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Encyclopedia > Redstone (rocket)
Redstone
Redstone launch
Redstone launching Freedom 7.
Stages 1
1 Engines 1 × A-6
Thrust 78,000 lbf (347 kN)
Burn time ~155 s
ISP 265 s
Fuels Alcohol/LOX
Payload to
185 km
115 mi

1,300 kg
2,850 lb

First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. It was used for the first live nuclear missile tests by the United States. It was also known as the Redstone MRBM (medium range ballistic missile). Launch of the MR-3 spacecraft. ... Stages can refer to: the plural of stage. ... A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. ... The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit of propellant. ... A liquid rocket engine has propellant and oxidiser in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid rocket. ... In cargo transport, payload is the valuable contents of the vehicle. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... German test launch. ...


A product of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, it was designed as a surface-to-surface missile for the U.S. Army and was first deployed in 1958. A total of four mobile launchers and equipment, with one reload each, (A total of 8 Redstone MRBM missiles) were deployed in West Germany until 1963. The Redstone was capable of flights up to 200 miles (300 km). It burned alcohol and liquid oxygen. The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) is the part of the US Army which, in the 1950s, designed the Jupiter-C IRBM and Jupiter IRBM. The Saturn I was also conceived by the ABMA. At this time the ABMA was headed by Doctor Wernher von Braun. ... Redstone Arsenal is a census-designated place and U.S. Army base/town located next to the city of Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama. ... Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County, Alabama. ... In May 1964, Wernher von Braun stands at his Marshall Space Flight Center desk in Huntsville, Alabama with models of rockets developed and in progress. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Lox can stand for any of several things: Lox (salmon) - a type of salmon produce LOx (oxidizer) - liquid oxygen used as oxidizer in aerospace The Lox - was a Yonkers, NY-based rap trio This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the...


Redstone could be armed with a 1 Mt or 3.75 Mt of TNT (4 PJ or 16 PJ) thermonuclear warhead. The Redstone was used to launch two live nuclear tests that were detonated during the nuclear test series Operation Hardtack in August, 1958, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. On August, 1, 1958, Redstone #CC50 launched nuclear test Teak that detonated at an altitude of 77.8 km. On August 12, 1958, Redstone #CC51 launched nuclear test Orange to a detonation altitude of 43 km. Both thermonuclear devices were 3.75 Mt of TNT (16 PJ) weapons. These were the first live nuclear missile tests by the United States. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... Hardtack Oak mushroom cloud Hardtack Sorocco mushroom cloud An RB-57 Canberra observes Juniper. ... Johnston Atoll is a 2. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The Jupiter IRBM (intermediate range ballistic missile) was a direct descendant of the Redstone. Modified Redstone missiles, with solid upper stages added, were used in a series of nosecone development tests for the Jupiter IRBM. These modified Redstone missiles were called Jupiter-C rockets. Jupiter IRBM mobile missile The Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, first tested in 1957, was the United States second Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM). ... The Jupiter-C Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) was designed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA). ...


Many believe the U.S. could have beaten the Soviet Union into space if the ABMA had been allowed to attempt a satellite launch with the Jupiter-C rocket. A satellite could have been launched by a Jupiter-C in August 1956 if given the go ahead by U.S. government officials. The Eisenhower administration, however, wanted the first U.S. satellite to be launched by a civilian developed rocket instead of a military missile. The Vanguard rocket was being developed for this purpose. They ordered Von Braun not to attempt any satellite launches. The Vanguard rocket failed to launch its Vanguard satellite in December 1957. The Eisenhower administration then turned to the U.S. Army. The ABMA and von Braun were asked to launch a backup satellite as soon as possible. When the Jupiter-C was finally used to launch the Explorer I satellite in January 1958, its Jupiter-C launch vehicle was renamed the Juno I. ... The Jupiter-C Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) was designed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA). ... Mission In August 1955, the DOD DOD Committee on Special Capabilities chose the NRL proposal as it appeared most likely to, by spring 1958, fulfill the following: 1) place a satellite in orbit during the IGY 2) accomplish a scientific experiment in orbit 3) track the satellite and ensure its... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... The Jupiter-C Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) was designed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) The vehicle consists of a modified Redstone ballistic missile with three solid-propellant upper stages. ...


Redstone MRBM and Jupiter IRBM propellant tanks were clustered together along with eight Jupiter IRBM engines to form the first stage of the Saturn I and Saturn IB rockets. First developed by the ABMA, the Saturn rocket was later adopted by NASA. These were America's first large launch vehicles. The first of these was launched in 1961. The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated verson of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ...


Redstone was also responsible for the following suborbital launches in the United States Mercury program: Description Role: Orbital spaceflight Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Height: 11. ...

  • Mercury-Redstone 1, Launched 4 inches (100 mm)
  • Mercury-Redstone 1A, Successful unmanned flight
  • Mercury-Redstone 2 (Carrying Ham the chimpanzee)
  • Mercury-Redstone BD Booster Development - final test before manned flight
  • Freedom 7 (Mercury-Redstone 3), America's first human in space, Alan Shepard.
  • Liberty Bell 7 (Mercury-Redstone 4), America's second human in space, Gus Grissom.

Redstone production was halted in late 1964 and the Redstone missile was replaced by the Pershing missile in the U.S. Army arsenal. MR-1 launching the escape rocket. ... Mercury- Redstone 1A (MR-1A) was launched on December 19, 1960 from LC-5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. ... Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-2) was launched at 16:55 UTC on January 31, 1961 from LC-5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. ... Ham fitted into a special biopack couch prior to flight. ... Mercury-Redstone BD was an unmanned Booster Development flight in the U.S. Mercury program. ... Crew Alan Shepard (flew on Mercury 3 & Apollo 14) Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... Mercury 4 was a Mercury program manned space mission launched on July 21, 1961 using a Redstone rocket. ... Gus Grissom in his Mercury spacesuit Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Air Force pilot who became one of the first American astronauts. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ...


In the late 1960's as series of surplus modified Redstone MRBM missiles were launched in Australia as part of a military test program of reentry vehicles. These Redstone missiles had solid fuel upper stages added to them. One of thse Redstone missiles was used to launch Australia's first satellite, Wresat, in 1967. These series of Australian modified Redstone missiles were called Sparta rockets.
Wresat (abbreviation for: Weapons Research Establishment Satellite) was the name of the first Australian Satellite. ... Sparta was the name of a rocket, consisting off a Redstone-rocket as first stage, an Antares as second and a BE-3 as third stage. ...


Mercury Redstone Sub-Orbital Flight Events

T+ Time Event Description
T+00:00:00 Liftoff Mercury-Redstone lifts off, onboard clock starts.
T+00:00:24 Pitch Program Redstone begins pitch program to 49 degrees.
T+00:01:24 Max Q Maximum dynamic pressure ~575 lbf/ft² (28 kPa).
T+00:02:11 End Pitch Program Redstone reaches 49 degree pitch.
T+00:02:22 BECO Redstone engine shutdown - Booster Engine Cutoff. Velocity 5,200 mph (2.3 km/s)
T+00:02:23 Tower Jettison Escape Tower Jettison, no longer needed.
T+00:02:32 Capsule Separation Posigrade rockets fire for 1 s giving 15 ft/s (4.6 m/s) separation.
T+00:02:37 Turnaround Maneuver Capsule (ASCS) system rotates capsule 180 degrees, to heat shield forward attitude. Nose is pitched down 34 degrees to retro fire position.
T+00:05:00 Apogee Apogee of about 115 miles (185 km) reached at 150 miles (240 km) downrange from launch site.
T+00:05:15 Retrofire Three retro rockets fire for 10 seconds each. They are started at 5 second intervals, firing overlaps. Delta V of 550 ft/s (168 m/s) is taken off forward velocity.
T+00:05:45 Retract Periscope Periscope is automatically retracted in preparation for reentry.
T+00:06:15 Retro Pack Jettison One minute after retrofire retro pack is jettisoned, leaving heatshield clear.
T+00:06:20 Retro Attitude Maneuver (ASCS) orients capsule in 34 degress nose down pitch, 0 degrees roll, 0 degrees yaw.
T+00:07:15 .05 G Maneuver (ASCS) detects beginning of reentry and rolls capsule at 10 deg/s to stabilize capsule during reentry.
T+00:09:38 Drogue Parachute Deploy Drogue parachute deployed at 22,000 ft (6.7 km) slowing descent to 365 ft/s (111 m/s) and stabilizing capsule.
T+00:09:45 Snorkel Deploy Fresh air snorkel deploys at 20,000 ft (6 km). (ECS) switches to emergency oxygen rate to cool cabin.
T+00:10:15 Main Parachute Deploy Main parachute deploys at 10,000 ft (3 km). Descent rate slows to 30 ft/s (9 m/s)
T+00:10:20 Landing Bag Deploy Landing Bag Deploys, dropping heat shield down 4 ft (1.2 m).
T+00:10:20 Fuel Dump Remaining hydrogen peroxide fuel automatically dumped.
T+00:15:30 Splashdown Capsule lands in water about 300 mi (500 km) downrange from launch site.
T+00:15:30 Rescue Aids Deploy Rescue aid package deployed. The package includes green dye marker, recovery radio beacon and whip antenna.



External link

  • The Mercury Redstone Project (PDF) December 1964
  • Redstone from Encyclopedia Astronautica
  • Redstone MRBM History Website
  • http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/systems/redstone/welcome.html

Redstone family of missiles and launch vehicles

See also: List of missiles Download high resolution version (1024x683, 42 KB)Redstone rocket family of missiles and launch vehicles File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1024x683, 42 KB)Redstone rocket family of missiles and launch vehicles File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2630 words)
A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine.
Rockets must be used when there is no other substance (land, water, or air) or force (gravity, magnetism, light) that a vehicle may employ for propulsion, such as in space.
Modern rockets were born when, after receiving a grant in 1917 from the Smithsonian Institution, Robert Goddard attached a de Laval nozzle to a rocket engine's combustion chamber, doubling the thrust and enormously raising the efficiency, giving birth to the real possibility of practical space travel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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