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Encyclopedia > Reform Party of Canada
Reform Party of Canada
Former Federal Party
Founded October 31, 1987
Dissolved March 25, 2000
Leader Preston Manning
Only leader
President n/a
Headquarters n/a
Political ideology Populism, Conservatism, Neoconservatism, Social conservatism
International alignment n/a
Colours Green, Blue
Website n/a

The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. It was originally founded as a Western Canada-based protest party, but attempted to expand eastward in the 1990s. It viewed itself as a populist party, but was also conservative. It was folded into the ideologically and fiscally conservative Canadian Alliance in 2000 which then merged with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) to form the present-day Conservative Party of Canada in 2003. During its time on the Canadian political scene, Reform had only one leader, Preston Manning, the son of former Alberta Premier and Evangelical Christian preacher Ernest Manning. The Reform Party was seen by mainstream politicians and media as being extremist and associated with the far-right after numerous Reform Members of Parliament and candidates repeatedly made remarks that were considered racist, "homophobic," and sexist, although the party itself never officially endorsed such beliefs. This image of intolerance and extremism plagued the party's fortunes in the 1990s, and was a factor in the party's rebranding as the Canadian Alliance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Neoconservatism in Canada is the new strand of Conservatism found within Canada. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mossy, green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... YOU SUCK!!!!! ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Hon. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... 1. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ... Sexism is discrimination between people based on their Sex rather than their individual merits. ...

Contents

Political roots and the party's creation

In 1986, a conference called "Canada's Economic and Political Future" was held in Vancouver, British Columbia. This conference led to the formation of the Reform Party in the following year. The party's founding occurred as the coalition of Western Prairie populists, Quebec nationalists, Ontario business leaders, and Atlantic Red Tories that made up Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservative Party (the "Tories") began to fracture. Motto: By Sea, Land, and Air We Prosper Location of Vancouver within the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia, Canada Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  British Columbia Region Lower Mainland Regional District Greater Vancouver Incorporated 1886 Government  - Mayor Sam Sullivan (NPA)  - City Council List of Councilors Suzanne Anton (NPA) Peter... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... Red Tory is a nickname given to a political tradition in Canadas conservative political parties. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The party was the brainchild of a group of discontented Western interest groups who were upset with the PC government and the lack of a voice for Western concerns at the national level. They believed the West needed its own party if it were to be heard. Their main complaints against the Mulroney government were its alleged favouritism towards Quebec, lack of fiscal responsibility, and a failure to support a program of institutional reform (for example, of the Senate). The roots of this discontent lay mainly in their belief that a package of proposed constitutional amendments, called the Meech Lake Accord, failed to meet the needs of Westerners and Canadian unity overall. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


The Reform Party was founded as a populist party to promote reform of democratic institutions. However, shortly after the 1987 founding convention, social and fiscal conservatives became dominant within the party, moving it to the right. Their political aims were a reduction in government spending on social programs, and reductions in taxation. Though largely a fringe party in 1987, by 1990, the party had made huge inroads in public support as support for Mulroney's PC party dropped due to the unpopular Goods and Services Tax (GST), high unemployment and the failure of the Charlottetown Accord. In 1992, leader Preston Manning released a book called The New Canada explaining the origins of the new party and its policies, explaining his personal life and convictions, and defending some of the controversial elements of Reform's policies. Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Canadian social conservatives openly support notions of natural law, tradition and conservative family values and policies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... The New Canada is a Canadian political literature book written by the now-defunct western-based conservative Reform Party of Canada founder and leader Preston Manning and published by Macmillan Canada. ...


The party in the late 1980s

The party had its first assembly in 1987, in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Preston Manning, son of former Alberta Social Credit Premier and Senator Ernest Manning, was acclaimed as the new party's leader when former Manitoba Liberal Party Member of the Legislative Assembly Stan Roberts, the only other candidate, withdrew from the race. The party fought in the 1988 federal election, but was never considered more than a fringe element, and failed to elect any of its 72 riding candidates. However, the party ran second to the governing Tories in many Western ridings and earned 2.1% of the total national vote. The party clearly identified itself as a Western-based political party in 1988 with its slogan "The West Wants In". The party advocated controversial policies such as its opposition to official bilingualism and multiculturalism and its opposition for distinct society status for Quebec which all mainstream political parties at the time supported. Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... The Social Credit Party of Alberta is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le S̩nat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Hon. ... The Manitoba Liberal Party is a political party in Manitoba, Canada. ... Stan Roberts (January 17, 1927 РSeptember 6, 1990) was a Canadian politician. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... In the British Isles since Anglo-Saxon times, a riding is traditionally a sub-division (especially in three) of a county, in Australia analogous. ...


In 1989, following the sudden death of John Dahmer, PC MP for Beaver River, Alberta, the Reform Party gained its first MP when Deborah Grey won a by-election. Grey had finished fourth in the 1988 election. As the party's first MP, she became Reform's deputy leader, a position she held for the remainder of the party's history. Deborah Cleland Grey (born July 1, 1952) is a former prominent Canadian Member of Parliament from Alberta for the Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance and Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Also in 1989, Stanley Waters won Alberta's first senatorial election under the banner of the Reform Party of Alberta. In 1990, he became Reform's first (and only) federal Senator, remaining in office until his untimely death one year later. Waters' appointment, following his election victory, has led some to describe him as Canada's first elected Senator. Stanley Charles Waters (commonly referred to as Stan Waters) (born June 14, 1920 -died September 25, 1991) was Canadas first, and so far only elected Senator. ... The Reform Party of Alberta is a dormant provincial political party that is registered with Elections Alberta. ...


Controversial links

In the early 1990s, the party was controversially endorsed by extremist groups such as the Neo-Nazi Heritage Front and the Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada (APEC). This was a significant blow to the party's image in many regions of Canada, and one from which they struggled to recover for many years. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada (APEC) was a far right political lobby group in Canada, which campaigned against the Canadian governments policy of official bilingualism. ...


While the Reform Party had similar views to APEC's on official bilingualism and the role of Quebec in Confederation, the reasons for the racist Heritage Front's endorsement were less direct. In fact, the Heritage Front simply viewed Reform as a vehicle they could infiltrate in order to steer it toward their views, a phenomenon to which many new political parties are somewhat vulnerable, but especially was a problem for Reform because of its social conservative views on multiculturalism and bilingualism. A number of party candidates did come under fire for having made racist statements; however, the Reform Party itself never proposed or endorsed a racist platform. Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


Electoral success

Logo of the Reform Party.

In 1991 and 1992, support for Reform rose not only in Western Canada, but also in other parts of Canada as well, including Ontario. The party took note of this new support and changed its position from being a Western-based political party to being a national party (though it excluded candidates from Quebec). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked...


In 1992, the Mulroney government made another attempt at amending Canada's constitution. The Charlottetown Accord was even more ambitious than the Meech Lake Accord, but it failed to win support in a nationwide referendum. The Reform Party was one of the few groups to oppose the accord. Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... National referenda are seldom used in Canada, and have tended to be disasters. ...


The constitutional debacle, unpopular initiatives such as the introduction of a Goods and Services Tax (GST), together with a series of high-profile scandals, all contributed to the implosion of the Progressive Conservative "grand coalition" in the 1993 election. The Progressive Conservatives suffered the worst defeat ever for a governing party at the federal level, falling from 151 to only two seats, while the Liberals won an overwhelming majority government. The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ...


During the 1993 campaign, Reform came under attack after John Beck, the party's candidate in the Ontario riding of York Centre, uttered a series of racial slurs in an interview, attacking immigrants for taking jobs away from the white, "gentile people," and then insulting First Nations, saying, "Look at the Natives, they're very messed up. That's what's happening to us. We're all being hooked on booze and drugs and we're going to end up just like the Indians."[1] He later verbally attacked Jews, saying that "it seems to be predominantly Jewish people who are running this country." Manning was angrily confronted by students at York University shortly after the comments came out and immediately distanced himself from Beck, claiming Beck's statements were not in line with party policy and not supported. John Beck was a Reform Party candidate in the 1993 Canadian election who was forced to abandon his candidacy after making a series of racially insensitive remarks. ... York Centre is a federal riding of Canada, a provincial riding of the province of Ontario and two municipal wards of the city of Toronto. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... York University (French: Université York), located in Toronto, Ontario, is Canadas third-largest university and has produced several of the countrys top leaders in the fields of law, politics, business, space sciences, and fine arts. ...


Reform was the major beneficiary of the Tory collapse, taking nearly 16% of the popular vote – a healthy increase from 1988. With few exceptions, the PCs' Western support transferred en masse to Reform. It won all but four seats in Alberta and dominated British Columbia as well. The party also won four seats in Saskatchewan and one seat in Manitoba. It probably would have won many more seats in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but those provinces were swept under the Liberal tide. Besides taking over nearly all of the PCs' seats in the West, Reform also won several ridings held by the social democratic New Democratic Party (NDP). Despite sharp ideological differences, Reform's populism struck a responsive chord with many NDP voters who were dissatisfied with Audrey McLaughlin's leadership and Ontario supporters who were frustrated with the government of NDP Premier Bob Rae. Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Honourable Audrey Marlene McLaughlin, OC, P.C. (born November 7, 1936) was leader of Canadas New Democratic Party, and the first woman leader of a major Canadian federal party. ... Hon. ...


However, Reform did not do as well as hoped east of Manitoba. It was entirely shut out of Atlantic Canada – a region where a much more moderate brand of conservatism has traditionally prevailed. Many Red Tory voters in both Atlantic Canada and Ontario were fed up with the Tories, but found Reform's agenda too extreme and shifted to the Liberals, at least at the national level. Despite strong support in rural central Ontario – a very socially conservative area which had been the backbone of previous provincial Tory governmentsvote splitting with the national Tories allowed the Liberals to win all but one seat in Ontario. Reform's Ed Harper managed to win in Simcoe Centre, but had 123 more votes gone to his Liberal opponent, the Liberals would have had the first-ever clean sweep of Canada's most populous province. As it turned out, this was Reform's only victory east of Manitoba, ever. The party also did not run any candidates in Quebec. The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... This article or section should be merged with Spoiler effect A split vote, or vote splitting, occurs in an election when the existence of two or more candidates that represent relatively similar viewpoints among voters reduces the votes received by each of them, reducing the chances of any one of... Ed Harper (born April 9, 1931 in Toronto, Ontario) is a former Canadian politician. ... Simcoe Centre was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ...


Reform was still a Western protest party, and would never lose this character. However, due to a quirk in the first past the post system, its heavy concentration of support in the West netted it 52 seats. However, the Bloc Quebecois's concentration of support in Quebec was slightly larger, leaving Reform three seats short of Official Opposition status despite finishing second in the popular vote. Even with these disappointments, the 1993 election was a tremendous success for Reform. In one stroke, it had replaced the Tories as the major right-wing party in Canada. The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The Bloc Qu cois is a federal political party in Canada that is primarily devoted to promoting sovereignty for the province of Quebec. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ...


Fortunes in the 1990s

The arrival of the Reformers in Ottawa followed a long line of Western protest parties like the Progressive Party of Canada and Social Credit. Reform ran into the same problems those parties had had, as it wrestled with the tricky task of maintaining a populist ideology. The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ...


The party took early advantage with the arrival of the internet age, having teleconferences [2] and establishing its website in October 1995.[3] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Reform's ambitions of breaking out of the west and into the east, particularly vote-rich Ontario, were helped by the rise of Ontario Progressive Conservative Premier Mike Harris to power in 1995. Harris' Common Sense Revolution agenda shared much of Reform's fiscally conservative ideology, including deep spending cuts, privatization of social services, and tax cuts. The party continued to show its ties to Harris as a means to diminish support for the federal PC Party. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario) was the twenty-second Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 15, 2002. ... The phrase Common Sense Revolution (CSR) has been used as a political slogan to describe common sense conservative platforms in Australia and the U.S. state of New Jersey in the 1990s. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ...


Reform claimed credit for pressuring the Liberal government to initiate spending cuts and focus on deficit reduction in 1995, though the party had wanted even deeper cuts. It also managed to put forward its own strategy for national unity after the slim federalist victory in the 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty, which advocated deep decentralization of powers from the federal government to the provinces and territories. Manning was attacked, however, for not appearing at federalist rallies in Quebec, as Prime Minister Jean Chretien and new Progressive Conservative leader Jean Charest had done. Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The Right Honourable Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, PC (born January 11, 1934, Shawinigan, Quebec) was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Despite some steps forward, Reform came under considerable attack during its tenure in Parliament from 1994 to 1997. The party's social conservative stances on bilingualism, immigration, gay rights, women's rights, minority rights, and aboriginal rights led to Reform MPs making statements that were considered to be homophobic, intolerant, sexist, and racist. In 1994, Werner Schmidt included a quote from Adolf Hitler in his January, 1994 newsletter. The citation from Hitler was "What luck for leaders that men do not think." Schmidt apologized for having Hitler cited in his newsletter, but said the quote was there "sort of to prod people."[4] The most notorious statements came from Bob Ringma, who said that owners should be free to move gays and "ethnics" "to the back of the shop." [5]Other members had controversial backgrounds, such as Herb Grubel, who had worked for the apartheid government of South Africa and advised them on ways to avoid sanctions. He also made intolerant remarks, such as comparing First Nations people to "spoiled children living in South Sea island resorts" when many considered Canadian Aboriginals to be living in poverty.[6] Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class or religious minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Hitler redirects here. ... MGen Bob Ringma (born Robert Ringma 30 June 1928 in Richmond, British Columbia) was a member of the Canadian House of Commons from 1993 to 1997. ... Herbert G. (Herb) Grubel (born February 26, 1934 in Frankfurt, Germany) is a former Canadian politician. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Efforts were made by some Reform MPs, including Jan Brown, Jim Silye, and Stephen Harper (the current Conservative Prime Minister of Canada) to curb the extremist wing of the party. Brown and Harper voted against the party's opposition to extending rights to gays and lesbians. Brown and Silye condemned Reform MP Art Hanger for his proposed trip to Singapore to investigate the benefits of caning in the criminal justice system. Shortly afterward, another Reform MP, Dave Chatters, suggested that it would be reasonable to ban homosexual teachers to prevent negative influence on children. With no response or censure by Manning, Brown threatened that she, Silye, and other moderate Reformers would break away from the party if action was not taken to purge the party of extremists, but Manning then condemned Brown and Silye for their attacks on other MPs. Later, under pressure, Manning suspended Ringma and Chatters for their comments, but also suspended Brown for speaking out against the party. With the negative light the party was coming under, as well as frustration over Manning's leadership, Brown, Harper, and Silye left the party. Both Brown and Silye would go on attempting to be re-elected as Progressive Conservatives, while Harper departed to head the National Citizens Coalition, a right-wing think tank. Janet (Jan) Corinne Brown (born June 22, 1947 in Nanaimo, British Columbia) is a former Canadian politician. ... Jim Silye (born April 28, 1946) is a Canadian politician, businessman, and former professional football player for the Canadian Football League. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Arthur Art Hanger (born February 19, 1943 in Three Hills, Alberta) is a Canadian politician. ... Caning in British slang refers to consuming large amounts of intoxicants. ... David Chatters (born April 15, 1946 in Westlock, Alberta) is a Canadian politician, represented the riding of Athabasca from 1993 to 2004 and currently representing the riding of Westlock—St. ... The National Citizens Coalition is a Canadian libertarian-conservative lobby group. ... This article is about the institution. ...


Manning's awkward speaking style was often made fun of by Canadian comedians, especially by the Royal Canadian Air Farce comedy group show, in which comedian Don Ferguson mocked Manning's unusual pronunciation of the party's name, "Ref-o-o-o-r-r-m." Manning himself later joked about this tendency to stretch the word. To party organizers, this was seen as a deficiency, and Manning began working with a voice coach to improve his public speaking. Royal Canadian Air Farce (usually abbreviated to Air Farce) is a Canadian comedy troupe that starred in an eponymous radio show on CBC radio from 1973 to 1997, and currently star in a top-rated television show, broadcast on CBC Television. ... Don Ferguson was born on May 30, 1946 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and is one of the stars of XPM and Royal Canadian Air Farce. ...

Reform's 1997 "Fresh Start" policy booklet.

From 1996 to the 1997 election, the party's executive tried to refurbish the party's image and shed its controversial past. A number of ethnic minorities were sought out as Reform candidates for the upcoming 1997 election. In 1996 Reform modernized its logo and efforts were made to improve Manning's image as a leader. He appeared in 1997 with contact lenses and a new hair style, in addition to having worked with a voice coach. Also, Reform changed tactics by running a candidate in every riding in Canada, including those in Quebec, for the first time. All of these efforts apparently worked, as the party increased its total seats to 60 and became the Official Opposition. Despite this breakthrough, however, Reform failed to win any seats east of Manitoba. The party was considerably hampered in its efforts to reach francophone voters due to Manning's inability to speak French. There was also a perception of the party as being anti-Quebec due to its position on official bilingualism and its opposition to the Meech Lake Accord. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 789 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Cover of the now defunct Reform Partys Fresh Start policy book. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 789 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Cover of the now defunct Reform Partys Fresh Start policy book. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


During this time, Reform again came under fire for ostensibly being extremist. The party ran an election ad in which the faces of four key Quebec leaders (Prime Minister Chretien, PC leader Charest, former Bloc Quebecois chief Lucien Bouchard, and new Bloc leader Gilles Duceppe) were crossed out, saying that Canada had been governed too long by Quebec politicians. The response to this ad was negative, and the leaders of the other parties claimed that the ad was an attack on Quebec and that Manning was a bigot.[7] Manning himself made blunders in the campaign; he let elements of Christian absolutism come through in his thinking, as he professed that there can only be one true religion. He said, "I would like the different religions to sit down and attempt to find out what is the objective truth. We can't both be right. In the area of the spiritual, there are absolutes, too." (Globe and Mail, May 22, 1997) [8] Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... Gilles Duceppe, MP (born July 22, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Quebec nationalist and social democratic politician in Canada. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ...


Disillusionment with the traditional political parties in general had been the impetus behind Reform's initial growth, but that growth was now felt to have stalled. Its claims to be a populist and Western protest party came under attack in 1997, when Manning accepted an offer to live in the Stornoway, a mansion provided to leaders of the Official Opposition in Canada. Manning had previously said that the Stornoway was a waste of taxpayer money and that he would not reside there. Stornoway Stornoway is the name of the official residence of the Leader of the Opposition in Canada. ...


Reform had also failed in 1997 to establish itself as the clear right-wing alternative to the Liberal Party. The Progressive Conservative Party, which had been steadily rebuilt under Charest, enjoyed a modest revival in the 1997 election. It won 20 seats, up from the dismal two it had won during in the 1993 election. The split in the right-wing vote between Reform and the PCs allowed the Liberals to win a second majority government with only 40% of the vote, the combined vote of the Reform and the PCs in 1997 equalled the same amount. Political observers noted from this, that it was the divided right which allowed the Liberals to gain a second majority government, and claimed that if the two parties did not put away their differences, the result would repeat itself.


Manning recognized the frustration by Canada's right-wing proponents and began discussions towards the launch of a new pan-Canadian party, which would use "United Alternative" ("UA") forums to bring grassroots Reformers together with Tories. The goal was to create a small-c conservative political alternative that would convince Ontarians and Atlantic Canadians to vote for them. This initiative was opposed by "Grassroots United Against Reform's Demise" ("GUARD"). Manning was supported by the more right-of-center "Focus Federally For Reform". The United Alternative proposal created a strong debate in the Reform party. Manning himself wrote a letter to the effect that he didn't want to lead Reform anymore, but would only lead the new party. A leadership vote in 1998, managed to officially put aside the differences, with Manning winning a large majority in support of his leadership. Afterwards, Reform steadily progressed towards creating the United Alternative. Unite the Right, also referred to as the United Alternative, was a Canadian political movement from 1997 until 2003. ...


Disbanding

The outcome was the creation of a new party, the "Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance" (more commonly known as the Canadian Alliance). It fused about half of the Progressive Conservative policies, and half of Reform's policies. Reform disbanded on March 27, 2000 and was folded into the Alliance. The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Even though the Alliance and Reform are considered separate parties, former Reform members dominated the new party. The Reform parliamentary caucus, with few exceptions, simply became the Alliance caucus. As a result, the Alliance was widely seen as a renamed and enlarged Reform. Mulroney called the new party "Reform in pantyhose," and other critics frequently referred to it as the "Reform Alliance."


Manning stood in the first leadership race for the new party, but lost to the younger, more charismatic Stockwell Day, the treasurer (finance minister) and deputy premier of Alberta. The 1987 founding convention of the Reform Party of Canada elected Preston Manning as party leader by acclamation. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked...


The creation of the Canadian Alliance, and its eventual merger in 2003 with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the new Conservative Party of Canada, alienated some of the old Reform populists, leading to the creation of a new "Reform Association of Canada". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


A new initiative called "Bring Back Real Reform" has also been created by a fringe group of original Reformers from Ontario, with the aim of bringing back a federal Reform Party. Under the tag "Operation Back to the Future", it was launched in Spring 2005 as an umbrella for all original Reformers across the nation who felt that they were still without a political home.


Most of these people were also members of GUARD, were anti-UA, and were generally unsupportive of the Canadian Alliance, seeing it as a political vehicle for a Tory takeover even though the Alliance was dominated by former Reform Party members.


Provincial wings

The Reform Party of Canada had two official provincial wings, that were registered by the party to be kept in a mostly dormant state.


The Reform Party of Ontario ran only one candidate in each election to maintain registration, whilst the Reform Party of Alberta ran candidates in the first two senatorial elections. The Reform Party of Ontario was, until September 2003, a pseudo party that ran one candidate each election merely to keep the party’s name in the possession of the Reform Party of Canada. ... The Reform Party of Alberta is a dormant provincial political party that is registered with Elections Alberta. ...


There were also two unaffiliated provincial parties, the Reform Party of British Columbia and the Reform Party of Manitoba. While they had no official connection to the federal party, they shared a similar political outlook. Both provincial parties are now largely inactive. The Reform Party of British Columbia (Reform BC) is a populist political party in British Columbia, Canada, which for much of its history was associated with the right wing. ... The Manitoba Reform Party was a right-wing political party in Manitoba, Canada. ...


Federal election results 1988-1997

Election # of candidates # of seats won # of total votes  % of popular vote
1988 72 0 275,767 2.09%
1993 207 52 2,559,245 18.69%
1997 227 60 2,513,080 19.35%

Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...

Logos and emblems of the Reform Party of Canada

Image File history File links Reform. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [[2]]
  3. ^ [[3]]
  4. ^ [[4]]
  5. ^ [[5]]
  6. ^ [[6]]
  7. ^ [[7]]
  8. ^ [[8]]

See also

The Reform Party of Canada fielded several candidates in the 1997 federal election, and won 60 seats out of 301 to form the Official Opposition. ... The Reform Party of Canada fielded candidates in every Canadian province except Quebec in the 1993 federal election. ... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... Unite the Right, also referred to as the United Alternative, was a Canadian political movement from 1997 until 2003. ...

External links

Preceded by
Party founded
Reform Party of Canada
1987 - 2000
Succeeded by
Canadian Alliance

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reform Party of Canada (825 words)
The Reform Party's major preoccupations, however, were with decentralizing and otherwise reducing the size, scope and cost of government, primarily by cuts to social welfare and cultural support programs (including bilingualism and multiculturalism) and firm opposition to Québec's demands for special status within Confederation.
Reform failed to win a seat in the 1988 federal election, but its percentage of the electoral vote was encouraging, especially in Alberta.
Reform's public appeal was further blunted by the adoption of fiscally conservative policies by the governing Liberals after 1993, a recovery in the Canadian economy, and a decline in public concern over constitutional issues following Québec's sovereignty referendum in 1995.
Reform Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (130 words)
United States - Reform Party of the United States of America, founded by Ross Perot.
United States - American Reform Party, founded by former members of the Reform Party of the United States of America.
Canada - Reform Party of Canada, Reform Party (pre-Confederation), Manitoba Reform Party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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