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Encyclopedia > Redlining
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Racial segregation

Isolationism
White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote white immigration, from 1830 to 1973. ... Petty apartheid: sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu (1989) Apartheid (meaning separateness in Afrikaans cognate to English apart and -hood) was a system of racial segregation that was enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
White flight
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation, of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation—along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of negros, particularly former slaves. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where upper and middle class white Americans move away from non-white inner-city neighborhoods to predominantly white suburbs and exurbs. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... President Coolidge signs the immigration act on the White House South Lawn along with appropriation bills for the Veterans Bureau. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ...

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Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs[1], access to health care[2], or even supermarkets[3] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[4] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by community activists in Chicago. It describes the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest. During the heyday of redlining these areas were most frequently minority inner city neighborhoods. Car redirects here. ... The tachometer, right, shows red lines above 5700 RPM. Redline refers to the maximum engine speed at which an internal combustion engine and its components are designed to operate without causing damage to the components themselves or other parts of the engine. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... Mortgage Discrimination or Mortgage Lending Discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ...

Contents

History of the practice

HOLC's 1936 security map of Philadelphia showing redlining of minority neighborhoods. People who lived in the red zones could not get mortgages to buy or improve their homes.
HOLC's 1936 security map of Philadelphia showing redlining of minority neighborhoods. People who lived in the red zones could not get mortgages to buy or improve their homes.

Redlining began in the United States with the National Housing Act of 1934 which established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). In 1935, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB) asked Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) to look at 239 cities and create "residential security maps" to indicate the level of security for real estate investments in each surveyed city. In these maps many minority neighborhoods in cities were not eligible to receive loans at all. This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgages only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States. Urban Planning historians theorize that the maps were used for years afterwards to deny loans to people in black communities by private and public entities. Image File history File links Holc_redlining_map. ... Image File history File links Holc_redlining_map. ... The National Housing Act of 1934 was passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable. ... The Federal Housing Administration began as part of the New Deal in 1934. ... The Federal Home Loan Banks are an essential source of stable, low-cost funds to financial institutions for home mortgage, small business, rural and agricultural loans. ... The Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) was a New Deal agency established in 1933 under President Franklin Roosevelt. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ...


On the maps the most affluent areas, those considered desirable for lending purposes, were outlined in blue and known as "Type A". "Type B" neighborhoods were less well off and outlined in yellow. "Type D" neighborhoods were outlined in red on the map. Most of the Black neighborhoods were characterized as "Type D" and were considered to be the worst for lending. ...


Some redlined maps were also created by private organizations. (Such as J.M. Brewer's 1934 map of Philadelphia.) The maps created by private organizations were designed to meet the requirements of the Federal Housing Administration Underwriting Manual. The manual encouraged lenders to consider these standards if they wanted to receive FHA insurance. FHA appraisal manuals instructed banks to steer clear of areas with "inharmonious racial groups" and recommended that municipalities enact racially restrictive zoning ordinances as well as covenants prohibiting black owners.[5][6] The Federal Housing Administration began as part of the New Deal in 1934. ...


Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood income, and the credit quality of local businesses.[7] Gregory D. Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of this industry.[8]


Challenges to redlining

In the United States, the practice was fought through passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (which prevents redlining when the criteria for redlining are based on race, religion, gender, familial status, disability, or ethnic origin), and the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, which requires banks to apply the same lending criteria in all communities.[9] President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The Community Reinvestment Act (or CRA, Pub. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


The private sector fight against redlining in Chicago is generally acknowledged as having been led by ShoreBank, a community development bank in Chicago's South Shore neighborhood.[10] Founded in 1973, ShoreBank sought to combat racist lending practices in Chicago's African-American communities by providing financial services, especially mortgage loans, to local residents.[11] Many sources characterize ShoreBank's efforts as overwhelmingly inspirational and successful.[12] In a 1992 speech, President Bill Clinton called ShoreBank “the most important bank in America.”[10] Founded in 1973 on the South Side of Chicago, ShoreBank is America’s first and leading community development bank. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... The South Shore can refer to: South Shore, Long Island, southern edge of Long Island, NY, area which encompasses the Great South Bay South Shore (Nova Scotia), an area of Nova Scotia South Shore (electoral district), the riding that covers that part of Nova Scotia South Shore in Kentucky South... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Sources

  1. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  2. ^ See: Race and health
  3. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  4. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  5. ^ Principles to Guide Housing Policy at the Beginning of the Millennium, Michael Schill & Susan Wachter, Cityscape
  6. ^ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual, 1938

    Recommended restrictions should include provision for the following ... Prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended...Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location. It has been suggested that Race in biomedicine be merged into this article or section. ... Snowcovered Blaauwbrug 1991 Amsterdam cityscape Frans Koppelaar A cityscape is the urban equivalent of a landscape. ... The Federal Housing Administration began as part of the New Deal in 1934. ... The Federal Housing Administration was begun as part of the New Deal in 1934. ...

  7. ^ Redlining Redux Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, 22-41 (2002)
  8. ^ Racial Profiling, Insurance Style: Insurance Redlining and the Uneven Development of Metropolitan Areas Journal of Urban Affairs 25 (4), 391–410.
  9. ^ Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529. Published 2002. Page 114.

    The goal was not to relax lending restrictions but rather to get banks to apply the same criteria in the inner-city as in the suburbs. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...

  10. ^ a b Douthwaite, Richard. "HOW A BANK CAN TRANSFORM A NEIGHBOURHOOD", "Short Circuit". Retrieved on January 8, 2007
  11. ^ Thomsen, Mark. "ShoreBank Surpasses $1 Billion in Community Development Investment", "Social Funds", 2001-11-1. Retrieved on January 8, 2007.
  12. ^ Wisniewski, Mary. "Milton Davis, community banking pioneer", "Chicago Sun-Times", 2005-16-2. Retrieved on January 9, 2007.

January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

See also

This article needs to be expanded. ... Computer-assisted reporting is the use of computers to gather and analyze the data necessary to write news stories. ... Inclusionary zoning, also know as inclusionary housing, refers to city planning ordinances that require a given share of new construction be affordable to people with low to moderate incomes. ... Mortgage Discrimination or Mortgage Lending Discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... It has been suggested that Racial supremacy be merged into this article or section. ... Blight often stands side-by-side with new structures during urban renewal efforts. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where upper and middle class white Americans move away from non-white inner-city neighborhoods to predominantly white suburbs and exurbs. ... The Community Reinvestment Act (or CRA, Pub. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
redlining - Definitions from Dictionary.com (414 words)
to treat by redlining (an area or neighborhood).
To reach the maximum engine speed at which an engine is designed to be safely operated: The car redlined at 80 miles per hour in fourth gear.
To discriminate against by refusing to grant loans, mortgages, or insurance to.
Redlining (567 words)
Redlining is the practice of arbitrarily denying or limiting financial services to specific neighborhoods, generally because its residents are people of color or are poor.
Redlining's negative effects remained largely unrecognized by policymakers until the mid-1960s.
The extent of progress in ending redlining in the insurance industry remains an ongoing debate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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