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Encyclopedia > Red alga
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Red algae

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Phylum: Rhodophyta
Wettstein, 1922
Possible classes

Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Most of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse and nori are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make certain other products like agar and food additives. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (900x722, 561 KB) Close-up of a red alga (Laurencia), a marine seaweed from Hawaii. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: ) are a heterogeneous group of living things, comprising those eukaryotes that are neither animals, plants, nor fungi. ... Orders Acrochaetiales Ahnfeltiales Balbianiales Balliales Batrachospermales Bonnemaisoniales Ceramiales Corallinales Gelidiales Gigartinales Gracilariales Halymeniales Hildenbrandiales Nemaliales Nemastomatales Palmariales Pihiellales Plocamiales Rhodogorgonales Rhodymeniales Florideophyceae is a class of Red algae. ... Orders Bangiales Cyanidiales Erythropeltidales Porphyridiales Rhodochaetales Stylonematales Bangiophyceae is a class of Red algae. ... Pronunciation refers to: the way a word or a language is usually spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... [[Image:http://www. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK Biologists, specifically Phycologists, consider seaweed to refer any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Seaweeds are usually types of brown or red algae that... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... Binomial name Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Dulse (Palmaria palmata), also called dillisk or creathnach, is a red alga that grows along the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, where it is a traditional food. ... Nori (æµ·è‹”) is a Japanese term used to refer to edible varieties of seaweed in the various species of the red alga Porphyra, including most notably and . ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Agarose (or agar) is a galactose polymer obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae or seaweed (Sphaerococcus euchema) and species of Gelidium and Gracilaria, chiefly from eastern Asia, Chile and California. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it, or to improve its flavour and appearance. ...

Contents


Biology

Many red algae have multicellular stages but these lack differentiated tissues and organs. Unlike most other algae, no cells with a flagellum are found in any member of the group. Unicellular forms typically live attached to surfaces rather than floating among the plankton, and both the larger female and smaller male gametes are non-motile, so that most have a low chance of fertilization. They have cell walls are made out of cellulose and thick gelatinous polysaccharides, which are the basis for most of the industrial products made from red algae. A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are drifting organisms that inhabit the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ... A cell wall is a more or less solid layer surrounding a cell. ... Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ...


The chloroplasts of red algae are bound by a double membrane, like those of green plants; both groups (Archaeplastida) probably share a common origin. Their plastids formed by direct endosymbiosis of a cyanobacteria, and in red algae are pigmented with chlorophyll a and various proteins called phycobilins, which are responsible for their reddish color. Other algae that lack chlorophyll b appear to have acquired their chloroplasts from red algae, although their pigmentations are somewhat different. The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (plastids with chlorophyll a and b are called chloroplasts, some other plastids are called cyanelles and rhodoplasts),which are organelles of eukaryotic cells. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phycobilins are the chromophores of phycobiliproteins (photosynthetic pigments) found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of red algae, glaucophytes and some cryptomonads (though not in green algae and higher plants). ...


Taxonomy

"Florideae" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904
"Florideae" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904

The diverse eukaryotes that constitute the red algae have been the focus of numerous recent molecular surveys and remain a rich source of undescribed and little known species for the traditional taxonomist. Molecular studies place the red algae in the Archaeplastida (Plantae sensu lato); however, supraordinal classification has been largely confined to debate on subclass vs. class level status for the two recognized subgroups, one of which is widely acknowledged as paraphyletic. This narrow focus has generally masked the extent to which red algal classification needs modification. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2369x3280, 1526 KB) Summary The 65th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Florideae. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2369x3280, 1526 KB) Summary The 65th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Florideae. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ...


The most current classification system is below (Saunders et. al., 2004). Note that while this is a valid published taxonomy it does not necessarily have to be used as the taxonomy of the algae is still in a state of flux.


Kingdom Protista Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for...

  • Subkingdom Rhodoplantae
    • Phylum Cyanidiophyta
      • Class Cyanidiophyceae
    • Phylum Rhodophyta
      • Subphylum Rhodellophytina
        • Class Rhodellophyceae
      • Subphylum Metarhodophytina
        • Class Compsopogonophyceae
      • Subphylum Eurhodophytina
        • Class Bangiophyceae
        • Class Florideophyceae
          • Subclass Hildenbrandiophycidae
          • Subclass Nemaliophycidae
          • Subclass Ahnfeltiophycidae
          • Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae

Red algae Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Orders Bangiales Cyanidiales Erythropeltidales Porphyridiales Rhodochaetales Stylonematales Bangiophyceae is a class of Red algae. ... Orders Acrochaetiales Ahnfeltiales Balbianiales Balliales Batrachospermales Bonnemaisoniales Ceramiales Corallinales Gelidiales Gigartinales Gracilariales Halymeniales Hildenbrandiales Nemaliales Nemastomatales Palmariales Pihiellales Plocamiales Rhodogorgonales Rhodymeniales Florideophyceae is a class of Red algae. ...

References

Saunders, Gary W., Hommersand, Max H. (2004). Assessing red algal supraordinal diversity and taxonomy in the context of contemporary systematic data. Am. J. Bot. 91: 1494-1507,


Françoise Ardré, namesake of the red alga known as Pterosiphonia ardreana, French phycologist and marine scientist, Mrs. ...


See also


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Red alga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (444 words)
One red alga is a member of the red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/), which are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds.
Their plastids formed by direct endosymbiosis of a cyanobacteria, and in red algae are pigmented with chlorophyll a and various proteins called phycobilins, which are responsible for their reddish color.
The diverse eukaryotes that constitute the red algae have been the focus of numerous recent molecular surveys and remain a rich source of undescribed and little known species for the traditional taxonomist.
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