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Encyclopedia > Referent

In general, a reference is something that refers or points to something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things. The objects it links may be concrete, such as books or locations, or abstract, such as data, thoughts, or memories. The term connection (also rendered connexion - this alternative spelling is now generally considered old-fashioned, but it was the house style of The Times of London until at least the late 1970s) has various uses, including: An act of connecting two or more physical entities in a physical sense or... The term link can refer to: Computer Related A connection between two components of a network. ... A datum is a statement accepted at face value (a given). Data is the plural of datum. ...


The term reference is used with different specialized meanings in a variety of fields, as follows:

Contents

Semantics

In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relation between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence the word "John" refers to John; the word "it" refers to some previously specified object. The objects referred to are called the "referents" of the word. Sometimes the word-object relation is called "denotation" for clarity. In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that usually takes the place of a noun or noun phrase that was previously mentioned (such as she, it) or that refers to something or someone (I, me, you). Pronouns are often one of the basic parts of speech of the... The logical and linguistic term denotation is the common element in several significant pairings or distinctions, namely (in chronological order) connotation and denotation in basic semantics and literary theory; as synonymous with reference in sense and reference in philosophy; in denotational semantics and operational semantics in computer science. ...


Reference is not in general the same as meaning, as words can often be meaningful without having a referent. Fictional and mythological names such as "Bo-Peep" and "Hercules" show that this is possible. As Frege discovered, reference cannot be treated as identical with meaning: "Hesperos" (an ancient Greek name for the evening star) and "Phosphorus" (an ancient Greek name for the morning star) both refer to Venus, but the astronomical fact that '"Hesperos" is "Phosphorus"' can still be informative, even if the 'meanings' of both "Hesperos" and "Phosphorus" are already known. This problem led Frege to distinguish between the sense of a word and its reference. Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (November 8, 1848 – July 26, 1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who is regarded as a founder of both modern mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. ... Henry Longfellow wrote an epic poem called The Wreck of the Hesperus. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The distinction between sense and reference was an innovation of the German philosopher and mathematician Gottlob Frege in his 1892 paper Über Sinn und Bedeutung. According to Frege, sense and reference are two aspects of the meaning of a linguistic expression. ...


Computer science

In computer science, references are datatypes which refer to an object elsewhere in memory, and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures such as linked lists. Most programming languages support some form of reference. See reference (computer science). Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Computer Science Riverside Graphics Lab Open Directory Project: Computer Science Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Belief that title science in computer science is inappropriate Categories: Computer science | Academic disciplines ... This article discusses a general notion of reference in computing. ... ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... In computer science, a linked list is one of the fundamental data structures used in computer programming. ... A programming language or computer language is a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. ... This article discusses a general notion of reference in computing. ...


The C++ programming language has a specific type of reference also referred to as a reference; see reference (C Plus Plus). C++ (pronounced see plus plus) is a general-purpose computer programming language. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Geometry

A reference point is a location used to describe another one, by giving the relative position. Similarly we have the concept of frame of reference (both in physics and figuratively), etc. A frame of reference in physics is a set of axes which enable an observer to measure the aspect, position and motion of all points in a system relative to the reference frame. ...


Libraries

In a library, the word reference may refer to a dictionary, encyclopedia, or other reference work that contains many brief articles that cover a broad scope of knowledge in one book, or a set of books. However, the word reference is also used to mean a book that cannot be taken from the room, or from the building. Many of the books in the reference department of a library are reference works, but some are books that are simply too large or valuable to loan out. Conversely, selected reference works may be shelved with other circulating books, and may be loaned out. Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... Manual of Specialised Lexicography, Henning Bergenholtz/Sven Tarp (eds. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ...


Scholarship

A reference may also be a text (not necessarily a reference text) that has been used in the creation of a piece of work such as an essay, report, or oration. Its primary purpose is to allow people who receive such work to examine the author's sources, either for validity, or simply to learn more about the subject. Such items are often listed at the end of an article or book in a reference list. In language, text is a broad term for something that contains words to express something. ... In psychology a conclusion is said to be valid, if and only if, it is based on true premises. ...


Personal references

A reference can also be a person whose name is submitted by somebody seeking employment. Usually, the reference is a previous superior or has some distinguishable profession in government, clergy, or education that can professionally vouch for the submitting person's employability. Nave roof bosses in St. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (9543 words)
Reference in a context is ‘content,’ that is, an expression's contribution to ‘what is said.’ Character is more like linguistic meaning than reference and is supposed (according to Kaplan) to account for cognitive significance.
Reference is arguably the central notion in the philosophy of language, with close ties to the notions of meaning and truth.
Reference, construed as a relation between bits of language and bits of reality, is assumed to be a genuine, substantive relation worthy of philosophical scrutiny.
Reference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (660 words)
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relation between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them.
In computer science, references are datatypes which refer to an object elsewhere in memory, and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures such as linked lists.
In scholarship, a reference may be a citation of a text that has been used in the creation of a piece of work such as an essay, report, or oration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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