FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Reference" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Reference
For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources.

In general, a reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. Such relations may occur in a variety of domains, including linguistics, logic, computer science, art, and scholarship. Thus, the objects to which the term reference applies may be of varying character ranging from concrete examples, such as a reference work in a library, as well as abstract objects, such as pointers in computer programming languages or symbols in language or mathematics. The nature of reference in its role in language and thought has been a prominent topic of discussion in philosophy since at least the 19th century and the logic work of J.S. Mill.[1] Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ... For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... This article is about the computer data type. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist civil servant, and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ...


An object which is named by a reference, or to which the reference points, is called a referent.


The term reference is used with different specialized meanings in a variety of fields, as follows:

Contents

Semantics

In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relation between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence the word John refers to John. The word it refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the referent of the word. Sometimes the word-object relation is called denotation; the word denotes the object. The converse relation, the relation from object to word, is called exemplification; the object exemplifies what the word denotes. In syntactic analysis, if a word refers to a previous word, the previous word is called the antecedent. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that usually takes the place of a noun or noun phrase that was previously mentioned (such as she, it) or that refers to something or someone (I, me, you). Pronouns are often one of the basic parts of speech of the... This word has distinct meanings in other fields: see denotation (semiotics) and connotation and denotation. ... Exemplification is a mode of symbolization characterized by the relation between a sample and what it refers to. ... An antecedent is a preceding phrase or word. ...


Reference and Meaning

Frege argued that reference cannot be treated as identical with meaning: "Hesperus" (an ancient Greek name for the evening star) and "Phosphorus" (an ancient Greek name for the morning star) both refer to Venus, but the astronomical fact that '"Hesperus" is "Phosphorus"' can still be informative, even if the 'meanings' of both "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus" are already known. This problem led Frege to distinguish between the sense and reference of a word. Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... In Greek mythology, Hesperos (Greek (The Evening Star), sometimes Latinized as Hesperus) and (H)eosphoros (Morning Star) Latinized as Eosphorus (see Lucifer) are sons of the dawn goddess Eos (Roman Aurora). ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The distinction between Sinn and Bedeutung (usually but not always translated sense and reference, respectively) was an innovation of the German philosopher and mathematician Gottlob Frege in his 1892 paper Ãœber Sinn und Bedeutung (On Sense and Reference), which is still widely read today. ...


Absent Referent

Main article: Absent referent

Words can often be meaningful without having a referent. Fictional and mythological names such as "Bo-Peep" and "Hercules" illustrate this possibility. The empty set is one example of the absent referent Absent Referent (sometimes Missing Referent, or Missing Antecedent) is a concept from linguistics, and is the condition of a sign which has an empty, absent, non-existent, paradoxical, hypothetical, supernatural, or undefined referent. ...


Following from the argument that one cannot directly experience the divine (e.g. God), the sign "God" can serve as an example of a reference with an absent referent. Additionally, certain sects of Judaism and other religions consider it sinful to write, discard, or deface the name of the divine. To avoid this problem, the signifier G-d is sometimes used, which is a sign which refers to another sign with an absent referent. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ...


In Mathematics, the absent referent can be seen with the symbol for zero, "0" or the empty set, "{ }".


Linguistic Sign

The semantic sign can be considered a subset of a more general concept, the linguistic sign, first elucidated by Ferdinand de Saussureā€Ž. A sign contains two parts, the signified (a thought which represents an object), and the signifier (the sound or written word). Both have a referent (the actual physical object). In general linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure described a sign as a combination of a concept and a sound-image. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ...


Art

In Art, a reference is an item from which a work is based. This may include an existing artwork, a reproduced (i.e. photo) or directly observed (i.e. person) object, or the artist's memory. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Scientific writing

In scientific writing, a reference is a previously published written work within academic publishing which is used as a source for theory or claims referred to which are used in the text. References contain complete bibliographic information so the interested reader can find them in a library. References can be added either at the end of the publication, or as footnotes. // The following advice may be of help to students writing an essay or a scientific paper. ... Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... A footnote is a note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. ...


Computer science

Main article: reference (computer science)

In computer science, references are datatypes which refer to an object elsewhere in memory, and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures such as linked lists. Most programming languages support some form of reference. This article discusses a general notion of reference in computing. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article discusses a general notion of reference in computing. ... In computer science, a datatype or data type (often simply a type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which one can perform on that set of values. ... A binary tree, a simple type of branching linked data structure. ... In computer science, a linked list is one of the fundamental data structures, and can be used to implement other data structures. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ...


The C++ programming language has a specific type of reference also referred to as a reference; see reference (C++). C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... In the C++ programming language, a reference is a simple reference datatype that is less powerful but safer than the pointer type inherited from C, which is a reference in the general sense but not in the sense used by C++. // Syntax and terminology The declaration of the form <Type...


Geometry

A reference point is a location used to describe another one, by giving the relative position. Similarly we have the concept of frame of reference (both in physics and figuratively), benchmark (in surveying and figuratively), etc. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An Ordnance Survey benchmark A C&GS benchmark disk Typical C&GS triangulation station A benchmark is a point of reference for a measurement. ...


Libraries

In a library, the word reference may refer to a dictionary, encyclopedia, or other reference work that contains many brief articles that cover a broad scope of knowledge in one book, or a set of books. However, the word reference is also used to mean a book that cannot be taken from the room, or from the building. Many of the books in the reference department of a library are reference works, but some are books that are simply too large or valuable to loan out. Conversely, selected reference works may be shelved with other circulating books, and may be loaned out. For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... “Cyclopedia” redirects here. ... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ... Library circulation is the term for the library department responsible for the loan or distribution of materials between the library and its patrons. ...


References to any type of printed matter come in electronic or at least machine-readable form nowadays. For books there exists the ISBN, for journal articles, the digital object identifier (DOI) is gaining relevance. Printed information on the Internet is usually referred to by some kind of uniform resource identifier (URI). The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. ...


Scholarship

In scholarship, a reference may be a citation of a text that has been used in the creation of a piece of work such as an essay, report, or oration. Its primary purpose is to allow people who read such work to examine the author's sources, either for validity, or simply to learn more about the subject. Such items are often listed at the end of an article or book in a section marked Bibliography or in a section marked References. A Bibliography section will often contain work not cited by the author, but used as background reading or listed as potentially useful to the reader. A section labelled References should contain all and only work cited in the main text. A citation or bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item with sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely. ... In psychology a conclusion is said to be valid, if and only if, it is based on true premises. ... Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz Bibliography (from Greek: βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia; lit. ... For the thoroughbred, see Citation (horse). ... Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz Bibliography (from Greek: βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia; lit. ... For the thoroughbred, see Citation (horse). ...


Copying of material by another author without proper citation or without required permissions amounts to 'plagiarism'. For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ...


Personal references

In the labour market, a reference is a letter to a prospective employer regarding a job applicant's characteristics. Usually the person providing the reference - the referee - is a previous boss, or someone of some distinction in government, the clergy, or education, who can personally vouch for the applicant's employability; see also credit reference. Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... A typical compact effects pedal. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... // A credit reference is information, the name of an individual, or the name of an organization that can provide details about an individuals past track record with credit. ...


Canadian law

Main article: reference question

A Reference question, or "Reference" is a procedure through which the government of Canada can submit legal questions to the Supreme Court of Canada and provincial governments to the provincial courts of appeal. A Reference Question in Canada is a submission by the federal or a provincial government to the Supreme Court of Canada or the provinces respective Court of Appeal in which the submitting government would like the court to answer a legal question regarding the Constitution Acts, the constitutionality of... A Reference Question in Canada is a submission by the federal or a provincial government to the Supreme Court of Canada or the provinces respective Court of Appeal in which the submitting government would like the court to answer a legal question regarding the Constitution Acts, the constitutionality of... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...


See also

Look up reference in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... In grammar, an antecedent is the noun or noun phrase to which a pronoun refers. ... Exemplification is a mode of symbolization characterized by the relation between a sample and what it refers to. ... Generic antecedents are representatives of classes of people, indicated by a reference in ordinary language (most often a pronoun), where gender is typically unknown or irrelevant. ... The reference desk or information desk of a library is a public service desk where professional librarians offer help to library users. ... Contents   Overviews   Academia   Topics   Basic topics   Tables   Glossaries   Portals   Categories See Lists of topics: ReferencesYO YO whas up!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! See: Lists of topics: Art and culture More territories: Bouvet Island â€¢ French Southern Territories â€¢ Heard Island and McDonald Islands â€¢ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands â€¢ Antarctic territorial claims List of geography... A reference work is a compendium of information, usually of a specific type, compiled for ease of reference. ... A self-reference occurs when an object refers to itself. ...

References

  1. ^ Reimer, Marga. "Reference". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2003 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reference

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (9543 words)
Reference in a context is ‘content,’ that is, an expression's contribution to ‘what is said.’ Character is more like linguistic meaning than reference and is supposed (according to Kaplan) to account for cognitive significance.
Reference is arguably the central notion in the philosophy of language, with close ties to the notions of meaning and truth.
Reference, construed as a relation between bits of language and bits of reality, is assumed to be a genuine, substantive relation worthy of philosophical scrutiny.
Reference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (660 words)
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relation between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them.
In computer science, references are datatypes which refer to an object elsewhere in memory, and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures such as linked lists.
In scholarship, a reference may be a citation of a text that has been used in the creation of a piece of work such as an essay, report, or oration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m