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Encyclopedia > Reform Party (United States)
Reform Party
Reform Party logo
Party Chairman Charles Foster
Senate Leader None
House Leader None
Founded 1995
Headquarters Box 126437
Fort Worth, TX
76126
Political ideology Radical Centrism
International affiliation none
Color(s) Red & Blue
Website Reform Party

The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues--and desired a viable alternative to the Republican and Democratic Parties. It is usually referred to simply as the Reform Party within the United States. Image File history File links Logo for the Reform Party of the United States of America. ... Charles Foster (April 12, 1828 - January 9, 1904) - was a U.S. Republican politician from Ohio. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation) Blue is one of the three primary additive colors; blue light has the shortest wavelength range (about 420-490 nanometres) of the three primary colors. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calendar Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by... Henry Ross Perot, known to most as Ross Perot (prior to 1992, generally known as H. Ross Perot by the public) (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...

Contents


History

The party grew out of Ross Perot's efforts in the 1992 presidential election, where—running as an Independent—he became the first non-major party candidate since 1912 to have been considered viable enough to win the presidency. Perot made a splash by bringing a focus to fiscal issues such as the federal deficit and national debt; government reform issues such as term limits, campaign finance reform, and lobbying reform; and issues on trade. A large part of his following was grounded in the belief he was addressing vital problems largely ignored by the two major parties. While at one point in the race he led in polls, Perot ended up receiving about 18.9% of the popular vote. He continued being politically involved after the election, concentrating on defeating the NAFTA trade agreement. Henry Ross Perot, known to most as Ross Perot (prior to 1992, generally known as H. Ross Perot by the public) (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a free trade sphere. ...


Though in 1994 the Republicans who took power in Congress tried to deal with many of Perot's fiscal issues, Perot and his supporters were still dissatisfied and by 1995 sought to found a third party which would rival the Republicans and Democrats. There were several names suggested for the party, including 'Independent Party' and 'Independence Party', which were designed to appeal to the belief that voters identified as 'independent' and not aligned with the two parties or other third parties had a common voice. Because of legal reasons, the party ended up being called the 'Reform Party'. There was a drive to get the party on the ballot in all 50 states, which ended up involving lawsuits challenging state ballot access requirements. It also involved incorporating minor parties in many states which formed since 1992 on Perot's principles, such as the Patriot Party, and United We Stand America, the organization through which Perot had coordinated his 1992 campaign. 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters ballots. ... United We Stand America was the name selected by Texas businessman H. Ross Perot for his 1992 independent campaign for President of the United States. ...


When the 1996 election season arrived Perot at first held off from entering the contest for the Reform Party's nomination, calling for others to try for the ticket. The only person who announced such an intention was Dick Lamm, former Governor of Colorado. After the Federal Election Commission indicated only Perot and not Lamm would be able to secure federal matching funds--because his 1992 campaign was as an Independent--Perot entered the race. Some were upset that Perot wouldn't give Lamm the chance at running, and this built up to the beginning of a splinter within the movement when it was alleged certain problems in the primary process, such as many Lamm supporters not receiving ballots, were Perot's doing. Eventually, Perot was nominated and he chose economist Pat Choate as his vice-presidential candidate. After a decision that they would not be allowed in the presidential debates, Perot and Choate tried legal efforts but failed. In the end, they won 8% of the vote. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Richard Douglas Dick Lamm (born 1935 in Madison, Wisconsin) is an American politician and lawyer. ... State nickname: The Centennial State Other U.S. States Capital Denver Largest city Denver Governor Bill Owens (R) Senators Wayne Allard (R) Ken Salazar (D) Official languages English Area 269,837 km² (8th)  - Land 268,879 km²  - Water 962 km² (0. ... The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency created in 1975 by Congress to administer and enforce campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Patrick Jeffrey Pat Choate was the 1996 Reform Party of the United States of America Vice President candidate. ...


Between then and the next election, raucous conventions were held in which dissenters upset at Perot's perceived control over the party fought with those who held party offices. Eventually a small group split to establish the American Reform Party. The American Reform Party is a minor political party in the United States that was formed in a factional split from the larger Reform Party of the United States in October 1997. ...


In 1998, the Reform Party received a victory by electing Jesse Ventura governor of Minnesota, the highest office win for a national third party since the beginning of the century. 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Jesse Ventura (born July 15, 1951, as James George Janos, which is still his legal name) was elected the 38th Governor of Minnesota on November 3, 1998, after a career as Navy SEAL, professional wrestler, actor, mayor, and radio talk show host. ...


By the 2000 election, any presidential candidate nominated by the party was qualified for the federal matching funds--$12.5 million--and this had made it an attractive takeover target. Both former Republican Pat Buchanan--supported by Choate and Lenora Fulani--and John Hagelin of the Natural Law Party attempted to win control of the Reform Party. A parliamentary struggle ensued with each claiming to be the official candidate. Many members who supported Hagelin were upset that Buchanan had enlisted his long-time supporters to swamp local party chapters to ensure him delegates and worried about potential changes to the party platform that would match Buchanan's positions on social issues. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Patrick Buchanan Pat Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... Lenora Branch Fulani (b. ... John Hagelin (June 9, 1954 - ) is a theoretical physicist specializing in superstring theory, a practicioner and teacher of Transcendental Meditation and yogic flying, an electronic designer of high-end audio equpment and was a candidate for President of the United States three times. ... The United States Natural Law Party was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. ...


There were several high profile individuals who also made it known they were considering to run for the Reform Party nomination. This included the celebrities Warren Beatty and Donald Trump, whose aspirations were not taken too seriously by the public, and decided not to run. Former Connecticut Governor and Senator Lowell Weicker considered a run, supported by Ventura but did not want to get in the middle of the fight between the Buchanan and Hagelin supporters. Warren Beatty Henry Warren Beaty (born March 30, 1937 in Richmond, Virginia), now known as Warren Beatty, is an American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... Donald Trump on NBCs The Apprentice Donald John Trump, Sr. ... State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Senators Chris Dodd (D) Joe Lieberman (D) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... Lowell Palmer Weicker, Jr. ...


That struggle culminated in August 2000, when Buchanan was nominated by the party's convention in Long Beach, California and Hagelin was nominated by a rump convention of delegates who walked out of the one dominated by Buchanan supporters. The split was characterized by heated arguments and even shoving matches between the Buchanan and Hagelin factions. County Los Angeles County, California Area  - Total  - Water 170. ...


Buchanan was ruled by the Federal Election Commission to be the official candidate and therefore eligible for the federal election funds. In the 2000 election, Buchanan and Vice-Presidential running mate Ezola B. Foster received 448,895 votes, or 0.4% of the popular vote, failing to meet the 5% threshold to receive federal election funds in 2004. John Hagelin received 83,714 votes--mainly on the Natural Law Party line--which amounted to barely 0.1% of the popular vote. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency created in 1975 by Congress to administer and enforce campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Ezola Broussard Foster (born August 9, 1938) is an African American conservative political activist. ...


The Minnesota branch of the Reform Party, which helped elect Ventura, disaffiliated from the national party after the Buchanan takeover and renamed itself the Independence Party of Minnesota. The Independence Party of Minnesota (often abbreviated IP or IPM), formerly the Reform Party of Minnesota, is the third largest political party in Minnesota, behind the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL) and Republican Party. ...


The final Reform Party split occurred in April 2002, when former Buchanan supporters left in droves to form the right-wing America First Party. Buchanan supporters took at least eight affiliated state parties with them when they quit, badly hurting the Reform Party's future prospects. A group of Pat Buchanan supporters left the Reform Party in 2002 and formed the America First Party. ...


By the October 2003 convention the Reform Party was organized in only thirty states (many of which were rump affiliates controlled by the America First Party) and had ballot access for the 2004 election in only seven. In most of those seven states, the party organizations had recently left the national party or were about to disaffiliate from it. Ballot status was not expected to be gained in any other states. 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for October, 2003. ... Ballot access rules regulate the conditions under which a candidate or political party is entitled to appear on voters ballots. ... Presidential election results map. ...


The Reform Party was presented with a surprise opportunity to retain ballot status in some states when Ralph Nader announced that he would not run as a Green Party candidate. More than two thirds of the 41 participants in a presidential candidate nominating session held May 12, 2004 voted to nominate Nader as the RPUSA candidate for President. Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ...


People against Nader's role in the race, mainly Democrats, tried to vigorously argue that the Reform Party, which had somewhat broken down, was no longer viable and did not constitute a national party by FEC regulations. By August 11, 2004 it appeared that whatever remained of the Reform Party USA was over, as the national party treasurer, William D. Chapman Sr, informed Federal Election Commission officials the party had only $18.18 left in the bank and should be ended. As of that date, the party was more than $300,000 in debt. In response, the Reform Party leadership suspended Chapman from his post. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency created in 1975 by Congress to administer and enforce campaign finance legislation in the United States. ...


The 2004 RPUSA convention was scheduled to be held July 22-25 in Columbus, Ohio but the location and date were changed to August 27-28 in Irving, Texas. Sixty-three delegates attended the Irving Nominating Convention, which chose Ralph Nader to be the party's nominee for President. Ohio and a few other states suspended participation in the National Organization due both the change in location and the nomination of Mr. Nader. Skyline of downtown Columbus, Ohio, viewed across the Scioto River. ... Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ...


In early September, the appeals to have Nader's name stricken from the Florida and Colorado ballots on the basis that the party was no longer a "national" party choosing its nominee by a "national" convention were denied by the courts in those states.


In early 2005, press releases from the Reform Party have indicated that the party is in the process of rebuilding, with appeals for donations, attempts to reconstitute state party affiliates which were lost during the breakaways of such groups as the Independence Party of Minnesota and the America First Party, and the election of new party officials. 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Presidential tickets

1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Henry Ross Perot, known to most as Ross Perot (prior to 1992, generally known as H. Ross Perot by the public) (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ... Patrick Jeffrey Pat Choate was the 1996 Reform Party of the United States of America Vice President candidate. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Patrick Buchanan Pat Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... Ezola Broussard Foster (born August 9, 1938) is an African American conservative political activist. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... Peter Miguel Camejo (born December 31, 1939) is a financier, businessman, political activist, environmentalist, author, and one of the founders of the socially responsible investment movement. ...

Platform

The Reform Party platform includes the following:

A noticeable absence from the Reform Party platform has been what are so-called 'social issues', including abortion and gay rights. Reform Party representatives had long stated beliefs that their party could bring together people from both sides of these issues, which they consider divisive, to address what they considered to be more vital concerns as expressed in their platform. The idea was to form a large coalition of moderates; but this aspect of the platform is something severely criticized by other minor party candidates who have argued that the disunity on these issues has in part led to the party's breakdown over the years. The Balanced Budget Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would require a balance in the projected revenues and expenditures of the United States Government. ... Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a free trade sphere. ... WTO Logo The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which oversees a large number of agreements defining the rules of trade between its member states (WTO, 2004a). ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the Senate. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ...


Related topics

Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ...

External links


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  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Reform party, in the United States (U.S. History) - Encyclopedia (458 words)
Reform party, in the United States, political party founded in 1995 by H. Ross Perot as an alternative to the Democratic and Republican parties.
The Reform party's aims originally included mandating high ethical standards for the president and Congress, balancing the budget, enacting term limits, enacting an equitable tax code, and achieving campaign finance and other electoral reforms.
Although many of its members called the party centrist, its political ideology was not sharply defined by 1999, and a broad spectrum of candidates was considered for its 2000 presidential nomination.
Encyclopedia: Republican Party (United States) (9164 words)
In the early 20th century, the traditional symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster.
Organized in Ripon, Wisconsin on February 28, 1854, as a party opposed to the expansion of slavery into new territories, the Party is not to be confused with the Democratic-Republican party of Thomas Jefferson or the National Republican Party of Henry Clay.
Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State and Chief Justice of the United States Charles Evans Hughes Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was a Governor of New York, a United States Secretary of State and Chief Justice of the United States.
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