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Encyclopedia > Red hair
Woman with red hair
Man with red hair

Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, ranga or titian) varies from a deep orange-red through burnt orange to bright copper. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. People with red hair are often referred to as redheads or, gingers.[1] Approximately 1% to 2% of the human population have red hair.[2][3] It occurs more frequently (between 2% and 6% of the population) in northern and western Europeans, and their descendants, and at lower frequencies throughout other parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Red hair appears in people with two copies of a recessive gene on chromosome 16 which causes a change in the MC1R protein. It is associated with fair skin color, freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light, as the mutated MC1R protein is found in the skin and eyes instead of the darker melanin. Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads, and they are often portrayed as the “fiery-tempered redhead”. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x683, 171 KB)Woman with natural red hair Creative Commons Attribution licensed by cloud dinner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x683, 171 KB)Woman with natural red hair Creative Commons Attribution licensed by cloud dinner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Woman with auburn hair. ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... Copper is a reddish brown color that resembles the actual metal. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... It has been suggested that dominant allele be merged into this article or section. ... Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... The Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is one of the key proteins in hair colour production. ... Freckles are small colored spots of melanin on the exposed skin or membrane of people with complexions fair enough for them to be visible. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


As well as in humans, red hair can be found in other mammalian species such as orangutans, squirrels, goats, and highland cattle. Red hair or fur can be found in some breeds of dog and cat, and certain species of fox and deer. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the primate. ... This article is about the animal. ... For the animal, see goat. ... Highland cattle Highland cattle ox Highland cattle (also known as longhorn, Hairy Coo or Heelan Coo) are an ancient Scottish breed of beef cattle with long horns and shaggy pelts. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ... The Irish Setter, also known as the Red Setter, is a breed of gundog and family dog. ... This cats coat allows it to blend in well with its environment The genetics of cat coat coloration, pattern, length, and texture is a complex subject, and many different genes are involved. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species of deer. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Historical

Several accounts by Greek writers detail redheaded people. A fragment by the Greek poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red haired. The Greek historian Herodotus described the "Budini", probably Udmurts and Permyak Finns located on the Volga in what is modern-day Russia, as being predominantly redheaded. The Greek historian Dio Cassius described Boudica, the famous Celtic Queen of the Iceni, to: "be tall and terrifying in appearance ... a great mass of red hair ... over her shoulders". Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Budini Budini, an ancient nation in the NE of the Scythia of Herodotus (iv. ... The Udmurts are a people who speak the Finno-Ugric Udmurt language. ... For the citizens or residents of Finland (also called Finns), see Demographics of Finland. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Boudica and Her Daughters near Westminster Pier, London, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... This article is about the European people. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have...


The Roman Tacitus commented on the "red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia Scotland",[4] which he linked with some red haired Gaulish tribes of Germanic and Belgic relation. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... This article is about the country. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ...


Red hair was also found in Asia, notably among the Tocharians who occupied the northwesternmost province of what is modern-day China. The 2nd millennium BC caucasian Tarim mummies in China were found with red and blonde hair.[5] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ...

Modern

Palestinian girl with auburn red hair
Palestinian girl with auburn red hair

Today, red hair is most commonly found at the western fringes of Europe. It is associated particularly with those in Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and less so in England although there are pockets of red hair occurring in Cornwall and parts of the North Midlands and North East (particularly South Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire). This matches the movement of the Brython tribe (native Britons, also known as Celts or Picts) as they were pushed out of England and into the Celtic regions by the Roman conquest of Britain, and also the pattern of Viking settlement in the North of England. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ...


Scotland has the highest proportion of redheads in the world as 13 percent of the population has red hair and approximately 40 percent carries the recessive redhead gene.[6] Ireland has the second highest number of redheads worldwide; as many as 10 percent of the Irish population have ginger, auburn (red-brown) or strawberry blond hair.[7] It is thought that up to 46 percent of the Irish population carries the recessive redhead gene. Red hair reaches frequencies of up to 10 percent in Wales.[8] In England, the county of Cornwall,the far north, near the Scottish border, and the counties of Nottinghamshire and South Yorkshire also have significant proportions of redheads.


In the United States, anywhere from two to six percent of the population is estimated to have red hair.[2] This would seemingly give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 650,000 in Scotland and 420,000 in Ireland.


Red hair appears amongst Ashkenazi Jews.[citation needed] Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


Red or reddish-tinged hair is also found in other European populations particularly in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Russia and Southeastern Europe. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


The Berber and Kabylie populations of northern Algeria and Morocco have occasional redheads.[9] Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ...


In Asia, darker or mixed tinges of red hair can be found sporadically from Northern India, Iran and Pakistan, and in rare instances in Japan[10] and the South Pacific. Red hair can be found amongst those of Iranian descent, such as the Pashtuns. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The South Pacific is an area in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Biochemistry and genetics

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more pheomelanin than other hair colors, but far less of the dark pigment eumelanin. Auburn hair has both high levels of pheomelanin and eumelanin. Melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. ...


The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appears to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor, which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color and sensitivity to ultraviolet light. The MC1R recessive gene, which gives people red hair and fair skin, is also associated with freckles, though it is not uncommon to see a redhead without freckles. Eighty percent of redheads have a MC1R gene variant,[11] and the prevalence of these alleles is highest in Scotland and Ireland. The alleles that code for red hair occur close to the alleles that impact skin color, so it seems that the phenotypic expression for lighter skin and red hair are interrelated. This article is about the general scientific term. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is one of the key proteins in hair colour production. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... Freckles are small colored spots of melanin on the exposed skin or membrane of people with complexions fair enough for them to be visible. ... An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ...


There is some indication that the uncommon pheomelanin/eumelanin ratios found in redheads may be correlated with some corresponding variations in the abundance of other hormones and neuropeptides, including epinephrine (adrenaline), dopamine, and oxytocin. Wolves which are bred to be tame have been found to acquire a progressively paler coat of fur as they become tamer and tamer through successive generations. The speculation is that the cell biology which produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and estrogens needed for the high-energy fight-or-flight response is linked to the cell biology that governs the relative production of pheomelanin and eumelanin.


Genetics

The genetics of red hair are now being uncovered, together with connections between red hair and melanoma, skin disorders in general, and different reactions to anaesthesia. There is evidence of genetic linkage of eye color with other hair colors, such as brown hair, although MC1R is not linked to eye color. The inheritance of red hair is close to what geneticists describe as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. This means that the parents of red haired children may carry the gene for red hair but not have red hair themselves. This article is about the general scientific term. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Brown eyes redirects here. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ...


There is also evidence that red hair may be an example of incomplete dominance. This means that when only one copy of the red hair allele is present, red hair may blend with the other hair color, resulting in different types of red hair including strawberry blond (red-blond) and auburn (red-brown). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with dominance relationship. ...


The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[12]


Also possibly related to red hair is the gene HCL2 (aka RHC, RHA) on chromosome 4.[13][14]


Evolution

Red hair is the rarest type of natural hair color in humans. The pale skin associated with red hair may be of advantage in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder latitudes by encouraging higher levels of Vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[15] Rees (2004) suggested that the vividness and rarity of red hair may lead to it becoming desirable in a partner and therefore it could become more common through sexual selection.[16] Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ...


Harding et al (2000) proposed that red hair was not the result of positive selection but rather occurs due to a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun would be harmful towards fair skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen and so redheads come about through genetic drift.[12] In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[17][18]


A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in Homo Sapiens.[19] Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ...


Medical implications of the red hair gene

Bleeding and bruising

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that redheads are more likely than non-redheads to haemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications;[20][21] however, one study found that redheads reported higher rates of bruising.[21] Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ...


Melanoma

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned redheads lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent sunburn. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R effect increased freckling and decreased tanning ability.[22] It has been found that Europeans that are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[16] Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... A model of Scentual Sun demonstrates the differences between clear skin and a sun tan. ...


Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person's health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[23][24] Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ...


Sensitivity to pain

In people with red hair, the cells that produce skin and hair pigment have a dysfunctional MC1R. Researchers have found that this dysfunction triggers the release of more of the hormone that stimulates these histonal cells, but this hormone also stimulates a brain receptor related to pain sensitivity.[25][26] For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Schematic representation of the assembly of the core histones into the nucleosome. ... Pain redirects here. ...


Two studies have demonstrated that redheads have differential sensitivity to pain compared to non-redheads, but they differ as to the direction of the effect. One study found that redheads are more sensitive to thermal pain (a natural vitamin K deficiency is to blame for this)[27] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from electrical stimuli. It has also been found that mutated "redheaded" mice with non-functional MC1R are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities.[28] Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ...


Researchers have found that redheads require greater amounts of anesthesia, but other research shows that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed redheaded women had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[29] A follow-up study by the same group showed that redheaded men and women (and mutant "redhead" mice) had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[28] Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Pentazocine is a synthetically-prepared narcotic (opioid analgesic) drug used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is of more than simply academic interest, since it is the major active metabolite of morphine, and as such is the molecule responsible for much of the pain-relieving effects of morphine (and heroin and codeine). ...


Red hair of pathological origin

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in some cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

  • In cases of severe malnutrition, normally dark human hair may turn red or blonde. The condition, part of a syndrome known as kwashiorkor, is a sign of critical starvation caused chiefly by protein deficiency, and is common during periods of famine.
  • One variety of albinism (Type 3, aka rufous albinism), sometimes seen in Africans and inhabitants of New Guinea, results in red hair and red-colored skin.[30]
  • Red hair is found on people lacking pro-opiomelanocortin.[30][31]

Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Albino redirects here. ... Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide that is built of 241 amino acid residues. ...

Culture

A red-haired woman, Far Away Thoughts John William Godward 1892. Red hair was a popular subject amongst Pre-Raphaelite artists

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed. Image File history File links Far_Away_Thoughts. ... Image File history File links Far_Away_Thoughts. ... Nerissa (1906) John William Godward John William Godward (9 August 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an English painter from the end of the Pre-Raphaelite / Neo-Classicist era. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ...


Beliefs about temperament

A common stereotype of redheads is that they have fiery tempers. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that "her temper matches her hair", while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that "People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair." Anne of Green Gables is a book written by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery; it was first published in 1908. ... Anne Shirley is a fictional character from the novel Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Holden Caulfield is a fictional character, the protagonist of J.D. Salingers 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye. ...


During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[32] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Ayurveda uses a different concept of humours than the four humours of traditional Greco-Roman and European medieval medicine. ...


Another belief is that redheads are highly-sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver's Travels, "A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms," when he writes that: "It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity." Swift goes on to write that: "...neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red color (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe..."[33] Bruce Springsteen maintains that "you have not lived til you have had your tyres rotated by a red-headed woman" in the song 'red headed woman'. His wife is a redhead. Marilyn Monroe was originally a red head. Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ... Houyhnhnms are a race of intelligent horses described in the last part of Jonathan Swifts satiric Gullivers Travels. ... In Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift, a Yahoo is a vile and savage creature, filthy and with unpleasant habits, resembling human beings far too closely for the liking of Lemuel Gulliver, who finds the calm and rational society of the Houyhnhnms far preferable. ...


Positive attitudes toward redheads

"Accolade" by Edmund Blair Leighton. A red-headed princess knighting a noble fighter.
"Accolade" by Edmund Blair Leighton. A red-headed princess knighting a noble fighter.

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Rita Hayworth, Molly Ringwald, Nicole Kidman, Rupert Grint, Lindsay Lohan, Shirley Manson, Gillian Anderson, Melinda Clarke, Kirsten Dunst, Bonnie Wright, Reba McEntire, and Jessica Origliasso of The Veronicas can boost sales of red hair dye. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (514x900, 108 KB) Summary The Accolade - Edmund Blair Leighton (1853-1922) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Knight Edmund Leighton ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (514x900, 108 KB) Summary The Accolade - Edmund Blair Leighton (1853-1922) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Knight Edmund Leighton ... The Accolade Edmund Blair Leighton (September 21, 1853—September 1, 1922) was a British painter of medieval scenes of chivalry. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who reached fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... Molly Kathleen Ringwald (born February 18, 1968) is an American actress, singer, and dancer. ... Nicole Mary Kidman (born June 20, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning actress. ... Rupert Alexander Lloyd Grint[1] (born August 24, 1988) is a British actor best known for playing Ron Weasley in the Harry Potter films. ... Lindsay Dee Lohan[1] (born July 2, 1986) is an American actress and pop music singer. ... Shirley Ann Manson[1][2] (born August 26, 1966) is a Scottish musician and the lead vocalist of the band Garbage. ... Gillian Leigh Anderson (born August 9, 1968) is an Emmy and Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, best known for her roles as FBI Agent Dana Scully in the American TV series The X-Files and Lady Dedlock in the BBC TV series Bleak House. ... Melinda P. Clarke[1] (born April 24, 1969) is an American actress who has worked on television series and independent films. ... Kirsten[1] Caroline Dunst (born April 30, 1982) is an American actress, known for her roles in Interview with the Vampire (for which she received a Golden Globe nomination), The Virgin Suicides, Marie Antoinette, and Bring It On, as well as for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in the... Bonnie Kathleen Wright (born February 17, 1991) is an English actress, best known for her role in the Harry Potter films as Ginny Weasley. ... Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955) is a Grammy award winning American singer and country music performer, and actress. ... The Veronicas Lisa and Jessica Origliasso The Veronicas, is a duo of twin sisters Lisa and Jessica Origliasso (born December 25, 1984 in Brisbane). ... The Veronicas are an award winning Australian pop singer/songwriter duo composed of identical twin sisters Lisa Marie Origliasso and Jessica Louise Origliasso (born December 25, 1984 in Brisbane)[1]. // Of Italian (Sicilian) descent, they grew up in Albany Creek, (northwest of Brisbane, Australia) where they attended Ferny Grove State...


Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, and Pakistan, henna is used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[34] Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The color "titian" takes its name from Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli's, famous painting, The Birth of Venus, depicts the mythological goddess, Venus, as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites,[35] Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[36] Gustav Klimt.[37] Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... The Birth of Venus is a painting by Sandro Botticelli. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... The Accolade Edmund Blair Leighton (September 21, 1853—September 1, 1922) was a British painter of medieval scenes of chivalry. ... Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. ... Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ...


According to a Clairol Color Attitudes Survey, redheaded women see themselves as fearless and savvy.[2] These traits are often seen in fictional redheads such as Nancy Drew and Anne Shirley. Clairol is a personal care products division of Procter and Gamble and was formerly the largest independent hair products company in the world. ... For the film, see Nancy Drew (2007 film). ... Anne Shirley is a fictional character from the novel Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery. ...


In comics, cartoons and science fiction, female characters with red hair (and often green eyes) are frequently portrayed as strong and "fiery" personalities. Examples are: Mara Jade (from the Star Wars Expanded Universe), Lady Jessica (of Frank Herbert's Dune universe), Barbara Gordon (the DC Comics Universe heroine), Mary-Jane Watson (wife of Spider-Man), Jean Grey (founding X-Man), Poison Ivy (Batman villain), Shayera Hol (Justice League animated series), Lois Griffin (Family Guy), Ariel (The Little Mermaid), and Kimberly Ann Possible (Kim Possible). Brown eyes redirects here. ... Mara Jade Skywalker is a fictional character in the Star Wars Expanded Universe. ... Splinter of the Minds Eye, 1978 The Star Wars Expanded Universe (also known as the EU) encompasses all of the officially licensed, fictional background of the Star Wars universe, outside of the six feature films produced by George Lucas. ... Lady Jessica Atreides, portrayed by Saskia Reeves in the Dune miniseries Jessica Atreides is a fictional character in the Dune universe created by Frank Herbert. ... Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... The fictional Dune universe, or Duniverse, is the political, scientific, and social setting of author Frank Herberts six-book Dune series of science fantasy novels. ... Barbara Babs Gordon is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics and related media, created by Gardner Fox and Carmine Infantino. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Mary Jane on the cover of The Amazing Spider-Man Mary Jane Watson is a fictional supporting character in the Marvel Comics universe who was created by Stan Lee. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... Jean Grey-Summers (born Jean Grey) is a fictional superheroine who lives in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... For other uses of Poison ivy, see Poison ivy (disambiguation). ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Hawkgirl is the name of several fictional superheroines all owned by DC Comics and existing in that companys DC Universe. ... Justice League is an American animated television series about a team of superheroes which ran from 2001 to 2004 on Cartoon Network. ... Lois Griffin (born as Lois Pewterschmidt) is a cartoon character on the TV show Family Guy by Seth MacFarlane. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Princess Ariel is a fictional character, a mermaid who appeared in Disneys popular 1989 animated film The Little Mermaid and its direct-to-video sequels The Little Mermaid II: Return to the Sea & The Little Mermaid III. The youngest of King Tritons seven daughters, she lives (prior to... Kimberly Ann Possible (usually known as Kim Possible) (voiced by Christy Carlson Romano) is the title character from Disneys animated television series Kim Possible Kim debuted in the series opening episode in June 2002,[1] and starred in all 65 episodes of Season 1-3. ... This article is about the television series. ...


American writer Mark Twain wrote: "While the rest of the species is descended from apes, redheads are descended from cats".[38] Bruce Springsteen praised his wife, Patti Scialfa, in the bawdy song "Red-Headed Woman", The Zutons missed the "ginger hair" of an ex-girlfriend in their song "Valerie", while Jack White of the White Stripes has mentioned red hair in such songs as "Fell in Love with a Girl", "Icky Thump (song)", "300 MPH Torrential Outpour Blues" and "Take, Take, Take". Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... Vivienne Patti Scialfa (Skal-fa) (born July 29, 1953) is an American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, best known for being a bandmate, and later wife, of rock star Bruce Springsteen. ... The Zutons are an English indie rock band from Liverpool. ... For other persons named Jack White, see Jack White (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American duo. ... Fell in Love with a Girl is the second single released from The White Stripes third album White Blood Cells. ... Icky Thump is a song recorded by The White Stripes. ...


Notable red-headed men include: Winston Churchill, Thomas Jefferson, Vincent Van Gogh, Mark Twain, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Jean Paul Sartre, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Antonio Vivaldi, Billy the Kid, Shaun White, David Caruso, Axl Rose, Conan O'Brien, Vin Scully, Eric Stoltz, Mark McGwire, Bill Walton, James Joyce, Dave Mustaine, Napoleon Bonaparte, Prince Harry, Chuck Norris, Ron Howard. Churchill redirects here. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905&#8211;April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Billy the Kid (disambiguation). ... Shaun Roger White (born September 3, 1986 in Carlsbad, California), is an American athlete. ... David Stephen Caruso (born January 7, 1956 in Forest Hills, Queens, New York) is an American film and television actor. ... W. Axl Rose[1][2] (born William Bruce Rose, Jr. ... Conan Christopher OBrien (born April 18, 1963)[1] is an Emmy-winning American comedian, writer and television personality best known as host of NBCs late-night talk/variety show Late Night with Conan OBrien. ... For the American architecture historian, see Vincent Scully. ... Eric Stoltz (born September 30, 1961) is a Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... Mark David McGwire (born October 1, 1963 in Pomona, California) is a former professional baseball player who played the majority of his major league career with the Oakland Athletics before finishing his career with the St. ... William Theodore Walton III, better known as Wild Bill Walton (born November 5, 1952), is a former American basketball player and current television sportscaster. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... David Scott Mustaine (born David Scott Mustaine, September 13, 1961 in La Mesa, California, United States) is the lead/rhythm guitarist, songwriter, and singer for the speed/thrash metal band, Megadeth. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 &#8211; 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... HRH Prince Harry of Wales Henry Charles Albert David His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David Mountbatten-Windsor) (born September 15, 1984), nicknamed Prince Harry, is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of Queen Elizabeth II. Harry is third in the line of... Carlos Ray Chuck Norris (born on 10 March 1940) is an American martial artist, action star, Hollywood actor, and recently, an internet phenomenon, who is best known for playing Cordell Walker on Walker, Texas Ranger. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ...


Notable red-headed women include: Cate Blanchett, Neko Case, Marcia Cross, Geena Davis, Elizabeth I of England, Sarah Ferguson, Geri Halliwell, Katharine Hepburn, Nicole Kidman, Lindsay Lohan, Courtney Love, Mary McAleese, Julianne Moore, Florence Nightingale, Patsy Palmer, Nicola Roberts, Anne Robinson, Mary Robinson, Rene Russo, Tori Amos. Catherine Élise Blanchett (born May 14, 1969), better known as Cate Blanchett, is an Academy Award- and Golden Globe Award-winning Australian actress. ... Neko Case (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (born September 8, 1970 in Alexandria, Virginia) is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her solo career and as a member of The New Pornographers. ... Marcia Anne Cross (born March 25, 1962 in Marlborough, Massachusetts) is an Emmy and Golden Globe Award-nominated American actress. ... Virginia Elizabeth Geena Davis (born January 21, 1956) is an Academy Award- and Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated American actress and former fashion model. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Sarah, Duchess of York (born 15 October 1959) is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York. ... Geraldine Estelle Geri Halliwell (born 6 August 1972) is an English pop singer and songwriter, television personality, writer, and actress, and became famous (under the nicknames of Sexy Spice and Ginger Spice) in the late 1990s as a member of the girl group the Spice Girls. ... Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an iconic American actress of film, television and stage. ... Nicole Mary Kidman (born June 20, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning actress. ... Lindsay Dee Lohan[1] (born July 2, 1986) is an American actress and pop music singer. ... Courtney Love[1] (born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9, 1964) is an American rock musician. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... Julianne Moore (born December 3, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning American actress. ... Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ... Patsy Palmer (born Julie Harris on May 26, 1972 in Bethnal Green, London, England) is a red-haired British actress best-known for her 6-year role as the feisty Bianca Jackson in popular British television soap opera EastEnders. ... Nicola Maria Roberts (born 5 October 1985, Runcorn, Cheshire) is an English pop singer, and one fifth of British girl group Girls Aloud. ... This article is about the English television hostess. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ... Rene Russo Rene Russo (born February 17, 1954 in Burbank, California, USA) is an American film actress and model. ... Tori Amos (born Myra Ellen Amos on August 22, 1963) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ...


Prejudice/Discrimination towards redheads

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[39] Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm The Brothers Grimm (Brüder Grimm) are Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. ... Theophilus Presbyter (approx. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ...


Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[40] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages; Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ...

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

Anne Rice's Vampire Chronicles, mentions many redheads, including twin-witch/vampires Maharet and Mekare in Queen of the Damned, Maharet's fledgling Thorne in Blood and Gold, her other fledgling and once-mortal blood descendant, Jesse Reeves (also introduced in Queen of the Damned), Mona Mayfair in Blackwood Farm and Armand, described as an auburn red in Interview with the Vampire. In Dracula, the vampire-hunter Abraham Van Helsing is ironically depicted as having red hair and blue eyes. For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... Anne Rice (born on October 4, 1941) is a best-selling American author of gothic and later religious themed books. ... The Vampire Chronicles is a series of novels by Anne Rice that revolves around the character Lestat de Lioncourt, a French nobleman made into a vampire in the 18th century. ... The Queen of the Damned is a novel by Anne Rice. ... Blood and Gold is the eighth book in Anne Rices Vampire Chronicles series. ... The Queen of the Damned is a novel by Anne Rice. ... Blackwood Farm is one of the more recent vampires chronicle books, written by Anne Rice. ... Interview with the Vampire is a vampire novel by Anne Rice written in 1973 and published in 1976. ... This article is about the novel. ... Helsing and Van Helsing redirect here. ...


In modern-day UK and Ireland, despite being one of the places with the highest populations of redheads, the word "ginger" is derogatorily used to describe red-headed people, with terms such as "gingerphobia" (fear of redheads)[41] or "gingerism" (prejudice against redheads)[42] used by the media. Redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as "carrot tops". "Gingerism" has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[42] Prince Harry was bullied at school because of his red hair.[43] A UK woman recently won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair; a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair;[44] and in 2003, a 20 year old was stabbed in the back for "being ginger."[45] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... HRH Prince Harry of Wales Henry Charles Albert David His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David Mountbatten-Windsor) (born September 15, 1984), nicknamed Prince Harry, is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of Queen Elizabeth II. Harry is third in the line of... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate appeared as a red haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because they had been ostracised from society. The British comedy Bo' Selecta! featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of red-haired "Simply Red" singer Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. This article is about the actress. ... The Catherine Tate Show is an award-winning British television sketch comedy written by Catherine Tate who stars in all of the shows sketches, which feature a wide range of characters. ... The following characters appear in the comedy sketch show The Catherine Tate Show on BBC Two. ... Bo Selecta! is a British TV comedy sketch show and the brainchild of writer/performer, Leigh Francis. ... Simply Red are an English pop band. ... Mick Hucknall in Bremen Michael James Hucknall (born 8 June 1960 in, Manchester, England) is a British singer and songwriter. ...


The pejorative use of the word "ginger", and related discrimination, was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the "Ginger Kids" episode of South Park. Ginger Kids is episode 136 of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... This article is about the TV series. ...


Films and television programmes typically portray school bullies as having red hair,[46] based on the stereotype that redheads are more temperamental, and thus allowing the audience to identify the bully faster by their hair color; for example, the O'Doyle family in the movie Billy Madison. However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; "Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd," says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[47] Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... Billy Madison is a 1995 comedy starring Adam Sandler in the title role about a slacker who must go back to school in order to take over his fathers company. ...


Religious and Mythological traditions

According to Strong's Hebrew Dictionary, the name of the Biblical character Adam, the first man of the human race, is identical to the Hebrew word for "red" or "ruddy." (However, 'red' is spelled differently in Hebrew than 'Adam', which is literally the word for 'person'. 'Person' and 'Adam' are spelled and pronounced the same, indicating a common origin.) Some speculate that Adam's name perhaps indicates his skin tone or hair color. Esau's entire body is supposed to have been covered with red hair. King David is also known for having red hair, based on the description of his physical appearance as "admoni", the Biblical Hebrew word normally interpreted to mean 'ruddy' and/or 'red-haired' (1 Samuel 16-17). Esaw redirects here. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... Ruddy is a reddish or rosy colour, usually considered a dirty, dusty or dark-coloured reddish orange. ... (Redirected from 1 Samuel) The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: &#1513;&#1473;&#1456;&#1502;&#1493;&#1468;&#1488;&#1461;&#1500;), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ...

Mary Magdalene is commonly portrayed with long red hair, as in this picture by Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys.
Mary Magdalene is commonly portrayed with long red hair, as in this picture by Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint. This tradition is used as a plot device in the book and movie The Da Vinci Code. Thor, of Norse mythology, was generally portrayed as having red hair. Ancient Egyptians associated both red-haired humans and red-colored animals with the god Set, considering them to be favored by the powerful and temperamental deity. Several Pharaohs associated with Set are described as being redheaded, including Rameses the Great.[citation needed] Image File history File links Mariya_Magdalena. ... Image File history File links Mariya_Magdalena. ... Mary Magdalene. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ...


There is a tradition amongst astrologers that the planet Mars is more likely to be rising above the eastern horizon at the time of the birth of a red haired person than for the population in general.[48] The name of the ancient kingdom of Rus may have been derived from the local word for red hair. The name of Russia was subsequently adopted from the same root. See Etymology of Rus and derivatives (third bullet under Etymology) and Russia.[citation needed]Achilles, the central character of Homer's The Iliad, is described as having red hair, possibly contributing to the original myths of temperament. Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The word Rus or Rus (&#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1100; in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ...


Modern fiction

The Sherlock Holmes story "The Red-Headed League" (1891) was a favourite of its author, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and included a sub-plot revolving around a pseudo-society restricted to redheads. The 1840 comic play Der Talisman by Johann Nestroy is about prejudice against redheads. A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... The Red-Headed League is one of the 56 short Sherlock Holmes stories written by Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Johann Nepomuk Eduard Ambrosius Nestroy (born December 7, 1801 at Vienna, Austria; died May 25, 1862 at Graz, Austria) was an opera singer, actor and, primarily, a playwright. ...


In Still Life with Woodpecker by Tom Robbins, redheads are said to be children of the moon, thwarted by the sun and addicted to sex and sugar. Similarly, in The Illuminatus! Trilogy, green-eyed redheads are said to be the favorite cohorts of The Devil. Still Life With Woodpecker (1980) is the third novel by Tom Robbins, concerning the love affair between an environmentalist princess and an outlaw. ... Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... “Illuminatus” redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical distribution and social connotations of eye color in humans. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ...


Several children's book characters are depicted with red hair, including Pippi Longstocking, Anne of Green Gables, and Little Orphan Annie. In the Harry Potter series, members of the Weasley family all have red hair, as did Lily Potter, Harry Potter's late mother, and Albus Dumbledore (before his hair went white with age). J.K. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter books, has stated that she is fond of redheads, despite the prejudice she observes they experience in the UK.[49] Pippi Longstocking (Swedish Pippi LÃ¥ngstrump) is a fictional character in a series of childrens books created by author Astrid Lindgren. ... Anne of Green Gables is a book written by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery; it was first published in 1908. ... Cover of Cupples & Leon strip collection (1933) Little Orphan Annie is a full page (later half page or tab) American comic strip, created by Harold Gray (1894-1968), that first appeared on August 5, 1924. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... A photograph from the fictional wizard newspaper The Daily Prophet, as seen in the film series, showing the Weasleys on holiday in Egypt. ... For the American Revolutionary War general, see James Potter. ... Harry James Potter is a fictional character and the main protagonist of J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter series of fantasy books. ... Albus Percival Wulfric Brian Dumbledore is a fictional character within the Harry Potter series written by British author J. K. Rowling. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ...


Many of Robert A. Heinlein's characters were redheads, inspired by his red-headed wife Virginia.[50] Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ...


In Doctor Who (2005), David Tennant's Tenth Doctor is disappointed not to be ginger. As he says, he's rude and not ginger and he wanted to be ginger because he's never been in his past regenerations. This article is about the television series. ... David Tennant is the stage name of David John McDonald (born 18 April 1971), a Scottish actor from Bathgate, West Lothian, best known for portraying the tenth incarnation of the Doctor in the television series Doctor Who. ... The Tenth Doctor is the name given to the tenth and current incarnation of the fictional character known as the Doctor seen on screen in the long-running BBC television science-fiction series Doctor Who. ...


Another powerful red hair-related fiction novel is the international bestseller Perfume (originally published in German as Das Parfum) by Patrick Süskind. The main character, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, a man with an incredible sense of scent, is engaged in creating the most powerful perfume of them all. The heart of it, the fragrance of Laura Richis, a beautiful red hair young virgin. Patrick Süskind (born March 26, 1949) is a German writer and film script author. ...


In the film The Last King of Scotland, Forest Whitaker as Idi Amin maintains that while attractive to their own kind (Northern Europeans), Africans find red hair revolting. For the 2006 film adaptation of the novel, see The Last King of Scotland (film). ... Forest Steven Whitaker (born July 15, 1961) is an American actor, producer, and director. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ...


See also

Look up redhead in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... The keratinocyte is the major cell type of the epidermis, making up about 90% of epidermal cells. ... Human skin color can range from very dark brown to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Further reading

  • Allen Sacharov. The Red Head Book (1985).
  • Stephen Douglas. The Redhead Encyclopedia (1996).
  • Tim Collins. The Ginger Survival Guide (2006).
  • Uwe Ditz. Redheads (2000).
  • Marion Roach. Roots of Desire: The Myth, Meaning and Sexual Power of Red Hair (2005).
  • Cort Cass. The Redhead Handbook (2003).

References

  1. ^ It's a pain being ginger. BBC NEWS. Retrieved on 2006-04-27.
  2. ^ a b c Red Alert! Washington Post: Original Date 2002-03-19. Accessed 2007-02-06.
  3. ^ National Geographic, September, 2007
  4. ^ The Life of Agricola, Ch. 11
  5. ^ Mysterious Mummies of China PBS Transcript: Airdate 1998-01-20
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/scotland/819117.stm
  7. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110521660/ABSTRACT American Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 26, Issue 1, 1940]
  8. ^ The Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 20, p. 327, 1955-56
  9. ^ Stirling, John. The Races of Morocco. Journal of the Anthropological Society of London, Vol. 8, 1870 - 1871 (1870 - 1871), pp. clxix-clxxiii doi:10.2307/3025183
  10. ^ Yamamoto M., and Neel J.V. "A note on red hair on the Island of Hirado, Japan". Jinrui Idengaku Zasshi. March 1967. 11 (4), pp 257-62.
  11. ^ Valverde P, Healy E, Jackson I, Rees JL, Thody AJ. Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Nature Genetics . 1995 November;11(3):328-30.
  12. ^ a b Harding, Rosalind M. et al. Evidence for Variable Selective Pressures at MC1R American Journal of Human Genetics , 2000 April; 66(4): 1351–1361.
  13. ^ HGNC Symbol Report:HCL2
  14. ^ Major locus for red hair color linked to MNS blood groups on chromosome 4. Eiberg H, Mohr J. University Institute of Medical Genetics, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  15. ^ Bodmer WF, Cavalli-Sforza LL.Genetics, evolution and man. San Francisco:WH Freeman; 1976.
  16. ^ a b The Genetics of Sun Sensitivity in Humans by Jonathan L. Rees. The American Journal of Human Genetics, volume 75 (2004), pages 739–751.
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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Augustus Montague Summers (10 April 1880 - 10 August 1948) was an eccentric British author and clergyman. ... Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ...

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Red hair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2315 words)
Red hair is common in Ireland and Britain.
Red hair (also referred to as "auburn", "ginger", or "titian") is a hair color that varies from a deep red through to bright copper.
Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.
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