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Encyclopedia > Referendum concerning the prohibition of the sale of firearms and ammunition
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The referendum concerning the prohibition of the sale of firearms and ammunition (Portuguese: Referendo sobre a proibição da comercialização de armas de fogo e munições) was a referendum that took place in Brazil on October 23, 2005. The possible outcome was either an approval or disapproval of Article 35 of the Disarmament Statute (Brazilian Law 10826) which stated that "The sale of firearms and ammunition is prohibited in the entire national territory, except to those entities provided in article 6 of this Law". The result of the referendum was an almost two-thirds rejection of the articel and the legal status of the sale of munitions in Brazil remaining the same. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


The referendum and its date had been provided for by the Disarmament Statute itself. During the drafting and development of the law, it had been decided that article 35 should be submitted to a referendum because of the importance of its subject. On July 7, 2005, the Federal Senate of Brazil promulgated legislative decree 780, which authorized the referendum. Article 2 of its decree stipulated that the public consultation should employ the following question: "Should commerce in firearms and ammunition be prohibited in Brazil?" ("O comércio de armas de fogo e munição deve ser proibido no Brasil?"). Voters could choose to answer this question "yes" or "no", could leave the ballot blank, or could invalidate their votes. July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ...


Among the world's countries, Brazil has the second largest number of people murdered annually by firearms, second to Venezuela. Each year about 39,000 people in Brazil are shot to death. However, worldwide statistics do not show unambiguously whether this number would be reduced by the prohibition of the sale of firearms and ammunition.

Contents


Procedure

The referendum took place much as a normal Brazillian legislative or executive election would. Citizens voted in their respective electoral districts by electronic ballot.


Voting was obligatory for those over 18 and optional for those voters between 16 and 18 or over 70. Voters had to vote within their districts, unlike the 1993 rederendum. Anyone who was outside their district on the day of the referendum had to justify themself with a Petition for Electoral Justification and submit it at their nearest polling station. Citizens abroad were not allowed to vote. Violaters would be assessed a fine of about R$4.00). The real (symbol: R$, ISO 4217 code: BRL, plural: reais) is the currency of Brazil. ...


The usuall prohibition of campaigning on the day of the election was in effect. In addition, some states of Brazil ban the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages during the day. The states of Brazil (or estados do Brasil) comprise 26 federal states and the Distrito Federal (the Brazilian Federal District), which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ...


Results

The final electoral results were roughly as projected by surveys conducted by the principal Brazilian research institutions in the week before the referendum. While Ibope predicted a victory for "no" with 55% of the vote against 45%, Datafolha projected that the result would be 57% to 43%. Both surveys had a margin of error of plus or minus 2 percentage points. The top portion of this graphic depicts probability densities that show the relative likelihood that the true percentage is in a particular area given a reported percentage of 50 percent. ...


Source: http://www.justicaeleitoral.gov.br/

Electoral Court
2005 Referendum
Should commerce in firearms and ammunition be prohibited in Brazil?
Count performed at the TSE as of 10:29 October 25, 2005
Overall Results
No Yes Blank Invalid Present Absent
Brazil 59,109,265
(63.94%)
33,333,045
(36.06%)
1,329,207
(1.39%)
1,604,307
(1.68%)
95,375,824
(78.15%)
26,666,791
(21.85%)



Results by Region
No Yes Blank Invalid Present Absent
Center-West 4,308,155
(68.60%)
1,971,506
(31.40%)
77,222
(1.20%)
84,354
(1.31%)
6,441,237
(75.38%)
2,103,766
(24.62%)
North 4,232,295
(71.13%)
1,718,131
(28.87%)
54,106
(0.89%)
65,419
(1.08%)
6,069,951
(72.10%)
2,348,997
(27.90%)
Northeast 13,735,686
(57.51%)
10,147,793
(42.49%)
341,464
(1.38%)
446,868
(1.81%)
24,671,811
(74.78%)
8,319,598
(25.22%)
South 11,812,085
(79.59%)
3,028,661
(20.41%)
184,090
(1.21%)
157,011
(1.03%)
15,181,847
(81.78%)
3,382,267
(18.22%)
Southeast 25,021,044
(60.31%)
16,466,954
(39.69%)
672,325
(1.56%)
850,655
(1.98%)
43,010,978
(80.36%)
10,512,163
(19.64%)



Results by State
No Yes Blank Invalid Present Absent
Acre 221,828
(83.76%)
43,025
(16.24%)
2,233
(0.83%)
3,328
(1.23%)
270,414
(69.49%)
118,723
(30.51%)
Alagoas 690,448
(54.86%)
568,083
(45.14%)
15,214
(1.17%)
22,757
(1.76%)
1,296,502
(73.05%)
478,412
(26.95%)
Amazonas 839,007
(69.16%)
374,090
(30.84%)
9,697
(0.79%)
12,336
(1.00%)
1,235,130
(73.16%)
453,157
(26.84%)
Amapá 181,764
(73.48%)
65,593
(26.52%)
1,782
(0.71%)
2,334
(0.93%)
251,473
(75.61%)
81,116
(24.39%)
Bahia 3,448,907
(55.45%)
2,770,718
(44.55%)
91,424
(1.42%)
140,867
(2.18%)
6,451,916
(72.07%)
2,500,207
(27.93%)
Ceará 2,090,103
(54.70%)
1,730,922
(45.30%)
57,806
(1.47%)
58,271
(1.48%)
3,937,102
(76.53%)
1,207,414
(23.47%)
The Federal District 695,328
(56.83%)
528,169
(43.17%)
16,249
(1.29%)
16,434
(1.31%)
1,256,180
(80.29%)
308,320
(19.71%)
Espírito Santo 952,056
(56.38%)
736,510
(43.62%)
28,458
(1.64%)
22,512
(1.29%)
1,739,536
(77.19%)
513,908
(22.81%)
Goiás 1,776,072
(67.90%)
839,508
(32.10%)
36,281
(1.35%)
41,675
(1.55%)
2,693,536
(74.39%)
927,432
(25.61%)
Maranhão 1,565,845
(61.13%)
995,849
(38.87%)
31,505
(1.19%)
48,188
(1.82%)
2,641,387
(70.72%)
1,093,744
(29.28%)
Minas Gerais 6,155,748
(61.28%)
3,889,398
(38.72%)
174,127
(1.67%)
208,241
(2.00%)
10,427,514
(78.28%)
2,893,108
(21.72%)
Mato Grosso do Sul 820,467
(73.33%)
298,372
(26.67%)
11,016
(0.96%)
12,007
(1.05%)
1,141,862
(75.87%)
363,196
(24.13%)
Mato Grosso 1,016,288
(76.89%)
305,457
(23.11%)
13,676
(1.01%)
14,238
(1.05%)
1,349,659
(72.78%)
504,818
(27.22%)
Pará 1,894,619
(67.12%)
928,006
(32.88%)
27,414
(0.95%)
31,452
(1.09%)
2,881,491
(72.04%)
1,118,372
(27.96%)
Paraíba 1,183,463
(63.14%)
690,751
(36.86%)
28,348
(1.47%)
31,481
(1.63%)
1,934,043
(78.34%)
534,590
(21.66%)
Pernambuco 2,296,510
(54.49%)
1,918,048
(45.51%)
64,458
(1.48%)
68,283
(1.57%)
4,347,299
(76.85%)
1,309,371
(23.15%)
Piauí 925,883
(62.91%)
545,828
(37.09%)
21,065
(1.38%)
33,377
(2.19%)
1,526,153
(76.65%)
464,840
(23.35%)
Paraná 3,988,689
(73.15%)
1,463,776
(26.85%)
72,281
(1.29%)
65,217
(1.17%)
5,589,963
(80.45%)
1,358,474
(19.55%)
Rio de Janeiro 5,124,572
(61.89%)
3,155,897
(38.11%)
147,610
(1.71%)
212,872
(2.46%)
8,640,951
(81.17%)
2,004,229
(18.83%)
Rio Grande do Norte 938,514
(61.98%)
575,783
(38.02%)
18,492
(1.19%)
24,354
(1.56%)
1,557,143
(76.99%)
465,473
(23.01%)
Rondônia 519,425
(78.28%)
144,117
(21.72%)
6,043
(0.89%)
6,326
(0.94%)
675,911
(70.83%)
278,397
(29.17%)
Roraima 132,928
(85.00%)
23,453
(15.00%)
1,079
(0.68%)
1,297
(0.82%)
158,757
(73.49%)
57,265
(26.51%)
Rio Grande do Sul 5,353,854
(86.83%)
812,207
(13.17%)
72,184
(1.15%)
55,090
(0.88%)
6,293,335
(82.88%)
1,300,172
(17.12%)
Santa Catarina 2,469,542
(76.64%)
752,678
(23.36%)
39,625
(1.20%)
36,704
(1.11%)
3,298,549
(82.01%)
723,621
(17.99%)
Sergipe 596,013
(62.88%)
351,811
(37.12%)
13,152
(1.34%)
19,290
(1.97%)
980,266
(78.68%)
265,547
(21.32%)
São Paulo 12,788,668
(59.55%)
8,685,149
(40.45%)
322,130
(1.45%)
407,030
(1.83%)
22,202,977
(81.32%)
5,100,918
(18.68%)
Tocantins 442,724
(75.99%)
139,847
(24.01%)
5,858
(0.98%)
8,346
(1.40%)
596,775
(71.15%)
241,967
(28.85%)



The Brazilian Center-West region is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazils national capital, Brasília, is situated. ... Image:Brasil Norte vincent harley rocks maploc. ... The Northeast Region, Brazil The Nordeste (Northeastern Brazil) is composed of the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. ... The South Region is highlighted in yellow. ... The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. ... Flag of Acre See other Brazilian States Capital Rio Branco Largest City Rio Branco Area 152 522 km² Population   - Total   - Density 557 526 3. ... Flag of Alagoas See other Brazilian States Capital Maceió Largest City Maceió Area 27 818 km² Population   - Total   - Density 2 822 621 101. ... Amazonas is the name of four subnational entities in various South American nations. ... Flag of Amapá See other Brazilian States Capital Macapá Largest City Macapá Area 142 816 km² Population   - Total   - Density 477 032 3. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... Flag of Ceará See other Brazilian States Capital Fortaleza Largest City Fortaleza Area 148,016 km² Population   - Total   - Density 6,500,000 43. ... The Brazilian Federal District (in Portuguese, Distrito Federal) is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. ... Flag of Espírito Santo See other Brazilian States Capital Vitória Largest City Vila Velha Area 46,184 km² Population   - Total   - Density 3 097 232 58. ... Flag of Goiás See other Brazilian States Capital Goiânia Largest City Goiânia Area 341 289 km² Population   - Total   - Density 4 848 725 14. ... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ... Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... Flag of Mato Grosso do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Campo Grande Largest City Campo Grande Area 358,158. ... Flag of Mato Grosso See other Brazilian States Capital Cuiabá Largest City Cuiabá Area 906,806. ... Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ... Flag of Paraíba See other Brazilian States Capital João Pessoa Largest City João Pessoa Area 56,372 km² Population   - Total   - Density 3,436,000 61 inh. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Piauí is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, in the arid region of Sertão. ... Flag of Paraná See other Brazilian States Capital Curitiba Largest City Curitiba Area 199,544 km² Population   - Total   - Density 9,150,000 48 inh. ... Flag of Rio de Janeiro See other Brazilian States Capital Rio de Janeiro Largest City Rio de Janeiro Area 43,696. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Norte See other Brazilian States Capital Natal Largest City Natal Area 53,015 km² Population   - Total   - Density 2,770,730 52. ... Flag of Rondônia See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Velho Largest City Porto Velho Area 238,512. ... Flag of Roraima See other Brazilian States Capital Boa Vista Largest City Boa Vista Area 225,116. ... Rio Grande do Sul (pron. ... Flag of Santa Catarina See other Brazilian States Capital Florianópolis Largest City Joinville Area 95,442. ... Flag of Sergipe See other Brazilian States Capital Aracaju Largest City Aracaju Area 21,994 km² Population   - Total   - Density 1,712,786 77. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo Area 248,176. ... Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil. ...

Arguments and views

Like other referenda and plebiscites, this referendum dealt with a highly controversial subject which evoked a variety of opinions and arguments on both sides. The arguments listed below were advanced during the debate and are presented here without independent verification of the statistics employed.


"No"

The following arguments are based on the right of self-defense of the law-abiding citizen: Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ...

  • The ban would create an increase in demand for illegal guns (arms trafficking) among those who wanted to carry a gun for whatever reason (whether for criminal purposes or for legitimate self-defense).
  • Even recognizing the possibility that an armed response to an assault may turn out badly (an argument used in support of disarmament), there is still a chance that the armed response will succeed; this possibility, according to opponents of disarmament, is sufficient to discourage someone from committing an assault in consideration of this risk.
  • Assailants would feel more confident knowing that the population was disarmed.
  • It was also argued that some people need guns to defend themselves, such as people threatened with death, retired police, rural land owners, etc. (According to the "yes" supporters, the Disarmament Statute had already provided, before the referendum, for the possession of guns in certain exceptional cases, and these exceptions were sufficient.)
  • The ban would provide advantages to foreign arms manufacturers, competitors of the domestic industry which exports most of its production to the foreign market.
  • The disarmament campaign has the support of enormous overseas NGOs. The main campaign for disarmament, the Viva Rio foundation, receives financial support from the Ford Foundation, from the United Nations, from the Soros Foundation and from the British government.
  • Citizens may have the right not to want a gun, but may not be able to lose the right to have one.

The following arguments are based on criticism of the State: NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty and promote international understanding (see mission statement). ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A Soros Foundation is one of a network of national foundations, mostly in Eastern Europe, which fund volunteer socio-political activity, created by George Soros and coordinated since early 1994 in a management team called the Open Society Institute. ... The politics of the United Kingdom are based upon a unitary state and a constitutional monarchy. ... Motto: Portuguese: Ordem e Progresso (English: Order and Progress) Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro Capital Brasília Largest city São Paulo Official language(s) Portuguese Government • President • Vice President Democratic federal republic Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva José Alencar Gomes da Silva Independence From Portugal Declared: September 7, 1822...

  • The Brazilian government has not been able to provide the public safety required by the Constitution of Brazil.
  • In much of Brazil, there is no effective control over guns that are manufactured in other countries, especially neighboring countries.
  • Since the bureaucracy and taxes are already so great, it is easier for a criminal to choose the faster and cheaper method of obtaining an illegal (and often imported) gun. Currently, a citizen who wants to carry a gun is subject to rigorous psychological tests.
  • It was argued that, if the referendum resulted in the collapse of the Braziliam arms industry, an increased dependency on foreign economies would result, along with an increased need to import weapons for national defense.

The following statistics were provided in support of this view: This is an article about the modern meaning of the term public safety. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Numbers that indicate that the great majority of crimes are committed with illegal guns;
  • Numbers that show that the Brazilian state (Rio Grande do Sul) that has the largest number of legal firearms nonetheless possesses the lowest rate of crimes committed by means of guns. The same thing occurs in some countries in the first world. Based on this, it was argued that crime is a problem with roots in education and family issues, and not a result of guns per se.

Rio Grande do Sul (pron. ... A family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family is a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships — including domestic partnership, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the Roman Empire). ...

"Yes"

  • Guns are tools whose only purpose is killing, and so they inevitably generate violence.
  • In the medium to long term, some supporters of the referendum hoped for an end to all guns in the country.
  • Under the referendum, only those within certain exceptions (police, military, private security agencies, etc.) would be able to have legal access to guns; however, those threatened can request special protection from the government.
  • Statistics show that most crimes are committed for pointless reasons. Therefore, with a gun, hotheadedness or recklessness may easily cause a citizen to irrationally use his firearm.
  • The statistics concerning guns confiscated by the police show that a third of illegal guns have a legal Brazilian origin. Most of these are low caliber and either unregistered or stolen.
  • A robber has the benefit of surprise. An armed citizen has a very limited chances of responding successfully with a gun and surviving. The Brazilian authorities recommend that people don't resist assault, because, according to studies and press accounts, a robber will simply shoot to kill when a threatened person resists (flees, shouts, fires, etc.).
  • Material goods can be replaced (especially if they are insured). A life can't be replaced and the pain of loss and the guilt of becoming a killer can't be erased through yet another death.
  • Civilian firearms training doesn't prepare people for realistic combat situations (a kind of preparation which is only available to the military).
  • The resistence of the most conservative sectors of society, especially in rural areas, to limiting the actions of militias created to defend their lands.
  • The national arms industry wouldn't be eliminated by the ban because this industry manufactures weapons besides revolvers and pistols. Also, the prohibition on the sale of guns is only applicable to domestic sales. If the domestic arms industry depended on the domestic market, it would already have failed. The main customers of the arms industry are the Brazilian armed forces and auxiliary forces, which are not affected by the ban, and export markets would still remain available.
  • The support of the munitions industries for representatives who had defended controverted actions such as the closing of the National Congress. The two main manufacturers of guns gave R$1.1 million to electoral campaigns in 2002.

The word calibre (British English) or caliber (American English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod, also common for handguns. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...

Other considerations

  • Some people argued that the policy of providing incentives for turning in guns voluntarily to be destroyed could interfere with historical research, which might involve the analysis of the armaments that had been used in various historical periods.
  • Other people considered the disarmament policy irrelevant, considering that it would neither produce an decrease nor an increase in violence.
  • The disarmament question, for some, presented a test of the limits of the constitutional principles such as the right to life, to safety, to property, and the social function of these.
  • Some people were afraid of either possible result: if the "yes" option won, people would be emboldening the robbers because they wouldn't expect anyone to have a gun; if the "no" option won, criminals would feel in a certain sense comfortable being armed, knowing that the public is against disarmament.

Opposition to the referendum itself

Many people were against the referendum itself. The obligatoriness of voting on this referendum seemed absurd to some people. Other arguments along these lines include the lack of any option by which the public could decide such a complex subject other than a binary choice with a simple "yes" or "no", and the short time and small amount of trustworthy information. Other critics said that this referendum was simply a trick to promote the interests of certain entities. And others said that this referendum would not change the situation of violence in the country, claiming that this was caused to a much greater extent by social inequities, maldistribution of income, poor public education, ineffective and poorly paid police and a lack of justice.


Other critics did not agree with the form in which the question was presented. The magazine Veja, for example, wrote on October 5, 2005 that the question presented on the ballot — "Should the sale of firearms and ammunition be prohibited in Brazil?" was biased and not presented honestly. The magazine felt that the question should have been "Can the Brazilian government take away people's right to buy firearms?" ("O Estado brasileiro pode tirar das pessoas o direito de comprar uma arma de fogo?"). The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Generally, people who opposed the existence of the referendum itself recommended casting an invalid or blank vote or voting "no" (to keep the status quo). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Positive results of the referendum

Many people believe that there was a positive aspect in this popular consultation process. The debate on disarmament may have helped the development of a critical spirit and the stimulation of Brazilian society to assume a more participatory culture, including in the political arena.


Another aspect often praised by certain parts of society was the way the campaign turned out. In contrast with other elections, in which visual and auditory pollution took a toll on Brazilian cities, this contest was carried out amidst clean streets and a calmer environment before, during, and after the voting. Right at the time of the referendum, investigations took place concerning illicit campaign practices which seemed to reinforce the critics of the way political disputes happen in Brazil.


Rumors and speculation

Various rumors and speculations arose concerning this referendum. Among them:

  • The objective of disarming the public (first through the Disarmament Campaign and then with this referendum) was associated with an "arming" on the part of President Lula's government, in order to effect a socialist revolution in Brazil. Disarming the public was be the first step.
  • The referendum was a plot on the part of politicians to distract attention from the Mensalão scandal.
  • Disarmament would be beneficial to the geopolitical hegemony of the United States over Brazil and Latin America in general. Thus, any invasion of Brazilian territory would be easier.
  • Voting "yes" would remove some of the responsibility of the public power to look after the security of the population.
  • Charlton Heston, retired actor and former president of the United States National Rifle Association, recorded a program to be shown on a TV during a block of time reserved for the "no" movement. Learning this, the supporters of the referendum pledged to counter this program with one featuring the controversialist Michael Moore (who included Heston in his documentary Bowling for Columbine). Moore allegedly agreed to record a TV program for free. None of these claims was ever proven.
  • A rumor advanced by the site Cocadaboa (at [1]) said that "Drug dealers want to ban the sale of guns" ("Traficantes querem proibição do comércio de armas") and that the drug trade was invested in the "yes" vote.
  • The Globo network was negotiating a partnership with the Austrian gun company Glock to create a huge security company which would look after the entire country. (Glock is, in fact, planning to construct a center in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State.)

Lula is: The president of Brazil from 2003, see Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva A village in the Netherlands, in the province of Groningen, see Lula, Netherlands A village in Italy, see Lula, Italy A Linux Users Group in Los Angeles, see [www. ... Wikinews has news related to: Political crisis in Brazil Dollars found in the underwear of the adviser to deputy José Nobre Guimarães (PT) The Mensalão scandal, known in Brazil as the escândalo do mensalão, dominated the politics of Brazil in 2005 and currently threatens to bring... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Charlton Heston on the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1923) is an Academy Award-winning American film actor noted for heroic roles and his long involvement in political issues. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association, UK The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a 501(c)(4) group for the protection of gun rights in the United States, established in New York in 1871 as the American... Michael Moore. ... Bowling for Columbine is a film directed by and starring Michael Moore. ... Contents // Categories: Television stubs | Companies of Brazil | Television networks ... Glock is an Austrian defense contractor (named after the founder Gaston Glock) founded in 1963 in Deutsch-Wagram, near Vienna, Austria. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require removal of its excessive redlinks. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo Area 248,176. ...

Controversies

  • It was said that that Brazilian mass media was supporting the "yes" side. In fact, the Globo organization supported "yes" openly. With examples to be cited, various artists from the Globo network voted "yes" and the magazine Época pushed an article openly supporting "yes" on October 10, 2005.
  • The magazine Veja presented, on October 5, 2005, a cover story with an article clearly supporting "no".
  • Marcelo Beraba, ombudsman of the Folha de S. Paulo, said that "the press is for 'yes', but that's obvious" ("a imprensa é pelo 'sim', só que isso é escamoteado"). He said that "if the Veja article had been 'Seven reasons for you to vote yes', it wouldn't have been reason for the scandal that it caused" ("se a matéria de Veja fosse 'Sete razões para você votar no sim' não teria causado o escândalo que causou"). Alberto Dines, of the Press Observer, criticized the reporting of Veja, but supported Beraba's criticism, concluding that "our press is not reliable" ("a nossa imprensa não é confiável"). [2]

Contents // Categories: Television stubs | Companies of Brazil | Television networks ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The newspaper Folha de São Paulo represents the development of the communication media in Brazil. ...

The dark side of the dispute

According to Ancelmo Gois, of the newspaper O Globo, the official site of the "yes" campaign received various cracker attacks daily, which made the organizers change their access provider. Nonetheless, the attacks continued. O Globo is a Brazilian newspaper based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... The word cracker can refer to: // Terms Cracker (computing), a person who engages in illegal system cracking or software cracking, circumventing computer security systems; also known as a black hat hacker. ...


Who supported what

Some people and organizations who insisted on revealing their choices.

Brazilian Workers Party flag. ... The Socialist Peoples Party (Portuguese: Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) is a political party in Brazil. ... The Unified Socialist Workers Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado, PSTU) is a Trotskyist organisation in Brazil. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... The title of this article contains the character ã. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Sao Paulo. ... José Serra in speech after being elected mayor in 2004. ... São Paulo is a state in Brazil. ... Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin (born in Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, November 7, 1952) is a Brazilian politican. ... Roberto Jefferson. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A weblog (usually shortened to blog, but occasionally spelled web log or weblog) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally in reverse chronological order). ... Gilberto Dimenstein, a senior Brazilian journalist, was born in city of Sao Paulo in 1956. ... The newspaper Folha de São Paulo represents the development of the communication media in Brazil. ...

Finances of the campaigns

After the referendum, the blog of a journalist at the Folha de S. Paulo revealed the main donators to the two sides:

  • "No" received practically all its donations from Taurus (R$2.4 million) and the Companhia Brasileira de Cartuchos (Brazilian Cartridge Company) (R$2.6 million), Brazilian manufacturers of guns and ammunition, respectively.
  • The "no" campaign stayed on top financially, spending only what it received in donations.
  • "Yes" had as its main contributors the beverage company Ambev (around R$400,000), the Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (R$100,000) and the Prestadora de Serviços Estruturar (R$400,000), with a total of R$2.4 million in donations.
  • The "yes" campaign had a deficit of R$320,000.

The blog reported that politicians who supported the "no" campaign said they were embarrassed to learn that the campaign had been financed by the arms industries. In fact, the president of the "no" campaign, representative Alberto Fraga (PFL-DF), said: "We didn't want that. But the amount of money involved was large and we didn't have any other way to pay for these expenses." ("Não queríamos isso. Mas o volume de dinheiro era grande e não tivemos como cobrir essas despesas com outras doações"). This article needs to be updated. ... Ambev is a major Brazilian brewing company headquartered in Sao Paulo. ... The Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) or Confederação Brasileira de Futebol in Portuguese is the governing body of football in Brazil, and was founded on August 20, 1914 as Confederação Brasileira de Desportos (CBD), meaning Brazilian Sports Confederation. ... The Party of the Liberal Front (Portuguese: Partido da Frente Liberal, PFL) is a political party in Brazil. ... The Brazilian Federal District (in Portuguese, Distrito Federal) is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. ...


Fraga thinks, however, that nobody could have hoped for a different result: "Who's going to pay this bill? It couldn't be Águas de Lindóia or the Cervejaria Antárctica [beverage company]. Our accounting is transparent; we don't have another hidden account, this is it. Thank God we didn't end up in debt." ("Quem iria pagar essa conta? Não poderia ser nem a Águas de Lindóia nem a Cervejaria Antárctica. Nossa contabilidade é transparente. Não temos caixa dois. É tudo por dentro. Graças a Deus não ficamos com dívidas.")


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... The term gun politics refers to the various public policy debates surrounding the freedom or restriction (gun rights versus gun control) of private ownership and usage of firearms, and to what extent such policy influences crime and the balance of power between the individual and the state. ...

External links

Campaigns (in Portuguese)
  • Site Oficial do Referendo - NÃO
  • Site Oficial do Referendo - SIM
Information (in Portuguese)
  • Resultado Oficial
  • Instruções e Resoluções do TSE
  • Tire suas dúvidas sobre o Estatuto do Desarmamento
  • Referendo Sobre o Desarmamento
  • Comunicação do Senado
  • Pesquisa do Datafolha
  • Lei que regulamenta a execução dos meios de soberania popular previstos no artigo 14 da Constituição Federal
Opinions against the referendum (in Portuguese)
  • PSTU - Vote Não! Pelo direito à autodefesa dos trabalhadores!
  • Referendo da Fumaça, Revista Veja, 05/10/05
  • Portal Nosso São Paulo - Diga "não" à Mentira e à Hipocrisia
  • A Farsa do Desarmamento
  • Charges
  • Mídia sem Máscara
Opinions in support of the referendum (in Portuguese)
  • Especial Trip Desarmamento
  • Pelo sim ao desarmamento - Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Minorias da Câmara dos Deputados - CDHM
  • Sim ao desarmamento
  • Site Desarme

References

  • This article is based on material translated from the corresponding article in the Portuguese Wikipedia: pt:Referendo sobre a proibição da comercialização de armas de fogo e munições.

 
 

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