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Encyclopedia > Redwood National and State Parks
Redwood National and State Parks
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location California, USA
Nearest city Crescent City
Coordinates 41°10′0″N 123°59′0″W / 41.16667, -123.98333
Area 112,512 acres (455 km²)
Established January 1, 1968
Total visitation 391,282 (in 2004)
Governing body National Park Service
World Heritage Site 1980
The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth.
The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth.

The Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) are located in the United States, along the Pacific Ocean coast of northern California, a combined area of 131,983 acres (53,413 ha). The parks protect 45% (38,982 acres or 15,776 ha) of all remaining Coastal Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) old-growth forests. These trees are the tallest and one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the redwood forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, fauna, grassland prairie, cultural resources, and 37 miles (60 km) of pristine coastline. Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Crescent Citys harbor, with the jetty visible Crescent City is the county seat, and the only incorporated city of Del Norte County, California, USA. It is named after the crescent-shaped stretch of sandy beach south of the city. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (399x603, 71 KB) Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National Park from the parks website: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (399x603, 71 KB) Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National Park from the parks website: http://www. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ...


In 1850, old growth redwood forest covered more than 2 million acres (810,000 ha) of the California coast (from Big Sur north). The northern portion of that area, originally inhabited by Native Americans for 3,000 years, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region. Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees[1] for booming development in San Francisco and other places on the West Coast. After many decades of unobstructed clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began. By the 1920s work of the Save-the-Redwoods League, founded in 1918 to preserve remaining old growth redwoods, eventually resulted in the establishment of Prairie Creek, Del Norte Coast, and Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks among others. Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the original redwood trees had been logged. The National Park Service (NPS) and the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) administratively combined Redwood National Park with the three abutting Redwood State Parks in 1994 for the purpose of cooperative forest management and stabilization of forests and watersheds as a single unit. This degree of collaboration between the National Park Service and a state park system is unique in the nation. Old growth forest, also called primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, primeval forest or ancient woodland (in the UK), is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... Map of Big Sur Big Sur is a sparsely populated region of the central California coast where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Save-the-Redwoods logo The Save-the-Redwoods League is an organization dedicated to the protection of the remaining Coast Redwood trees in the U.S. state of California. ... Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles (80 km) north of Eureka. ... Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park is a state park located in California. ... Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith. ... Established in 1968 from unprotected land as well as small portions of existing state parks, Redwood National Park is a United States National Park on the northern coast of California between Eureka and Crescent City. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The California Department of Parks and Recreation manages the California state parks system, which contains 1. ...


The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened animal species such as the Brown Pelican, Tidewater Goby, Bald Eagle, Chinook Salmon, Northern-spotted Owl, and Steller's Sea Lion.[2] In recognition of the rare ecosystem and cultural history found in the parks, the United Nations designated them a World Heritage Site on September 5, 1980,[3] and an International Biosphere Reserve on June 30, 1983. The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... Binomial name Eucyclogobius newberryi Girard, 1854 The tidewater goby Eucyclogobius newberryi is a goby (Gobiidae) native to lagoons of streams along the coast of California. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... Binomial name (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Binomial name Strix occidentalis Xantus de Vesey, 1860 The Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, is a species of owl. ... Binomial name Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776) The Stellers sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), also known as the Northern Sea Lion, is a sea lion of the temperate eastern Pacific, named by Georg Steller. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

History

As early as 3,000 years ago, Native Americans lived in the park area. Such groups as the Yurok, Tolowa, Shasta, Karok, Chilula, and Wiyot all have historical ties to the region. An 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500.[4] They used the abundant redwood, which with its linear grain was easily split into planks, as a building material for boats, houses, and small villages.[5] For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a narrow trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping and held by notches cut into the supporting roof beams. Redwood boards were used to form a shallow sloping roof.[6] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Reconstruction of a Yurok Native American plankhouse constructed of redwood boards. ... The Tolowa language (also called Smith River) is a language of the Tolowa-Galice language group. ... The Shasta (or Chasta) are an indigenous people of Northern California and Southern Oregon in the United States. ... Karuk (also Karok) are an indigenous people of California in the United States. ... The Chilula were an Athapaskan tribe who inhabited the area on or near lower Redwood Creek, California 500 to 600 years before contact with whites. ... Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic language. ... A Japanese plane in use A plane is a tool for shaping wood. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


Spanish, British, Russian, and American explorers visited the coast near the present park as early as the mid 16th century, to trade with local people for seal pelts. Until the arrival of Jedediah Smith, in 1828, no white explorer is known to have thoroughly investigated the inland region. The discovery of gold along Trinity Creek in 1850 brought thousands of miners into the area, which led to conflicts; the native peoples were forcibly removed and in some cases massacred.[7][8] By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained; and, by 1919, virtually all members of the Chilula tribe had either died or been assimilated into other tribes.[9] The miners logged redwoods for building; and, when this minor gold rush ended, some of them became loggers, cutting down as many trees as they could sell. In 1850, 2 million acres (810,000 ha) of the northwest California coast was old-growth redwood forest; but, by 1910, so many redwoods had been cut down that conservationists and concerned citizens began seeking ways to preserve the remaining trees.[10] In 1911, U.S. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a national park. However, no further action was taken by Congress at this time. Genera Callorhinus Arctocephalus Fur seals, or Arctocephalinae make up one of the two distinct groups of marine mammals called seals. Fur seals are usually smaller than sea lions and have a coat of dense fur intermixed with guard hairs. ... // Bold textItalic textLink title Jedediah Smith Jedediah Strong Smith (born January 6, 1799 - presumed date of death May 27, 1831) was a hunter, trapper, fur trader and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the American West Coast and the Southwest during the nineteenth century. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... John Edward Raker, (1863-1926) was a Democratic Party Congressional representative for California. ...

Reconstruction of a Yurok Native American plankhouse constructed of redwood boards.
Reconstruction of a Yurok Native American plankhouse constructed of redwood boards.

The completion of U.S. Route 101 brought conservationists John C. Merriam, Madison Grant, and Henry Fairfield Osborn to the region. Disappointed to find that there were no public lands set aside to preserve the redwoods, they founded the Save-the-Redwoods League in 1918. Using matching funds provided by the state of California, the Save-the-Redwoods League managed to save areas of concentrated or multiple redwood groves or entire forests by the early 1920s. When California created a state park system, in 1927, three of these areas became the Prairie Creek Redwoods, Del Norte Coast Redwoods, and Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks. A fourth became Humboldt Redwoods State Park, by far the largest of the individual Redwood State Parks, but not in the Redwood National and State Park system. Because of the high demand for lumber during World War II and the construction boom of the 1950s, the creation of a national park was delayed. Efforts by the Save-the-Redwoods League, the Sierra Club, and the National Geographic Society to create a national park began in the early 1960s. After intense lobbying of Congress, the bill creating Redwood National Park was signed by President Lyndon Johnson on 2 October 1968. The Save-the-Redwoods League and other entities purchased over 100,000 acres (40,000 ha), which were added to existing state parks. In 1978, 48,000 acres (19,000 ha) were added to Redwood National Park in a major expansion. However, only a fifth of that land was old-growth forest, the rest having been logged. This expansion protected the watershed along Redwood Creek from being adversely affected by logging operations outside the park. The federal and state parks were administratively combined in 1994.[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3295x2364, 1256 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Redwood National and State Parks ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3295x2364, 1256 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Redwood National and State Parks ... Reconstruction of a Yurok Native American plankhouse constructed of redwood boards. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Highway 101 redirects here. ... John Campbell Merriam (October 20, 1869 - October 30, 1945) was an American paleontologist. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Save-the-Redwoods logo The Save-the-Redwoods League is an organization dedicated to the protection of the remaining Coast Redwood trees in the U.S. state of California. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Redwood Creek is a large stream in Humboldt County, California. ...


The United Nations designated Redwood National and State Parks a World Heritage Site on 5 September 1980. The evaluation committee noted 50 prehistoric archaeological sites, spanning 4,500 years. It also cited ongoing research in the park by Humboldt State University researchers, among others.[12] The park is part of a much larger region designated the California Coast Ranges International Biosphere Reserve on June 30, 1983.[13] The California Coast Ranges biosphere is overseen by the University of California Natural Reserve System. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Humboldt State University is the northernmost campus of the California State University system, located in Arcata, California, USA. The campus, nestled in the redwoods and overlooking the Pacific Ocean, is notable for its natural beauty and prime location with respect to outdoor activities. ... A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The The University of California natural reserve system is the largest and most diverse set of university-owned and operated reserves in the world. ...


Park management

Map of Redwood National and State Parks
Map of Redwood National and State Parks

The RNSP are cooperatively managed by the National Park Service, a federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation. the National Park annual budget of $7,380,000 in 2004 was decreased to $7,251,000 in 2005 (a reduction of nearly 2%). This amount supports all operations, including 102 permanent and 70 temporary staff. The combined budget for the three State Parks of $1,096,248 covered 17 permanent and 30 temporary staff in 2003.[14] The two agencies work cooperatively to protect the redwoods, the pristine Pacific Ocean coastline, the cultural resources, and the unique natural habitat. The land that was added to the parks in 1978 had previously been logged, and efforts to restore these areas have been ongoing for decades, with old logging roads being removed and the land allowed to return to its original state. Lack of funding has precluded major improvements, however, and timber companies have replanted much of the logged area with non-native tree species. Coastline areas, including dunes and coastal prairie, have been invaded by exotic species, partly due to the suppression of forest fires until the 1980s. A fire management plan now allows controlled burning as one method to return the parkland to its original state. Since the redwoods were logged on the basis of accessibility, with inaccessible areas being cut last, large old growth forest sections were isolated from one another, sometimes by many miles. In these cases it will be decades more before mature forest can return, regardless of the amount of money used to rehabilitate the ecosystem.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x2420, 562 KB) Summary Map of Redwood National Park Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Redwood National and State Parks ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1861x2420, 562 KB) Summary Map of Redwood National Park Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Redwood National and State Parks ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... The California Department of Parks and Recreation manages the California state parks system, which contains 1. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ...


The park has transformed a few logging roads into scenic public drives. These do not meet current safety standards, but funding to improve them is not available at present. Park structures such as visitor centers and employee housing also need updating to meet increasing demands. The park employees perform air and water quality surveys, monitor endangered and threatened species, and work closely with the California Coastal National Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.[16] The park headquarters is in Crescent City, California. California Costal National Monument is located in the U.S. state of California. ... US BLM logo The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers Americas public lands, totaling 262 million acres (1,060,000 km²) or one-eighth of the landmass of the country. ... Crescent Citys harbor, with the jetty visible Crescent City is the county seat, and the only incorporated city of Del Norte County, California, USA. It is named after the crescent-shaped stretch of sandy beach south of the city. ...


Natural resources

Flora

Redwood grove shrouded in fog.
Redwood grove shrouded in fog.

It is estimated that old growth redwood forest once covered 2 million acres (810,000 ha) of coastal northern California. Today, only 4%, or 85,000 acres (34,000 ha), remain, with 45% of that total being managed by the park.[17] The native range of coast redwood is from the northern California coast north to the southern Oregon Coast. The tree is closely related to the Giant Sequoia of central California, and more distantly to the Dawn Redwood which is indigenous to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. Coast redwoods are the tallest trees on Earth; in September, 2006, the tallest tree in the park is Hyperion at 379.1ft, two more named Helios and Icarus are 376.3 ft and 371.2 ft respectively.[18] Before September 2006, the tallest living specimen known was the Stratosphere Giant, outside the park in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, which was 370 feet (113 m) in 2004. For many years, one specimen simply named "Tall Tree" in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park and within the RNSP was measured at 367.8 feet (112.11 m), but the top 10 feet (3 m) of the tree was reported to have died in the 1990s.[19] One tree that fell in 1991 was reported to be 372.04 feet (113.4 m). Only the Giant Sequoia has more mass. The largest redwood by volume is the 42,500 ft³ (1,205 m³) "Lost Monarch", located in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park. Mature Coast redwoods live an average of 800-1500 years and a few are documented to be 2,000 years old,[20] making them some of the longest-living organisms on earth. They are highly resistant to disease, due to a thick protective bark and high tannin content. Redwoods prefer sheltered slopes, slightly inland and near water sources such as rivers and streams, and are very fast-growing.[21]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 928 KB) Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National Park from the NPS Archive: http://photo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 928 KB) Sequoia sempervirens in Redwood National Park from the NPS Archive: http://photo. ... Oregon coast at Brookings, Oregon. ... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... Binomial name Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) is a fast growing tree in the conifer family Cupressaceae (Taxaceae or Taxodiaceae by others)native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hyperion is the name of a redwood tree in Northern California that has been confirmed to measure 115. ... Stratosphere Giant was considered the tallest tree in the world until September 2006. ... Humboldt Redwoods State Park in Humboldt County, northern California, 30 miles (50 km) south of Eureka, California. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ...


Redwood trees develop enormous limbs that accumulate deep organic soils and can support tree-sized trunks growing on them. This typically occurs above 150 feet. Scientists have recently discovered that plants that normally grow on the forest floor also grow in these soils, well above ground. The soil mats provide homes to invertebrates, mollusks, earthworms, and salamanders. During drought seasons, some treetops die back, but the trees do not die outright. Instead, redwoods have developed mechanisms to regrow new trunks from other limbs. These secondary trunks, called reiterations, also develop root systems in the accumulated soils at their bases. This helps transport water to the highest reaches of the trees. Coastal fog also provides up to one-third of their annual water needs.[22] Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontidae The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar animals well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Criodrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ... For other uses, see Salamander (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


Another large tree commonly found in the forest is the Douglas-fir, which has been measured at heights of over 300 feet (90 m). Sitka Spruce are plentiful along the coast and are better adapted to salty air than other species. The evergreen hardwood tanoak produces a nut similar to the acorns produced by the related genus Quercus (oak). Both tanoaks and oaks are members of the beech family. Trees such as the madrone, big-leaf maple, California laurel, and red alder are also widespread throughout the parks. Species See text. ... Binomial name Picea sitchensis (Bong. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Binomial name Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... Species See text. ... Binomial name Acer macrophyllum Pursh The Bigleaf Maple or Oregon Maple (Acer macrophyllum) is a large deciduous tree to 35 m tall. ... Binomial name Umbellularia californica (Hook. ... Binomial name Alnus rubra Bong. ...


Huckleberry, blackberry, and salmonberry are part of the forest understory and provide food for many animal species. The California rhododendron and azalea are flowering shrubs common in the park, especially in old growth forest.[23] Plants such as the sword fern are prolific, especially near ample water sources. In Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Fern Canyon is a well-known ravine 30 to 50 feet (10–15 m) deep, with walls completely covered in ferns. Wild huckleberry in the Mount Hood National Forest. ... The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. ... The Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis, Rosaceae) is an erect shrub with orange to reddish orange berries related to the blackberry. ... Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a forest which grows in the shade of the overstory or canopy. ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... Species see text Source: The Rhododendron page, and some research. ... Binomial name Polystichum munitum (Kaulf. ... Fern Canyon Fern Canyon is a canyon in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park (managed in cooperation with Redwood National Park) in northern California, USA. A hiking trail follows the canyon, though it is not one if the most visited areas of the park. ...


Fauna

Northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened species known to exist in the parks.
Northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened species known to exist in the parks.

The ecosystems of RNSP preserve a number of rare animal species. Numerous ecosystems exist, with seacoast, river, prairie, and densely forested zones all within the park. The brown pelican and tidewater goby are federally listed endangered species that live near the Pacific coastline. The bald eagle, which usually nests near a water source, is listed as a threatened species, a designation which includes vulnerable, endangered, and critically endangered species, by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the state of California lists it as endangered. The chinook salmon, northern-spotted owl, and the Steller's sea lion are a few of the other animal species that are threatened.[24] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1123, 166 KB) Fish and Wildlife resources[1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Northern Spotted Owl ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1123, 166 KB) Fish and Wildlife resources[1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Northern Spotted Owl ... Trinomial name Strix occidentalis caurina The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis caurina, is one of three Spotted Owl subspecies. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is the smallest of the eight species of pelican, although it is a large bird in nearly every other regard. ... Binomial name Eucyclogobius newberryi Girard, 1854 The tidewater goby Eucyclogobius newberryi is a goby (Gobiidae) native to lagoons of streams along the coast of California. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Bald Eagle range  Resident, breeding Summer visitor, breeding Winter visitor On migration only Star: accidental records Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle (Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Binomial name (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Binomial name Strix occidentalis Xantus de Vesey, 1860 The Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, is a species of owl. ... Binomial name Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776) The Stellers sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), also known as the Northern Sea Lion, is a sea lion of the temperate eastern Pacific, named by Georg Steller. ...


Over 40 species of mammals have been documented, including the black bear, mountain lion, bobcat, beaver, river otter, black-tailed deer, elk, and coyote. Along the coastline, California sea lions, and harbor seals live near the shore and on seastacks, rocky outcroppings forming small islands just off the coast. Dolphins and Pacific gray whales are occasionally seen offshore. Roosevelt elk are the most readily observed of the large mammals in the park. Successful herds, brought back from the verge of extinction in the region, are now a common site in park areas south of the Klamath River. Many smaller mammals live in the high forest canopy. Different species of bats, such as the big brown bat and other smaller mammals including the red squirrel and northern flying squirrel, spend most of their lives well above the forest floor.[25] “Black Bear” redirects here. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) The puma (Puma concolor) is a type of large cat found in North, Central and South America. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1777) The Bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ... Trinomial name Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Richardson, 1829 Like all deer, black-tailed deer are herbivores. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1828) The California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal sea lion of the northern Pacific Ocean. ... Binomial name Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758 The Harbor Seal or Common seal (Phoca vitulina) is a true seal of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Genera See article below. ... Binomial name Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861 Gray Whale range The Gray Whale or Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus), more recently called the Eastern Pacific Gray Whale, is a whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. ... Roosevelt Elk (cervus canadensis roosevelti) are also know as Olympic elk tend to live in the rain forests of the Pacific coast. ... The Klamath River, approximately 250 mi (400 km) long, is a major river of the Pacific coast in southern Oregon and northern California in the United States. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Binomial name Eptesicus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1796) The Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus, is larger in size than comparitive species of bats, from about 4 to 5 inches (10 - 13 cm) in length and weighing 1/2 to 5/8 ounce. ... Binomial name Tamiasciurus douglasii (Bachman, 1839) Desolation Wilderness (Sierra Nevada) The Douglas Squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii, is a pine squirrel found in the Pacific coastal states and provinces of North America. ... Binomial name Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801) The Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is one of two species of the genus Glaucomys, the only flying squirrels found in North America (the other is the somewhat smaller Southern Flying Squirrel, ). Flying squirrels are strictly nocturnal. ...


Brown pelicans and double-crested cormorants are mainly found on cliffs along the coast and on seastacks, while sandpipers and gulls inhabit the seacoast and inland areas. Inland, freshwater dependent birds such as the common merganser, osprey, red-shouldered hawk, great blue heron, and Stellar's jay are a few of the species that have been documented. Binomial name Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson, 1831) The Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) is a North American member of the cormorant family of seabirds. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... Binomial name Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Common Merganser range The Common Merganser, (Goosander in Europe), Mergus merganser, is a large sized duck, which is distributed over Europe, North Asia and North America. ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Buteo lineatus (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus, is a medium-sized hawk. ... Binomial name Ardea herodias Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias, is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae, common all over North and Central America as well as the West Indies and the Galápagos, except in deserts and high mountains where there is no water for... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) Stellers Jay range The Stellers Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) is a jay native to western North America, closely related to the Blue Jay found in the rest of the continent, but with a black head and upper body. ...


Reptiles and amphibians can also be found in the parks, with the northwestern ringneck snake, red-legged frog, pacific giant salamander, and the rough-skinned newt most commonly seen.[26] Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Subpecies 14, see article. ... Binomial name Rana aurora The California red-legged frog (Rana aurora) is a moderate to large (4. ... Species Dicamptodon aterrimus Dicamptodon copei Dicamptodon ensatus Dicamptodon tenebrosus The Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodontidae) are a family of large salamanders. ... Binomial name Taricha granulosa // Subspecies Species Granulosa is divided into two subspecies: Rough-Skinned newt (Taricha granulosa granulosa) Crater Lake Rough-Skinned newt (Taricha granulosa mazamae) A newt with pebbly, non-slimy skin, that is light brown to black on top and yellow to orange on its belly, is most...


Geology

The northern coastal region of California, which includes RNSP and the adjacent offshore area, is the most seismically active in the U.S.[27] Frequent minor earthquakes in the park and offshore under the Pacific Ocean have resulted in shifting river channels, landslides, and erosion of seaside cliffs. The North American, Pacific, and Gorda Plates are tectonic plates that all meet at the Mendocino triple junction, only 100 miles (160 km) southwest of the parks. During the 1990s, more than nine magnitude 6.0 earthquakes occurred along this fault zone, and there is always potential for a major earthquake.[28] The park ensures that visitors are aware of the potential for a major earthquake through the use of pamphlets and information posted throughout the parks. The threat of a tsunami is of particular concern, and visitors to the seacoast are told to seek higher ground immediately after any significant earthquake.[29] Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... The Gorda Plate is a small oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County, California, USA, is the westernmost point on the coast of California. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...

Coastline area
Coastline area

Both coastline and the Coast Ranges can be found within park boundaries. The majority of the rocks in the parks are part of the Franciscan Assemblage, uplifted from the ocean floor millions of years ago. These sedimentary rocks are primarily sandstones, siltstones, and shales, with lesser amounts of metamorphic rocks such as chert and greenstone. For the most part, these rocks are easily eroded, and can be viewed along the seacoast and where rivers and streams have cut small gorges. Formed during the cretaceous age, they are highly deformed from uplift and folding processes. In some areas, river systems have created fluvial deposits of sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates, which are transported into the park from upstream. Redwood Creek follows the Grogan Fault; along the west bank of the creek, schist and other metamorphic rocks can be found, while sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage are located on the east bank.[30] Image File history File links Redwood_coast_02. ... Image File history File links Redwood_coast_02. ... The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along west coast of North America from Alaska to Mexico. ... The Franciscan Assemblage is a geological term for a heterogeneous assemblage of rocks found on and near the San Francisco Peninsula. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... New Zealand greenstone is formed by the metamorphism of basalt. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The word fluvial is used in geography and earth science to refer to all topics related to flowing water. ... Mudstone is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material Conglomerate, Submarine Landslide located at Point Reyes, Marin County California. ... Redwood Creek is a large stream in Humboldt County, California. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ...


Climate

Weather in RNSP is greatly influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Coastal temperatures generally range between 40 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit (4—15°C) all year round, while further from the coast summers are hotter and drier, and winters are colder. Redwoods mostly grow a mile or two (1.5—3 km) from the coast, but never more than 50 miles (80 km) from it. In this temperate, but humid coastal zone the trees receive moisture from both potentially heavy winter rains and persistent fog, especially during the summer. But it seems the presence and consistency of the summer fog is actually more important to overall health of the trees than significant precipitation. This fact is born out in annual precipitation totals, which range between 25 and 122 inches (63 and 310 cm) annually, with healthy Redwood forests throughout the areas of less precipitation because excessive needs for water are mitigated by the ever present summer fog and the cooler temperatures it ensures. Snow is uncommon even on peaks above 1,500 feet (450 m), further exemplifying the mild, temperate nature of this northern latitude (which is actually further north than the latitude of New York City).[31] For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ...


Fire management

Fog is persistent during the summer, as seen here, and the majority of fires are during the fall.
Fog is persistent during the summer, as seen here, and the majority of fires are during the fall.

Wildfires are a natural part of most terrestrial ecosystems. In many ways nature has adapted to fire, and the absence of fire can often be disadvantageous.[32] Wildfire eliminates dead and decayed plant and tree matter, enriching the soil and ensuring that healthier trees have less competition for limited nutrients. Until the arrival of European settlers, wildfires periodically burned sections of the redwood forest. From 1850, however, fires were combatted by logging interests, who were concerned both with a loss of their commodity and with the threat to personal safety that fire presented. Miners and loggers who came to the region set out to ensure that all fires would be suppressed as quickly as possible, and the net result was a buildup of dead and decaying flora. During the 1970s, research indicated that there was an immediate need to allow natural fires to burn, so long as personal safety and structures were not compromised. Later, man-made fires were deliberately set to burn off plant matter and reduce the risk of a major firestorm. In the RNSP, a fire management plan monitors all fires, weather patterns and the fuel load (dead and decaying plant material). This fuel load removed from areas near structures and where fire poses high risk to the public, and controlled burns are used elsewhere.[33] The National Interagency Fire Center provides additional firefighters and equipment in the event of a large fire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (426x640, 121 KB) Summary Spring fog in Redwood National Park. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) in Boise, Idaho, is the physical facility that is home to the National Interagency Coordination Center (NICC), and the National Multi-Aegncy Coordination group (NMAC or MAC). ...


Fire is also used to protect prairie grasslands from invasion by exotic species and to keep out forest encroachment, ensuring sufficient rangeland for elk and deer. The oak forest regions also benefit from controlled burns, as Douglas fir would otherwise eventually take over and decrease biodiversity. The use of fire in old growth redwood zones reduces dead and decaying material, and lessens the mortality of larger redwoods by eliminating competing vegetation.[34] Sweet clover (Melilotus sp. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Recreation

Other than the DeMartin Redwood Youth Hostel, a low-amenities shared lodging facility (near Klamath), there are no hotels or motels within the parks boundaries. However, nearby towns provide small hotels and inns, with extensive lodging options available in the region's largest cities of Crescent City on the northern end of the park and Arcata and Eureka located to the south. The park is 340 miles (550 km) north of San Francisco, California, and 330 miles (530 km) south of Portland, Oregon, and U.S. Route 101 passes through it from north to south. The Smith River National Recreation Area, part of the Six Rivers National Forest, is adjacent to the north end of RNSP. Babe the Blue Ox, Trees of Mystery, Klamath, California. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Holiday Inn Great Sign Exterior of a Howard Johnsons motor lodge. ... Map of California showing the location of Arcata Country State County Humboldt Incorporated 1858 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Harmony Groves  - City manager Michael Hacket Time zone PST (UTC-8)  - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7) ZIP codes Area code(s) 707 Website: www. ... Motto: Eureka - (I have found it!) Map of California showing the location of Eureka Coordinates: Country United States State California County Humboldt Founded 1850 Incorporated April 18, 1856 (town) Re-incorporated February 19, 1874 (city) Government type Mayor-council  - Mayor Virginia Bass  - City manager David Tyson Area    - City  14. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Highway 101 redirects here. ... Smith River National Recreation Area is located northwestern California, United States. ... Six Rivers National Forest is a U.S. National Forest located in the northwestern corner of California. ...


While the state parks have front country campsites that can be driven to, the federal sections of the park do not, and hiking is the only way of reaching back country campsites. These are at Mill Creek campground in Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park and Jedediah Smith campground in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, which together have 251 campsites, the Elk Prairie campground in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park which has 75, and the Gold Bluffs Beach campground which has 25 campsites. Other nearby state parks have additional front country camping.[35] Back country camping is by permit only and is only allowed in designated sites, except on gravel bars along Redwood Creek. Redwood Creek is a large stream in Humboldt County, California. ...

Scene along a hiking trail in Fern Canyon

The back country is highly regulated to prevent overuse and to permit as many groups as possible to explore the forest. Camping in the back country is therefore limited to five consecutive nights, and 15 nights in any one year. Proper food storage to minimize encounters with bears is strongly enforced,[36] and hikers and backpackers are required to take out any trash they generate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 1492 KB) Summary Fern Canyon in Redwood National Park, California with tree upside down. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 1492 KB) Summary Fern Canyon in Redwood National Park, California with tree upside down. ... Fern Canyon Fern Canyon is a canyon in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park (managed in cooperation with Redwood National Park) in northern California, USA. A hiking trail follows the canyon, though it is not one if the most visited areas of the park. ...


Almost 200 miles (320 km) of hiking trails exist in the parks, but during the rainy season some temporary footbridges are removed, as they would be destroyed by high streams. Throughout the year, trails are often wet and hikers need to be well prepared for rainy weather and consult information centers for updates on trail conditions.


Horseback riding and mountain biking are popular but are only allowed on certain trails. Kayaking is popular along the seacoast and in the various rivers and streams. Kayakers and canoeists frequently travel the Smith River, which is the longest undammed river remaining in California. Fishing for salmon and steelhead, (a highly prized rainbow trout over 16 inches (40 cm) long), is best in the Smith and Klamath rivers. A California sport fishing license is required to fish any of the rivers and streams. Hunting is not permitted anywhere in the parks, but is allowed in nearby National Forests. horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Smith River The Smith River is a river on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States, approximately 20 mi (32 km) long. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rainbow trout. ... It has been suggested that Steelhead be merged into this article or section. ... The Klamath River, approximately 250 mi (400 km) long, is a major river of the Pacific coast in southern Oregon and northern California in the United States. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ...


The park has two visitor centers and three additional information points. At the visitor centers, guided nature walks and general information is available. Each campground offers campfire talks during the summer months as well as guided tours. The parks have many picnic areas, which are all easily accessed by vehicle. Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ...


In films

The park has served as location shots for numerous films. The Endor scenes for the Star Wars movie Return of the Jedi (Episode 6) were filmed in the Tall Trees Redwood Grove in the northern part of Humboldt County. Scenes for The Lost World: Jurassic Park as well as the movie Outbreak, were filmed at the nearby Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park and at Patrick's Point State Park.[37] Endor may refer to: Endor (village), a Canaanite village where the witch of Endor lived In the Hebrew Bible In the film Return of the Jedi, Endor is a planet orbited by the forest moon of Endor. ... Star Wars is an epic space opera saga and a fictional universe initially developed by George Lucas during the 1970s and expanded since that time. ... Movie poster Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, is a science fiction film that debuted in 1983, and re-released with changes in 1997 and 2004. ... The Lost World: Jurassic Park is a 1997 movie which is a sequel to the blockbuster Jurassic Park. ... Outbreak (1995) is a suspense film starring Dustin Hoffman, Rene Russo, Morgan Freeman and Kevin Spacey. ... Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles (80 km) north of Eureka. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Cited references

  1. ^ Coy, Owen, The Humboldt Bay Region 1850-1875, Humboldt County Historical Society, Eureka, California, (1982), p. 51
  2. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Threatened/Endangered Species, URL retrieved May 24, 2006
  3. ^ National Park Service, Redwood National Park, California, U.S. World Heritage Sites, URL retrieved June 5, 2006
  4. ^ National Park Service, The Indians of the Redwoods, The Yurok, Redwood History basic data, URL retrieved June 8, 2006
  5. ^ Castillo, Edward D., Short Overview of California Indian History, California Native American Heritage Commission, (1998), URL retrieved May 20, 2006.
  6. ^ Nabokov, Peter and Robert Easton. Native American Architecture, Oxford University Press, NY, (1989) ISBN 0-19-503781-2
  7. ^ Margolin, Malcolm, "Living in a Well-ordered World: Indian People of Northwestern California", Redwood National Park, (1994)
  8. ^ National Park Service, American Indians, URL retrieved May 20, 2006
  9. ^ National Park Service, The Indians of the Redwoods, The Chilula, Redwood History basic data, URL retrieved June 8, 2006
  10. ^ National Park Service, Logging, URL retrieved May 21, 2006
  11. ^ Save the Redwoods League,League Timeline, URL retrieved May 21, 2006
  12. ^ UNESCO's World Heritage, Advisory Body Evaluation, World Heritage Committee, URL retrieved June 5, 2006 (PDF file)
  13. ^ UNESCO MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory URL retrieved June 5, 2006
  14. ^ National Park Service, Fact Sheet, Redwood National and State Parks, URL retrieved September 22, 2007
  15. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Strategic Plan 2001–2005, URL retrieved May 22, 2006
  16. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Fiscal Year 2004 Annual Performance Plan, URL retrieved May 22, 2006
  17. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, About the Trees, URL retrieved May 22, 2006
  18. ^ San Francisco Chronicle, Hyperion in Redwood National Park, Eureka! New tallest living thing discovered, URL retrieved November 14, 2006
  19. ^ Carle, Janet, Tracking the Tallest Tree, California State Park Rangers Association, URL retrieved May 22, 2006
  20. ^ National Park Service Redwoods of the Coast and Sierra, Comparison of Coast Redwood and Sierra Redwood, URL retrieved September 26, 2007
  21. ^ U.S. Geological Survey, California: Ecological Provinces, Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources, URL retrieved June 20, 2006
  22. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Visitors Guide, .pdf, URL retrieved May 27, 2006
  23. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Vegetation, URL retrieved May 22, 2006
  24. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Threatened/Endangered Species, URL retrieved May 24, 2006
  25. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Discovering the unseen world, .pdf, pg. 5, Visitors Guide, URL retrieved June 5, 2006
  26. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, River and stream wildlife, URL retrieved May 26, 2006
  27. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Geologic Setting, Geology, URL retrieved June 9, 2006
  28. ^ Oppenheimer, David, Mendocino Triple Junction Offshore Northern California, A Policy for Rapid Mobilization of USGS OBS (RMOBS), U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center, URL retrieved June 3, 2006
  29. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Earthquake warnings, Geology, URL retrieved May 27, 2006
  30. ^ United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, World Heritage Sites, Redwood National Park, (December 13, 2005), URL retrieved May 27, 2006
  31. ^ National Park Service: Nature and Science, Geology Field Notes, Redwood National and State Parks, URL retrieved September 22, 2007
  32. ^ National Park Service, Fire Ecology, Fire and Aviation Management, URL retrieved June 3, 2006
  33. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Fire Management Plan Environmental Assessment, May 2005, .pdf, URL retrieved June 3, 2006
  34. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Living with fire, Resource Management, URL retrieved June 2, 2006
  35. ^ National Park Service, Camping, Redwood National and State Parks, URL retrieved May 27, 2006
  36. ^ Redwood National and State Parks, Backcountry, URL retrieved May 27, 2006
  37. ^ Humboldt County Film Commission, Sensational Humboldt, URL retrieved August 4, 2006

The Humboldt County Historical Society (HCHS) is located at the historic Gross-Wells-Barnum House in Eureka, Humboldt County, California. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

General references

  • National Park Service. Redwood National and State Parks. Retrieved on 2006.
  • Redwood National and State Parks. Visitor Guide. Retrieved on 2006. (PDF file)
  • Redwood: A Guide to Redwood National and State Parks, California. Interior Dept., National Park Service, Division of Publications. ISBN 0-912627-61-1. 

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

External links


 
 

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