, in accordance with the Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union.
Dutch prime minister Jan-Peter Balkenende insisted on a greater role for national parliaments to avert holding a referendum

These points were "red line" issues for Dutch prime minister Jan-Peter Balkenende who wanted a greater role for national parliaments in the EU decision making process.[21] There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Subsidiarity is the principle which states that matters ought to be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Prime Minister of the Netherlands Dr. Jan Peter Balkenende   listen? (* May 7, 1956) is Prime Minister of The Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ... Prime Minister of the Netherlands Dr. Jan Peter Balkenende   listen? (* May 7, 1956) is Prime Minister of The Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ...


Protocol 2 provides for a greater role of national parliaments in ensuring that EU measures comply with the principle of subsidiarity. In comparison with the proposed Constitution, the Reform Treaty allows national parliaments eight rather than six weeks to study European Commission legislative proposals and decide whether to send a reasoned opinion stating why the national parliament considers it to be incompatible with subsidiarity. National parliaments may vote to have the measure reviewed. If one third (or one quarter, where the proposed EU measure concerns freedom, justice and security) of votes are in favour of a review, the Commission will have to review the measure and if it decides to maintain it, must give a reasoned opinion to the Union legislator as to why it considers the measure to be compatible with subsidiarity. Subsidiarity is the principle which states that matters ought to be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Voting in the Council

Main article: Voting in the Council of the European Union

The Reform Treaty will introduce a new voting procedure in the Council of the European Union for legislation which do not require unanimous decisions. This so called qualified majority is reached when a majority of all member countries (55%) who represent a majority of all citizens (65%) vote in favour of the proposal. When the Council is not acting on a proposal of the Commission, the necessary majority of all member countries is increased to 72% while the population requirement stays the same. To block legislation at least 4 countries have to be against the proposal. The procedures for Voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the EU. The Council of the European Union was instituted under this name in the Maastricht Treaty. ...


The current Nice treaty voting rules (that include a majority of countries (50% / 67%), voting weights (74%) and population (62%)) will remain in place until 2014. Between 2014 and 2017 a transitional phase will take place where the new qualified majority voting rules apply, but where the old Nice treaty voting weights can be applied when a member state wishes so. Also from 2014 a new version of the 1994 "Ioannina Compromise" will take effect, which allows small minorities of EU states to call for re-examination of EU decisions they do not like.[22] Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ... The Ioannina compromise takes its name from an informal meeting of foreign ministers of the states of the European Union which took place in the Greek city of Ioannina on 27 March 1994. ...


Policy areas

See also: Three pillars of the European Union

According to the Reform Treaty, the EU's three "pillar" structure would be replaced. The union's competencies in two major legislative areas or "pillars" – Foreign and Security Policy (second pillar) and Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (third pillar) – would be increased at the same time. However the UK was opposed to extension of supranational powers in these areas in order to avoid a national referendum. Under the June agreement, the UK will also not be obliged to take part in EU cooperation in judicial and police affairs. On foreign policy and defence, the national veto will be retained but other innovations from the constitution are retained. The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ...


In the Reform Treaty the policy areas of the EU are classified into one of the following three areas:

  • Exclusive competence: In this area the EU has exclusive competence to make directives. It also has exclusive competence for the conclusion of an international agreement when its conclusion is provided for in a legislative act of the Union.
  • Shared competence: The competence to legislate in this area is shared between the member states and the EU.
  • Supporting competence: Here the EU is allowed to carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement the actions of the Member States.
Exclusive competence Shared competence Supporting competence
  • customs union
  • the establishing of the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal market
  • monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the euro
  • the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fisheries policy
  • common commercial policy
  • internal market
  • social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty
  • economic, social and territorial cohesion
  • agriculture and fisheries, excluding the conservation of marine biological resources
  • environment
  • consumer protection
  • transport
  • trans-European networks
  • energy
  • area of freedom, security and justice
  • common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty
  • protection and improvement of human health
  • industry
  • culture
  • tourism
  • education, youth, sport and vocational training
  • civil protection
  • administrative cooperation

Member states can have opt-outs from some of these policy areas (e.g. UK opt-out from legislation in the area of freedom, security and justice). A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ... TEN re-directs here; for alternate uses, see Ten. ...


The Treaty will provide countries with a chance to opt out of EU policies in the area of police and criminal law – as pushed for by the UK, supported by the Czech Republic.[19] Provisions in the Treaty framework draft from the June 2007 summit stated that the division of power between member states and the Union is a two-way process, implying that powers can be taken back from the union.


President of the European Council

See also: President of the European Council and Presidency of the Council of the European Union
José Sócrates: as President-in-Office he led the negotiations in the Lisbon meeting in October 2007

The current post of President-in-Office of the European Council is loosely defined, with the Union's treaties stating only that the European Council shall be chaired by the head of government (or state) of the country holding the presidency of the European Union which rotates every six months.[23] If ratified the new President of the European Council would be elected for a two and a half year term. The election would take place by a qualified majority among the members of the body, and the President can be removed by the same procedure. Unlike the President of the European Commission, there is no approval from the European Parliament.[24] The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2300x1773, 1367 KB) José Sócrates, primeiro-ministro de Portugal (Brasília, 9 de Agosto de 2006) José Sócrates, premier of Portugal (Brasília, Aug. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2300x1773, 1367 KB) José Sócrates, primeiro-ministro de Portugal (Brasília, 9 de Agosto de 2006) José Sócrates, premier of Portugal (Brasília, Aug. ... José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH (pron. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... A Chairman-in-Office or President-in-Office (CiO or PiO; French: président en exercice) is the ambassador, foreign minister, or other official of the member state holding the presidency of an international organization, who is the individual actually chairing the meeting of the representatives from member states. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The President's work would be largely administrative in coordinating the work of the Council and organising the meeting. It does however offer external representation of the council and the Union and reports to the European Parliament after Council meetings and at the beginning and end of his term. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


In many newspapers this post is being called "President of Europe". This is very misleading since the post of President of the European Commission has legislative and executive powers which the President of the European Council lacks. François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ...


Enlargement and secession

     current members      candidate countries      potential candidate countries      application frozen      application rejected by EC      accession rejected in a referendum

The Reform Treaty, just like the European Constitution, will include language on potential member states having to adhere to the bloc's values if they want to become members of the union. A Dutch suggestion to enshrine the Copenhagen Criteria for further enlargement in the new treaty has not been fully taken on board as there are fears it would lead to ECJ judges having the last word on who could join the EU, rather than its political leaders.[19] During the June 2007 summit Dutch prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende, secured stronger enlargement criteria in the treaty. They make it more difficult for would-be member states to get their applications approved, give slightly more power to national parliaments over proposed EU legislation and add a protocol stating that the new treaty does not affect the right of member states to provide services of general interest. The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Image File history File links European_Union_member_states_with_applications. ... Image File history File links European_Union_member_states_with_applications. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... A referendum on whether Norway should join the European Union was held on November 28, 1994. ... The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Jan Peter Balkenende (pronounced IPA:  ) (born May 7, 1956) has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ...


Just like the European Constitution the Reform Treaty will include a provision that makes it possible for EU member states for the first time to legally and officially terminate their membership. While there has been an instance where a territory has ceased to be part of the EC (Greenland in 1985), there is currently no regulated opportunity to exit the European Union.


Climate change and energy solidarity

The Reform Treaty has additional agreements regarding climate change and the fight against global warming, which have been added as targets for the European Union. In addition, several provisions of the treaties have been amended to include solidarity in matters of energy supply and changes to the energy policy within the European Union. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Special provisions for member states

Main article: Opt-outs in the European Union

 member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one...

United Kingdom and Poland

The United Kingdom and Poland have both fought for the inclusion of a protocol to prevent the application of the "Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union" by the European Court of Justice in their countries: Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...

Article 1
1. The Charter does not extend the ability of the Court of Justice of the European Union, or any court or tribunal of Poland or of the United Kingdom, to find that the laws, regulations or administrative provisions, practices or action of Poland or of the United Kingdom are inconsistent with the fundamental rights, freedoms and principles that it reaffirms.
2. In particular, and for the avoidance of doubt, nothing in Title IV of the Charter creates justiciable rights applicable to Poland or the United Kingdom except in so far as Poland or the United Kingdom has provided for such rights in its national law.
Article 2
To the extent that a provision of the Charter refers to national laws and practices, it shall only apply to Poland or the United Kingdom to the extent that the rights or principles that it contains are recognised in the law or practices of Poland or of the United Kingdom. Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...

—Reform Treaty - Protocol (No 7)[25]

Though the Civic Platform party in Poland had signalled during the 2007 parliamentary elections that it would not seek to opt-out from the Charter,[12] Prime Minister Tusk has since stated that Poland will not sign up to the Charter. Tusk has declared that the deals negotiated by the previous Polish government will be honoured.[26] Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO), is a Christian-democratic Polish political party. ... Early parliamentary elections for both houses of parliament (Sejm and Senat) were held in Poland on 21 October 2007 after the Sejm voted for its own dissolution on 7 September 2007. ...


United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom have opted out from the change from unanimous decisions to qualified majority voting in the sector of police and judicial affairs; this decision will be reviewed in Ireland three years after the treaty enters into force (if referendum allows). All two states will be able to opt-in on these voting issues on a case-by-case basis.


Ratification and referenda

     referendum to be held      referendum under discussion      parliamentary ratification only

Under a timetable envisioned by Germany and agreed by the June 2007 summit, all member states will use the mandate agreed at the June 2007 summit as the basis for negotiations on a new Treaty, which should be finished by the end of the year and ratified in all member states the end of 2008, entering into force on 1 January 2009 ahead of the next European elections. Most states are likely to try to avoid having a referendum on the treaty – with only Ireland obliged to (due to its constitution) – and will aim to ratify it by their national parliaments. In Denmark, calls are ongoing to hold a referendum on the treaty.[27][28] A neutral commission will decide whether a referendum has to be held for constitutional reasons after the treaty is officially signed. In Scotland the Scottish National Party wants to hold a consultative referendum on the treaty; the legality of this plan is questionable, however, as this does not fall within the competences of devolved government. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,236 × 1,245 pixels, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/png)  referendum to be held  referendum under discussion  parliamentary ratification only File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 595 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,236 × 1,245 pixels, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/png)  referendum to be held  referendum under discussion  parliamentary ratification only File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections in the European Union take place every five years by universal adult suffrage. ... This article is about the country. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ...


In the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom considerations over whether to hold referendums were made. In all cases, the governments decided to ratify the treaty through parliament. In the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the parliament could force a referendum against the government's decision; however, this is considered unlikely, as anti-referendum parties hold a majority.[29][30] The Czech Republic voted on 30 October 2007 to ratify the treaty through the parliamentary route, and not via a referendum; the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and three rebel MPs from the ruling Civic Democratic Party were the only ones to vote in favour of a referendum.[31] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech: Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy) is a political party in the Czech Republic. ... The Civic Democratic Party (Czech: Občanská demokratická strana - abbreviation: ODS) is the largest right-wing political party in the Czech Republic. ...


In Portugal, Prime Minister José Sócrates pledged to hold a referendum on the European Constitution and faces calls to hold a referendum on the Reform Treaty, as well; however, all parties except the Left Bloc are hesitant to do so, fearing a knock-on effect causing other states (most notably the UK) to hold a referendum, as well. Sócrates, while currently avoiding making a clear statement on the issue, has stated he will announce his decision after the formal signing of the treaty on 13 December 2007.[32] Prime Ministers of the Constitutional Monarchy (1834-1910) First Republic Military Dictatorship Estado Novo Third Republic See also: List of Presidents of Portugal, Politics of Portugal, Lists of incumbents This article contains content from HierarchyPedia article Prime Minister of Portugal, used here under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH (pron. ... Leftwing Bloc (Portuguese: Bloco de Esquerda) is a Portuguese left-wing political party founded in 1999. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Reactions

Following the June agreement German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier declared that in his view the only thing left to do is to draft the legal compromise reached in June into "legal provisions". Austrian foreign minister Ursula Plassnik concurred and added "the only thing left to do is get the language right and work on the legal details, and announced her confidence that within 12 weeks a treaty ready to sign could be prepared.[33] This was echoed by José Manuel Barroso, the president of the European Commission, who stated that he is 'confident' that the 27 EU member states will reach a political agreement on a new reform treaty for the bloc by October. He added that "We now have the draft treaty text. The political consensus that was reached at the last European council is now translated into legal language."[34] Steinmeier and Condoleezza Rice in Berlin Dr. Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956 in Detmold, Germany) is a German politician and, since November 22, 2005, Foreign Minister of Germany in the Grand Coalition of Angela Merkel. ... Ursula Plassnik Ursula Plassnik (born May 23, 1956 in Klagenfurt) is an Austrian diplomat and politician. ... José Manuel Durão Barroso, GCC (pronounced: IPA,  ) (born in Lisbon, March 23, 1956) is a Portuguese politician and the 11th President of the European Commission, being the first Portuguese to hold the post. ...


However, others such as Poland have indicated they wish to re-open some areas. During June, Poland's Prime Minister had controversially stated that Poland would have a substantially larger population were it not for World War II.[35] The president of the European Parliament Hans-Gert Pöttering declared that there should not be new negotiations on substance and that no agreement on a re-opening, as suggested for instance by Poland, should occur. Elmar Brok, who is part of the Delegation of the European Parliament added "This mandate now needs to be implemented into a draft" right now.[33] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hans-Gert Pöttering (often written as Poettering; born September 15, 1945 in Bersenbrück, Lower Saxony) is a German conservative politician (CDU), and has been President of the European Parliament since January 2007. ... Elmar Brok (born May 14, 1946 in Verl, Kreis Gütersloh) is a German Member of the European Parliament and the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. ...


United Kingdom

Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair agreed to the new Reform Treaty in June 2007. He is also a possible candidate for the position of President of the European Council should the Reform Treaty be ratified.

The Reform Treaty has been greeted with controversy in the United Kingdom.[36] The ruling Labour Party had promised a referendum over the UK's ratification of the constitution; however, Tony Blair announced that the new Reform Treaty would not be subject to a referendum. Due to the Reform Treaty including many changes to the old European constitutional framework that the European Constitution proposed, media reported that the British public felt a referendum should still be held over the new Reform Treaty.[37] In response, Blair, and his successor Gordon Brown, claimed that the treaty would not require a referendum so long as certain 'red lines' were not crossed; i.e., that the UK continued to retain vetoes over collective foreign policy, common law (so the Charter of Fundamental Rights would be without legal effect) and social security and tax laws.[38] While Blair claimed to have reached this compromise, doubt was cast over the legal efficacy of his foreign policy opt-out, especially since the EU retained an extensive array of diplomatic machinery – implying that the EU would indeed be conducting collective diplomatic policies, regardless of Britain's feelings in the matter.[39] Also of concern was the removal of the term "free and undistorted" from the objectives of the EU. This was made by the request of French president Sarkozy who felt that this is not a philosophical objective but rather a tool to reach the objective. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 435 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1030 × 1420 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 435 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1030 × 1420 pixel, file size: 678 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one...

3. The Union shall establish an internal market (where competition is free and undistorted). It shall work for the sustainable development of Europe based on balanced economic growth and price stability, a highly competitive social market economy, aiming at full employment and social progress, and a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment. It shall promote scientific and technological advance. The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ...

Members of Parliament in the UK have also criticised that during the first few days of drafting the Reform Treaty only a French version was available, which they claim prevented proper scrutiny of the new European Union treaty by failing to provide the House of Commons with an English version.[40] The European Scrutiny Committee of the House of Commons asserted in October 2007 that the Reform Treaty is "substantially equivalent" to the old European Constitution treaty, and that the special exceptions made in the new treaty for the United Kingdom might not prove to be effective in practice.[41][42] This view has been challenged by British foreign affairs minister David Miliband.[43] David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ...


Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Reform Treaty
  • "The one who wins in these kinds of situations is the one with the strongest nerves."
—Lech Kaczyński, President of Poland, 22 June 2007[22]
  • "The constitutional treaty was an easily understandable treaty. This is a simplified treaty which is very complicated."
—Jean-Claude Juncker, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, 23 June 2007[44]
  • "Nobody really wants to postpone the decision or create another crisis."
Margot Wallström, Commission Vice-President and Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy Commissioner, 12 October 2007[45]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954) is the Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg, and until July 1, 2005, was president of the European Council, a position he also previously held in 1997. ... See also: Politics of Luxembourg, List of Grand Dukes of Luxembourg, Lists of incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Margot Wallström Margot Wallström (born September 28, 1954), is Swedish politician, Social Democrat, and currently First Vice President and Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy Commissioner of the European Commission. ... Margot Wallström First-Vice-President, 2004 to 2009 A Vice President of the European Commission is a position given to a Commissioner in addition to their usual portfolio. ... Margot Wallström Barroso Commission, 2004 to 2009 The Commissioner for Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy is the member of the European Commission. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7052180.stm
  2. ^ "EU leaders strike final deal on reform treaty", Reuters, 2007-10-19. 
  3. ^ Constitutional Treaty: the "reflection period". EurActiv.com (2007-06-01). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  4. ^ a b c d e Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 21/22 June 2007. Council of the European Union (23 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  5. ^ Honor Mahony (21 June 2007). Stakes high as EU tries to put 2005 referendums behind it. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  6. ^ a b c d Draft Reform Treaty – Projet de traité modificatif. Council of the European Union (24 July 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  7. ^ Parliament to give green light for IGC. Euractiv (2007-07-09). Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  8. ^ Kubosova, Lucia (2007-07-20). Poland indicates it is ready to compromise on EU voting rights. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  9. ^ EU talks to thrash out new treaty. BBC News (2007-07-23). Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  10. ^ EU unveils bulky new treaty draft. EU Observer (2007-07-09). Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  11. ^ ICTU threatens to oppose EU treaty. RTE.ie (2007-07-03). Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  12. ^ a b Staff writer. "Poland's new government will adopt EU rights charter: official", EUbusiness, 2007-10-22. Retrieved on 2007-10-22. 
  13. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7051999.stm
  14. ^ Declaration ad Article 222 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union on the number of Advocates-General in the Court of Justice (pdf).
  15. ^ a b LinksDossier: EU in search of a new Treaty. EurActiv.com (26 April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  16. ^ a b Mark Tran (21 June 2007). How the German EU proposals differ from the constitution. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  17. ^ Beunderman, Mark (2007-07-11). MEPs defy member states on EU symbols. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  18. ^ http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/CM7174_Reform_Treaty.pdf
  19. ^ a b c Honor Mahony (20 June 2007). EU treaty blueprint sets stage for bitter negotiations. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  20. ^ Richard Lamming (28 June 2007). A treaty for foreign policy. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  21. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/07/23/neu123.xml
  22. ^ a b Honor Mahony (23 June 2007). EU leaders scrape treaty deal at 11th hour. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  23. ^ Eur-Lex. Consolidated EU Treaties. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  24. ^ Europa website. SCADPlus: The Institutions of the Union. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  25. ^ IGC 2007 (October 2007). Protocol (No 7) - On the Application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights to Poland and to the United Kingdom. Projet de traité modifiant le traité sur l'Union européenne et le traité instituant la Communauté européenne - Protocoles. European Union.
  26. ^ Staff writer. "No EU rights charter for Poland", BBC News, 2007-11-23. Retrieved on 2007-11-23. 
  27. ^ "DF forsøger at true VK til EU-afstemning", Politiken, 2007-07-18. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. 
  28. ^ "Danskerne vil stemme om EU-traktat", Politiken, 2007-07-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. 
  29. ^ http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2007/09/netherlands-rejects-eu-reform-treaty.php
  30. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7052180.stm
  31. ^ http://www.eubusiness.com/Institutions/1193764630.93
  32. ^ http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/international/portugal_drueckt_sich_vor_dem_eu-referendum_1.574748.html
  33. ^ a b "Konferenz über neuen EU-Reformvertrag eröffnet", Die Neue Epoche online, 23 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. (German) 
  34. ^ "EU's Barroso confident on EU reform treaty agreement by October", Forbes.com, 23 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. 
  35. ^ George Pascoe-Watson. "EU can't mention the war", The Sun, June 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-26. 
  36. ^ BBC News looks at press responses to the treaty. BBC (June 24, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  37. ^ "New treaty is just 'constitution in disguise'", The Daily Telegraph, July 2, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
  38. ^ Patrick Wintour. "Blair lays down lines over EU deal", The Guardian, June 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-26. 
  39. ^ Melissa Kite. "Referendum demand over Blair 'sell-out'", The Daily Telegraph, June 24, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-26. 
  40. ^ "EU treaty published - but only in French", The Daily Telegraph online, 27 July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. 
  41. ^ "EU treaty 'same as Constitution'", BBC News, 2007-10-08. 
  42. ^ Select Committee on European Scrutiny (2007-10-02). European Union Intergovernmental Conference. The House of Commons.
  43. ^ "Miliband denies 'giving in' to EU", BBC News, 2007-10-08. 
  44. ^ EU leaders hammer out treaty deal. Swissinfo / NZZ (24 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  45. ^ Nobody wants to create another EU crisis. EUobserver (12 October 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-12.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Politiken building on RÃ¥dhuspladsen, Copenhagen. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Politiken building on RÃ¥dhuspladsen, Copenhagen. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SRG SSR idée suisse is the business name of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation -- in German: Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft (SRG), in Romansh Societad svizra da radio e televisiun (SSR), in Italian: Società svizzera di radiotelevisione (SSR), in French: Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision (SSR). ... The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) is a major Swiss daily newspaper based in Zürich. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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