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Encyclopedia > Redneck

Redneck, in modern usage, predominantly refers to a particular stereotype of white farmers or other rural white people, who may be found in many regions of the United States. Originally a southern expression, the term is now widespread. Today, the term can be used either as a pejorative or can be used for oneself as a matter of pride. The blunt definition of the stereotype describes one who lives in a rural American area, is poor, sometimes would own a pickup truck, carry a shotgun, listen to Country music, and would have the apparel of a farmer or cowboy, and even though some rednecks live in the north, the stereotype has all of them with a southern accent.[1] Many northern rednecks have adopted a mild southern accent, which they may have voluntarily adopted from southern music. Rednex is a Swedish manufactured band that had an international novelty hit with the song Cotton Eye Joe in 1994. ... Redneck is a fictional mutant character in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ...

Contents

Etymology

Possible Scots-Irish etymologies

The National Covenant and The Solemn League and Covenant (a.k.a. Covenanters) signed documents stating that Scotland desired a Presbyterian Church Government, and rejected the Church of England as their official church (no Anglican congregation was ever accepted as the official church in Scotland). What the Covenanters rejected was episcopacy — rule by bishops — the preferred form of church government in England. Many of the Covenanters signed these documents using their own blood, and many in the movement began wearing red pieces of cloth around their neck to signify their position to the public. They were referred to as rednecks[2]. Large numbers of these Scottish Presbyterians migrated from their lowland Scottish home to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland) during the late 17th and early 18th centuries and soon settled in considerable numbers in North America throughout the 18th century. Some emigrated directly from Scotland to the American colonies in the late 18th and early 19th-centuries as a result of the Lowland Clearances. This etymological theory holds that since many Scots-Irish Americans and Scottish Americans who settled in Appalachia and the South were Presbyterian, the term was bestowed upon them and their descendants. The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... This article is about the country. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Lowland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Galltachd) in Scotland were one of the results of the British Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland for hundreds of years. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ...


Possible American etymologies

A popular etymology says that the term derives from such individuals having a red neck caused by working outdoors in the sunlight over the course of their lifetime. The effect of decades of direct sunlight on the exposed skin of the back of the neck not only reddens fair skin, but renders it leathery and tough, and typically very wrinkled and spotted by late middle age. Similarly, some historians claim that the term redneck originated in 17th century Virginia, because indentured servants were sunburnt while tending plantation crops. Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ...


Another popular etymology is that the term was originally used by African Americans as a pejorative for white people in general, in the same manner that peckerwood, ofay, and cracker were coined by blacks. Peckerwood (or simply Wood) is a pejorative slang term coined in the 19th century by southern blacks to describe poor whites. ... Ofay is a racial slur, a slang term for a white person. ...


It is clear that by the post-Reconstruction era (after the departure of Federal troops from the American South in 1874-1878), the term had worked its way into popular usage. Several blackface minstrel shows used the word in a derogatory manner, comparing slave life over that of the poor rural whites. This may have much to do with the social, political and economic struggle between Populists, the Redeemers and Republican Carpetbaggers of the post-Civil War South and Appalachia, where the new middle class of the South (professionals, bankers, industrialists) displaced the pre-war planter class as the leaders of the Southern states. The Populist movement, with its message of economic equality, represented a threat to the status quo. The use of a derogative term, such as redneck to belittle the working class, would have assisted in the gradual disenfranchisement of most of the Southern lower class, both black and white, which occurred by 1910. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, is an indigenous form of American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, usually performed by white people in blackface. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the...


Another popular theory stems from the use of red bandanas tied around the neck to signify union affiliation during the violent clashes between United Mine Workers and coal mine owners between 1910 and 1920. But this is obviously wrong because the expression was widely used before then. The United Mine Workers of America (UMW or UMWA) is a United States labor union that represents workers in mining. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


Historical usage

The Hatfield clan, of the Hatfield-McCoy feud, in 1897.
The Hatfield clan, of the Hatfield-McCoy feud, in 1897.

People stereotyped as rednecks are largely descendants of the Irish, Ulster-Scots and Lowland Scots immigrants who traveled to North America from Northern Ireland and Scotland in the late 17th and 18th centuries, although some of them are descended from people of Germanic and other stock. The Ulster-Scots had historically settled the major part of Ulster province in Northern Ireland, after previous migration from the Scottish Lowlands and Border Country. These pioneering people and their descendants are known in North America as the Scots-Irish. (The 18th century influx of Highland Scots into the Carolinas also contributed to the bloodlines.) [3] [4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1426x1107, 164 KB) This picture was taken in 1897 and appeared in the Iowa State Press dated February 11, 1889. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1426x1107, 164 KB) This picture was taken in 1897 and appeared in the Iowa State Press dated February 11, 1889. ... The Hatfield clan in 1897. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


The "Celtic Thesis" of Forrest McDonald and Grady McWhiney holds that they were basically Celtic (as opposed to Anglo-Saxon), and that all Celtic groups (Irish, Scottish, Welsh and others) were warlike herdsmen, in contrast to the peaceful farmers who predominated in England. U.S. Senator James H. Webb of Virginia uses this thesis in his book Born Fighting to suggest that the character traits of the Irish and Scots — loyalty to kin, mistrust of governmental authority, and military readiness — helped shape the American identity. According to Webb, these people characterized as "rednecks" and "crackers", were unwelcome in the "civilized" coastal regions and were encouraged by colonial leaders to settle the Appalachian mountains, as a bulwark against the Indian Nations. [5] Although sometimes hostile to the Indians, they found much in common with them and engaged in trade and cultural exchanges. In the Appalachians they also encountered pockets of Melungeons, English-speaking people of mixed racial origins (black, white, Indian), whom they tolerated and with whom they coexisted. áGrady McWhiney (July 15, 1928 – April 18, 2006) was a historian of the American south and the Civil War. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other persons named James Webb, see James Webb (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Melungeon (mÉ›lÊŒndÊ’ÊŒn) is a term traditionally applied to one of a number of tri-racial isolate groups of the Southeastern United States, mainly in the Cumberland Gap area of central Appalachia: east Tennessee, southwest Virginia, and east Kentucky. ...


Over time, they intermarried with Britons from the West Country, another group with Celtic origins, and absorbed members of other groups through the bonds of kinship. Nevertheless, their culture and bloodlines retained their Celtic character. The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ...


Fiercely independent, and frequently belligerent, people characterized as rednecks perpetuated old Celtic ideas of honor and clanship. This sometimes led to blood feuds such as the Hatfield-McCoy feud in West Virginia and Kentucky. [6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hatfield clan in 1897. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


In colonial times, they were often called rednecks and crackers by English neighbors. A letter to the Earl of Dartmouth included the following passage: "I should explain ... what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their places of abode." [7] Georgia Cracker refers to the original American pioneer settlers of the State of Georgia, and their descendants. ...


The fledgling government inherited a huge debt from the American Revolutionary War. One of the steps taken to pay it down was a tax imposed in 1791 on distilled spirits. Large producers were assessed a tax of six cents a gallon. Smaller distillers, however, most of whom were of Scottish or Irish descent located in the more remote areas, were taxed at a higher rate of nine cents a gallon. These rural settlers were short of cash to begin with, and they lacked any practical means to get their grain to market other than fermenting and distilling it into relatively portable alcoholic spirits. From Pennsylvania to Georgia, the western counties engaged in a campaign of harassment of the federal tax collectors. "Whiskey Boys" also made violent protests in Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. [5] This civil disobedience eventually culminated in armed conflict in the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. [8] This article is about military actions only. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ...


People characterized as rednecks, and sometimes merely as southerners, serve in the U.S. armed forces at a much higher rate than other Americans. [9] [10] This trend is also present among the Scots in the British armed forces. [11] Stereotypical rednecks, and especially Tennesseans, are known for their martial spirit. Tennessee is known as the "Volunteer State" for the overwhelming, unexpected number of Tennesseans who volunteered for duty in the War of 1812, the Texas Revolution (including the defense of the Alamo), and especially the Mexican-American War. During the Civil War, poor whites did most of the fighting and the dying on both sides of the conflict. Poor Southern whites stood to gain little from secession and were usually ambivalent about the institution of slavery. They were, however, fiercely defensive of their territory, loyal to family and home and typically resolute in the cause of independence from the Union. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


Although slaves fared the worst by far, many poor whites had "a hard row to hoe" as well. The disruptions of the Civil War (1861-65) and Reconstruction mired African Americans in a new poverty and dragged many more whites into a similar abyss. Sharecropping and tenant farming trapped families for generations, as did emerging industries, which paid low wages and imposed company-town restrictions (see Carpetbagger). Once-proud yeomen frequently became objects of ridicule, and sometimes they responded angrily and even viciously, often lashing out at blacks in retaliation. Destitute whites were increasingly labeled "poor white trash" (meaning financially and genetically worse off than others) and worse; “cracker,” "clay eater," "linthead," "peckerwood," "buckra" and especially redneck only scratched the surface of rejection and slander. Northerners and foreigners played this game, but the greatest hostility to poor whites came from their fellow Southerners, sometimes blacks but more often upper-class whites. Generally, the view of poor white Southerners grew more and more negative, especially in modern movies and television, which have often stressed the negative and even the grotesque while reaching huge audiences. Rednecks have borne their full share of this stereotype of lower-class Southern whites who share poverty status with immigrants, blacks, and other minorities. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ...


Modern usage

Redneck has two general uses: first, as a pejorative used by outsiders, and, second, as a term used by members within that group. To outsiders, it is generally a term for those of Southern or Appalachian rural poor backgrounds — or more loosely, rural poor to working-class people of rural extraction. (Appalachia also includes large parts of Pennsylvania, New York and other states.) Within that group, however, it is used to describe the more downscale members. Rednecks span from the poor to the working class. Historic Southern United States. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used in academic sociology and in ordinary conversation. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the state. ... Look up Poor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


Generally, there is a continuum from the stereotypical redneck (a derisive term) to the country person; yet there are differences. Rednecks typically are more libertine, especially in their personal lives, than other country brethren who tend towards social conservatism. In contrast to country people, stereotypical rednecks tend not to attend church, or do so infrequently. They also tend to use alcohol and gamble more than their church-going neighbors. Further, "politically apathetic" may describe some members of this group. Until the late 1970s they tended toward populism and were solidly behind the Democratic party, but have supported Republicans since the Carter presidency. [6] They are less homogeneous than the country people and other Southern whites. Many Southern celebrities like Jeff Foxworthy and Lee Roy Mercer embrace the redneck label. It is used both as a term of pride and as a derogatory epithet, sometimes to paint country people and/or their lifestyle as being lower class. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Comedian Jeff Foxworthy accepts a new jacket from 3rd Infantry Division Commander Army Maj. ...


Although the stereotype of poor white Southerners and Appalachians in the early twentieth century, as portrayed in popular media, was exaggerated and even grotesque, the problem of poverty was very real. The national mobilization of troops in World War I (1917-18) invited comparisons between the South and Appalachia and the rest of the country. Southern and Appalachian whites had less money, less education, and poorer health than white Americans in general. Only Southern blacks had more handicaps. In the 1920s and 1930s matters became worse when the boll weevil and the dust bowl devastated the South's agricultural base and its economy. The Great Depression was a difficult era for the already disadvantaged in the South and Appalachia. In an echo of the Whiskey Rebellion, rednecks escalated their production and bootlegging of moonshine whiskey. [12] To deliver it and avoid law-enforcement and tax agents, cars were "souped-up" to create a more maneuverable and faster vehicle. Many of the original drivers of Stock car racing were former bootleggers and "ridge-runners." “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas in 1935 Buried machinery in barn lot. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport of stock car racing. ...


Federal programs such as the New Deal era Tennessee Valley Authority and the later Appalachian Regional Commission encouraged development and created jobs for disenfranchised rural southerners and appalachians. World War II (1941-45) began the great economic revival for the South and for Appalachia. In and out of the armed forces, unskilled Southern and Appalachian whites, and many African Americans as well, were trained for industrial and commercial work they had never dreamed of attempting, much less mastering. Military camps grew like mushrooms, especially in Georgia and Texas, and big industrial plants began to appear across the once rural landscape. Soon, blue-collar families from every nook and cranny of the South and Appalachia found their way to white-collar life in metropolitan areas like Atlanta. By the 1960s blacks had begun to share in this progress, but not all rural Southerners and Appalachians were beneficiaries of this recovery. The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a United States federal-state partnership that works with the people of Appalachia to create opportunities for self-sustaining economic development and improved quality of life. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The recent prosperity of the New South changed the social status of the redneck. The 20th century ideas of Southern upward mobility, which required dropping or modifying a regional accent and joining the mainstream, was considered the norm for the region. (Exceptions were made for politicians and college football coaches, for whom a drawl was still required for regional credibility.) Newfound prosperity allowed rednecks to cling to their old ways and reject the status quo of modernity. In the 1990s, when Jeff Foxworthy drawled "you might be a redneck …" he wasn't just needling folks who had ever "fought over an inner tube." In one of his stand-up routines, Foxworthy summed up the condition as "a glorious absence of sophistication." Foxworthy also rejected the misconception that a redneck has to be a Southerner, saying "A lot of people think you have to talk like this"(meaning his Georgia accent) "to be a redneck. That is not true. I've been all over this country, there's rednecks in every single state." According to Slate columnist Bryan Curtis, "Foxworthy was also preaching to the newly minted white middle class, those who had ditched the pickup for an Audi and their ancestral segregation for affirmative action." According to University of Georgia professor James C. Cobb, "Now, feeling relatively secure and closer to the mainstream, they rebel against acting respectable, embracing this counterculture hero—the 'redneck' who is what he is, and doesn't give a damn what anybody thinks."[7] For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ...


Writer Edward Abbey, as well as the original Earth First! under Dave Foreman, proudly adopted the term redneck to describe themselves. This reflected the word's possible historical origin among striking coal miners to describe white rural working-class radicalism. "In Defense of the Redneck" was a popular essay by Ed Abbey. One popular early Earth First! bumper sticker was "Rednecks for Wilderness." Murray Bookchin, an urban leftist and social ecologist, objected strongly to Earth First!'s use of the term as "at the very least, insensitive." [8] Edward Paul Abbey (January 29, 1927 - March 14, 1989) was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental issues and criticism of public land policies. ... The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer Earth First! is a radical environmentalist organization[1] that emerged in the USA, in the great southwestern desert during the spring of 1980. ... Dave Foreman (born 1947) is a US environmentalist and co-founder of the radical environmental movement Earth First! The son of a US Air Force career officer, as a young man Foreman was influenced by the writings of Ayn Rand and supported the Vietnam War. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ...


Author Jim Goad's 1997 book The Redneck Manifesto explores the socioeconomic history of low-income Americans. According to Goad, rednecks are traditionally pro-labor and anti-establishment and have an anti-hierarchical religious orientation. Goad argues that elites manipulate low-income people (blacks and whites especially) through classism and racism to keep them in conflict with each other and distracted from their exploitation by elites. James Thaddeus Jim Goad is an American author and publisher, noted for the controversy surrounding his (now defunct) magazine ANSWER Me!. Jim Goad (left) with an opossum. ... The Redneck Manifesto is the title of a 1997 book by author Jim Goad in which he deliniates some of his views about what he sees to be the disenfranchisement by modern culture of some specific groups, and how certain aspects of our society such as racism and sexism cover... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ...


U.S. Representative Charles B. Rangel caused controversy on February 13, 2005, by referring to Bill Clinton as a redneck in response to Hillary Clinton's refusal to support his views on the Amadou Diallo case.[9] Charles Bernard Rangel (born June 11, 1930) is an American politician. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... Amadou Diallo Amadou Bailo Diallo (September 2, 1975 – February 4, 1999) was a 23-year-old immigrant to the United States from Guinea, who was shot and killed on February 4, 1999, by four New York City Police Department plain-clothed officers; Sean Carroll, Richard Murphy, Edward McMellon and Kenneth...


Popular culture

The Grand Ole Opry and Hee Haw are popular entertainments from years past, and they, as well as the entertainers Hank Williams, Grandpa Jones and Jerry Clower, have seen lasting popularity within the redneck community, as well as forging opinions in the minds of those on the outside. The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly Saturday night country music radio program broadcast live on WSM radio in Nashville, Tennessee, and televised on Great American Country network. ... For the EP from the musical band Birthday Party, see Hee Haw (EP). ... For other persons named Hank Williams, see Hank Williams (disambiguation). ... Grandpa Jones Grandpa Jones (October 20, 1913 – February 19, 1998) was an American banjo player and old time country and gospel music singer. ... Howard Gerald Jerry Clower (b. ...


Since the dawn of the radio age, entertainers have traded on the redneck stereotype for humor and as a means to bond with their audiences. Stars like Minnie Pearl used homespun comedy as much as music to create a lasting persona, and sophisticated and intelligent musicians like Earl Scruggs and Lester Flatt appeared on shows such as "The Beverly Hillbillies," lending credence to broad humor about uncomplicated rural Americans. Some musicians who toured the country in tailored suits were put on stage in overalls surrounded by hay bales when they appeared on the television show "Hee-Haw." Minnie Pearl was the stage name of Sarah Ophelia Colley Cannon (October 25, 1912 - March 4, 1996). ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... Earl Scruggs performing at The Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival on June 12th, 2005 Earl Eugene Scruggs (born January 6, 1924) is a musician noted for creating a banjo style (now called Scruggs style) that is a defining characteristic of bluegrass music. ... Lester Flatt (June 19, 1914 - May 11, 1979) was one of the pioneers of bluegrass music. ... For the 1993 film, see The Beverly Hillbillies (film) The Beverly Hillbillies was an American television program about a hillbilly family transplanted in Southern California. ... For the EP from the musical band Birthday Party, see Hee Haw (EP). ...


The character Bob Ewell from Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird has many characteristics of a redneck. He's a racist, poorly dressed, and can barely make a decent salary. Nelle Harper Lee (born April 28, 1926) is an American novelist known for her Pulitzer Prize – winning 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird, her only major work to date. ... To Kill a Mockingbird is a Southern Gothic bildungsroman novel by Harper Lee. ...


According to James C. Cobb, a history professor at the University of Georgia, the redneck comedian "provided a rallying point for bourgeois and lower-class whites alike. With his front-porch humor and politically outrageous bons mots, the redneck comedian created an illusion of white equality across classes." [13] The University of Georgia (UGA) is the largest institution of higher learning in the U.S. state of Georgia. ...


Johnny Russell was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1973 for his recording of "Rednecks, White Socks, and Blue Ribbon Beer," parlaying the "common touch" into financial and critical success. Country music singer Gretchen Wilson titled one of her songs "Redneck Woman" on her 2004 album, Here for the Party. Wilson was born and raised in Illinois. Johnny Russell (January 23, 1940 – July 3, 2001) was an American countrysinger, songwriter, and comedian famous for his song Act Naturally, which was made famous by Buck Owens and The Beatles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Gretchen Frances Wilson (born June 26, 1973) is an American country music singer and guitarist. ... Redneck Woman is the debut single of American country music artist Gretchen Wilson. ... Here for the Party is the 2004 debut album by US country music singer Gretchen Wilson. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


Rockabilly and Southern Rock are among Rock and Roll musical genres favored by stereotypical rednecks. In particular, "Free Bird" and "Sweet Home Alabama" by Lynyrd Skynyrd are considered "Redneck Anthems." Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...   is an anthemic song by the American Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd. ... Sweet Home Alabama is a song by Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd that first appeared in 1974 on their second album, Second Helping. ... Lynyrd Skynyrd (pronounced lÄ•h-nérd skin-nérd) (pronounced ) is an iconic U.S. Southern rock band. ...


The TV series, "The Dukes of Hazzard," followed the adventures of two good ol' boys, Bo and Luke Duke, their uncle Jesse and their cousin Daisy, living in an unincorporated area of the fictional Hazzard County, in Georgia, racing around in their modified 1969 Dodge Charger, "The General Lee," evading corrupt Boss Hogg and his inept county sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane. Consistent with a redneck stereotype, Bo and Luke had been sentenced to probation for illegal transportation of moonshine. The Dukes of Hazzard is an American television series that originally aired on the CBS television network from 1979 to 1985. ... For the exclusionary power structure, see Good ol boy network. ... Cast of The Dukes of Hazzard, starting from the left going counter-clockwise: Sorrell Booke (Boss Hogg), Tom Wopat (Luke Duke), Catherine Bach (Daisy Duke), John Schneider (Bo Duke), James Best , Sonny Shroyer (Deputy Enos Strate), Denver Pyle (Uncle Jesse), Christopher Mayer (Vance Duke), Byron Cherry (Coy Duke), and Ben... Tom Wopat as Luke Duke in The Dukes of Hazzard Lukas K. Luke Duke is a fictional character in the American television series The Dukes of Hazzard which ran from 1979 to 1985. ... For other models using this name, see Dodge Charger. ... The General Lee is the automobile driven by the Duke cousins Bo and Luke in the television series The Dukes of Hazzard. ... Sorrell Booke, portraying the character that made him famous, Boss Hogg. Spoiler warning: J.D. (Jefferson Davis) Hogg (better known as Boss Hogg) is a fictional character featured in the United States television series, The Dukes of Hazzard. ... On the American TV series The Dukes of Hazzard, Rosco Purvis Coltrane is the bumbling sheriff of Hazzard County and right-hand man of its corrupt county commissioner, Jefferson Davis J.D. Hogg (Boss Hogg). The role of Rosco is played by James Best, who had appeared in numerous movies... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, the comedic stylings of Jeff Foxworthy, Ron White, Bill Engvall, Larry the Cable Guy and Lee Roy Mercer have become popular, with the first four forming first a "Blue Collar Comedy Tour", and now a "Blue Collar TV" television show and film. Foxworthy's definition of redneck is "a glorious absence of sophistication." Comedian Jeff Foxworthy accepts a new jacket from 3rd Infantry Division Commander Army Maj. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... William Ray (Bill) Engvall, Jr. ... Daniel Lawrence Whitney (born February 17, 1963 in Pawnee City, Nebraska), better known by the stage name Larry the Cable Guy, is a stand up comedian, actor, and one of the co-stars of the Blue Collar Comedy Tour. ... From left to right : Larry the Cable Guy , Bill Engvall , Jeff Foxworthy and Ron White. ... Blue Collar TV was a television program on the WB Television Network and starring Jeff Foxworthy, Bill Engvall and Larry the Cable Guy. ...


"King of the Hill" is a contemporary American animated sitcom showing a modern suburban family in Arlen, Texas. In the show, they are sometimes derisively called "redneck" and "hillbilly" by a Laotian neighbor. King of the Hill is a satirical American animated television series produced by Deedle-Dee Productions, Judgemental Films, and 3 Arts Entertainment for 20th Century Fox. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... King of the Hill (1997 - ) is a long-running, satirical animated series. ... LAOS redirects here. ...


WWE Superstar Stone Cold Steve Austin has always been referred to as a "Texas Redneck" by his opponents. However, he has never taken offence to it which may imply that to a degree, he probably acknowledges himself as one. World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE, is a professional wrestling promotion, currently the largest in North America. ... Steven James Williams (born Steven Anderson on December 18, 1964)[2] better known by his ring name Stone Cold Steve Austin, is an American actor and former professional wrestler. ...


One aspect of the stereotype of rednecks that frequently gets bandied around is that of the incestous or inbred "trailer trash", a derogatory stereotype which may have been inspired by the isolation of rural people. Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Trailer trash (or trailer park trash) is a derogatory North American English term for people who live in trailers or mobile homes, especially in trailer parks. ...


Also, much of the stereotypes associated with Rednecks are used frequently in the Television show Family Guy, stating that "The country's changed, that is except the south" and "The proper term is country music star" (refering to a picture titled "redneck") in the song You've Got a Lot to See from the episode Brian wallows and Peter swallows. There are also several references to the stereotype in the Family Guy episode To Love and Die in Dixie. Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ...


Exclaves

Alberta and Saskatchewan are sometimes said to be the home of rednecks in Canada, due to its similarities to Texas (oil, farming, and ranching). Like rural people elsewhere, some Canadians continue to see this as a highly offensive term while others have claimed it and proudly describe themselves as rednecks. This difference often arises because the former consider the term to connote racist beliefs while the latter believe it implies traditional rural values (e.g. work ethic, honesty, self-reliance, simplicity). For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Related terms

Australia and New Zealand

The term "bogan" is used in Australia and New Zealand to describe individuals from western parts of major cities, particularly Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. There is no one ethnic heritage that ascribes a bogan, most indeed are from anglo saxon origins. There is no majority, however the stereotype is identified by a significant "mullet" hair cut, or the middle eastern style of shaving all but the tops of their head. In Sydney - Westie is most often applied. For other uses, see Bogan (disambiguation). ... Westie, or Westy, is a colloquial term used in Australian and New Zealand English to describe residents of the western suburbs of Sydney (Australia) or Auckland (New Zealand). ...


The Caribbean and Latin America

"Poor whites" in Barbados (descendants largely of seventeenth century English, Scottish, and Irish indentured servants and deportees) were called "red legs." Many of these families moved to Virginia and the Carolinas as large sugar plantations replaced small tobacco farming in the Caribbean. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


In Brazil, the term "caipira" is used to define inhabitants from the countryside of Brazilian states (chiefly rural); they are considered the Brazilian counterparts of American rednecks. Caipira is a Brazilian Portuguese term used to designate inhabitants of rural, remote areas in some brazilian states, particularly São Paulo, Minas Gerais and the western brazilian states. ...


In Chile, the term "huaso" describes people who work or live in the rural sectors of the country. They are described as wearing a poncho, straw hat and cowboy boots. Huaso in chilean rodeo A huaso (feminine huasa, although the term china is far more commonly used for his wife or sweetheart, whose dress can be seen in cueca dancing) is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the Argentinian or Uruguayan gaucho and the US cowboy. ... Typical Andes poncho in a flea market in Genoa, Italy A poncho is a simple garment designed to keep the body warm, or if made from an impermeable material, to keep dry during rain. ...


In Mexico, the slang term "Naco" can be used to define a lower-class Mexican who displays qualities similar to North-American rednecks such as ignorance and low-brow tastes. This word is used by middle to upper class White Mexicans in Mexico and White Mexican-Americans in the United States. [14]. Naco is a word often used in Mexican Spanish to describe bad mannered and poorly educated people. ...


In Nicaragua, the slang term "jincho" is a pejorative term used to describe people with poor education or from the countryside. Also, "jincho patarrajadas" as a pejorative in arguments literally "bruised feet fool" implying that people from the countryside walk barefoot.


In Puerto Rico the term "jíbaro" can be considered a rough equivalent of the word "redneck" since it is used to refer to residents of rural areas that typically work as farmers or manual-laborers. It is also similar to the term "redneck" as it can be used pejoratively or complimentary. In the latter sense it is used to refer to "true boricuas" that live a rugged life of farming and maintain typical Puerto Rican traditions and values alive. In the pejorative sense however, it refers to uneducated rubes who are close-minded and oblivious to the ways of the modern world. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


North America

In the United States, the term "farmer tan" is sometimes used to refer to a sunburn, particularly when the sunburned area covers only the neck and arms of the individual. This can also refer to a suntan covering the same area. Another variation of the "farmer tan" is the trucker tan, which refers to the occurrence of the left arm being of a deeper tan than the right arm, as a result of being rested along or out of the driver's side window of the stereotypical redneck's pickup truck or tractor-trailer.


"White cracker" or simply "cracker" was originally a pejorative term for a white person, mainly used in the Southern United States, and still is in many instances. It has also, however, increasingly been used as a proud (or self-deprecating) term by some Southern whites —or American whites in general—in reference to themselves. White cracker or more often just cracker was originally a pejorative term for a white person, mainly used in the Southern United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


The term "goat roper" is sometimes used as a term of derision for unsophisticated rural people in the Southwestern United States, Arkansas, and Gulf States. It alludes to the belief that a person who raises or "ropes" goats is inferior to a cowboy or cattle rancher. This term may have roots in the range wars between ranchers and sheep or goat ranchers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [10] [11] The term is used in some western communities to describe individuals who prefer a western/cowboy image, but not the rugged life-style (e.g. "Him in a rodeo? Only if he's roping goats with the kids.") [12] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... Oldelpaso 12:53, 25 February 2006 (UTC) Category: ...


The term "peckerwood," an inversion of woodpecker, is also used, but usually only with negative connotations. It was coined in the 19th century by Southern blacks to describe poor whites. The origin of the term is unknown, but this word is still widely used by Southern blacks to refer to Southern whites. Peckerwood (or simply Wood) is a pejorative slang term coined in the 19th century by southern blacks to describe poor whites. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ...


"Swamp Yankee" is a term used by urban Yankees to describe rural New Englanders. Swamp Yankee is a colloquialism that has a variety of meanings. ...


In Canada, "redneck" is used in much the same way as it is in the United States. It is mostly used for people from the Prairie provinces and rural areas in British Columbia and Ontario.


The term "blueneck" is a recently coined corollary of redneck. Its meaning can vary significantly based on usage. It can refer to a "cold-weather redneck" from Canada, Alaska, or other cold areas of North America.[13] [14] It can also be used to signify a "leftist redneck." [15] The word blueneck was coined less than fifteen years ago and can take various meanings. ...


South Africa

In South Africa, the Afrikaans term "rooinek" (meaning redneck) was derisively applied by Afrikaners to the British soldiers who fought during the Boer Wars, because their skin was sensitive to the harsh African sun. The phrase is still used by Afrikaners to describe South Africans of English descent. Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the stereotype chavs bear some resemblance to the US rednecks. However, chavs typically reside in urban areas of the country, unlike the rural redneck characteristics. This article needs cleanup. ...


See also

“Airport ’07” is a season five episode of the FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French territory of New Caledonia. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Folk culture refers to the localized lifestyle of a subsistence or otherwise inward looking culture. ... Good old boys or good ole boys is an American euphemism for young to middle age men who live in extremely rural and generally southern areas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hillbilly is a term, often considered pejorative but sometimes endearing, referring to people who dwell in remote, rural, mountainous areas. ... A slur can be anything from an insinuation or critical remark to an insult. ... The Redneck Manifesto is the title of a 1997 book by author Jim Goad in which he deliniates some of his views about what he sees to be the disenfranchisement by modern culture of some specific groups, and how certain aspects of our society such as racism and sexism cover... Pākehā is a Māori term generally used to describe New Zealanders of British or European ancestry, but it can also be used to refer to any non-Māori person. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Redneck Rampage is a 1997 first-person shooter game designed by Xatrix Entertainment and published by Interplay. ... Modern definition The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included. ... Emerald-green waters in Destin, FL, part of the Emerald Coast. Pensacola Beach, part of the Emerald Coast. The Emerald Coast (sometimes called the Redneck Riviera) is an area in the southeastern United States on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, roughly bounded by Pensacola, Florida on the west... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... For other uses, see White trash (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ See Albion's Seed, Four British Folkways in America David Hackett Fischer (New York: Oxford University Press) 1989, pp. 757-758, citing the Oxford English Dictionary OED). The OED cites a source from 1830-31 where the term is applied to certain American Presbyterians.
  3. ^ http://www.electricscotland.com/history/highlands/chapter5.htm
  4. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/uncpress/chapters/ray_highland.html
  5. ^ http://okok.essortment.com/whiskeyrebellio_pea.htm
  6. ^ http://www.nationalreview.com/owens/owens200602130816.asp
  7. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2129296?nav=tap3
  8. ^ [2] See Page 95
  9. ^ http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2005/02/rangel_blasts_c.php
  10. ^ http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/metro/stories/MYSA080705.1B.goat_rodeo.348102b.html
  11. ^ http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=54224
  12. ^ http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=goat+roper
  13. ^ http://thecorner.typepad.com/bc/2003/12/you_know_youre_.html
  14. ^ http://journals.aol.com/gullspirit/PerishTheThought/entries/1787
  15. ^ http://www.historywire.com/2006/01/book_alert_redn.html

Sources

  • Abbey, Edward. "In Defense of the Redneck", from Abbey's Road: Take the Other. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979
  • Goad, Jim. The Redneck Manifesto: How Hillbillies, Hicks, and White Trash Became America's Scapegoats. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997
  • Webb, James H. Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America. New York: Broadway Books, 2004
  • Weston, Ruth D. "The Redneck Hero in the Postmodern World". South Carolina Review, Spring 1993
  • Wilson, Charles R. and William Ferris, eds. Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, 1989

External links

References

  1. ^ [3]
  2. ^ See Albion's Seed, Four British Folkways in America David Hackett Fischer (New York: Oxford University Press) 1989, pp. 757-758, citing the Oxford English Dictionary OED). The OED cites a source from 1830-31 where the term is applied to certain American Presbyterians.
  3. ^ http://www.electricscotland.com/history/highlands/chapter5.htm
  4. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/uncpress/chapters/ray_highland.html
  5. ^ http://okok.essortment.com/whiskeyrebellio_pea.htm
  6. ^ http://www.nationalreview.com/owens/owens200602130816.asp
  7. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2129296?nav=tap3
  8. ^ [4] See Page 95
  9. ^ http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2005/02/rangel_blasts_c.php
  10. ^ http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/metro/stories/MYSA080705.1B.goat_rodeo.348102b.html
  11. ^ http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=54224
  12. ^ http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=goat+roper
  13. ^ http://thecorner.typepad.com/bc/2003/12/you_know_youre_.html
  14. ^ http://journals.aol.com/gullspirit/PerishTheThought/entries/1787
  15. ^ http://www.historywire.com/2006/01/book_alert_redn.html

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