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Encyclopedia > Red Tory
The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart
The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart

Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. It has fundamentally, if not exclusively, been found in provincial and federal Conservative political parties. It is a definable historical legacy that marks differences in the creation, development, and evolution of the political cultures of Canada and the United States. Canadian conservatism and American conservatism - and the philosophical roots of the term "conservative" - are significantly different in each nation. Image File history File links Red_Tory. ... Image File history File links Red_Tory. ...


Historically, Canadian conservatism has been related to the British Tory tradition, with a distinctive concern for the common good versus individual rights, as mediated through a traditional pre-industrial standards of morality, which have never been as evident in American conservatism. Today, however, Red Tories are often simply characterized as the left wing factopm of the contemporary Conservative party, or a Conservative committed to the welfare state and/or liberal social policy. They are usually seen as moderates within the Canadian political spectrum. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents


General philosophy

Red Toryism derives largely from a British Tory and imperialist tradition that maintained the unequal division of wealth and political privilege among social classes can be justified, if members of the privileged class contribute to the common good. Red Tories supported traditional institutions like religion and the monarchy, maintenance of the social order, and good government. Later, this would manifest itself as support for the welfare state. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ...


Origins

Red Toryism derives largely from a British tory tradition that maintained the unequal division of wealth and political privilege among social classes can be justified, if members of the privileged class contribute to the common good - for the benefit of all. This belief in a common good, as expanded on in Colin Campbell and William Christian's Political Parties and Ideologies in Canada, is at the root of Red Toryism.


In distinction to the American experience where class divisions were seen as undemocratic (yet, in fact still existing), Canadian tories adopted a more patriarchal view of government. Monarchy, public order and good government - understood as dedication to the common good - preceded, moderated, and balanced an unequivocal belief in individual rights and liberty.


This type of Canadian conservatism is derived largely from the tory tradition evoked by English conservative thinkers and statesman such as Richard Hooker, the Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, and Benjamin Disraeli, later the First Earl of Beaconsfield. The primary influences on Canadian toryism in the Victorian age, were Disraeli's One Nation Conservatism, and the radical toryism advocated by Lord Randolph Churchill. Inherent in these tory traditions was the ideal of noblesse oblige and a conservative communitarianism. Richard Hooker (March 1554 - November 3, 1600) was an influential Anglican theologian. ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (1801–1885), styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851, was an English politician and philanthropist, one of the best-known of the Victorian era. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was an English statesman and literary figure. ... One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom and sometimes Canada to refer to the moderate wing of the Conservative Party, and the Red Tory wing of the original Progressive Conservative Party in Canada who like to describe themselves... Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill (13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British statesman. ... In French, noblesse oblige means, literally, nobility obliges, or the noble obligation. It is generally used to confer that with wealth, power and prestige come social responsibilities. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ...


In late Victorian times, these were the pre-eminent strains of conservative thought in the British Empire, and were advanced by many in the tory faction of Sir John A. Macdonald's conservative coalition in the Canadas. None of this lineage denies that tory traditions of communitarianism and collectivism had existed in the British North American colonies since the Loyalist exodus from the American colonies between 1776 and 1796 however; and it is this aspect that is one of the primary differentiators between the respective political cultures of Canada and the United States. The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ...


The explicit notion of a "Red" Toryism was developed by Gad Horowitz in the 1960s, who argued that there was a significant Tory ideology in Canada. This vision contrasted Canada with the United States, which was seen as lacking this collectivist tradition, as it was expunged from the American political culture after the American Revolution and the exodus of the United Empire Loyalists. Horowitz argued that Canada's stronger socialist movement grew from Toryism, and that this is an explanation of why socialism has never had much electoral success in the United States. This also meant that Canadian conceptions of liberty were more collective and communitarian, and could be seen as more directly derivative of the English tradition, than that of American practices and theories. Gad Horowitz (b. ... The American Revolution was a revolution that ended two centuries of rule in Thirteen Colonies of North America by the British Empire and created the modern United States of America. ... United Empire Loyalists is the name given to the portion of British Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War, and to recover lost fortunes (land and private property... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines, and may also refer to political movements that aspire to put these doctrines into practice. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Blackstones history In the 1760s William Blackstone described the Fundamental Laws of England in Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First - Chapter the First : Of the Absolute Rights of Individuals [1] as the absolute rights of every Englishman and traced their basis and evolution as follows: Magna...


Horowitz identified George Grant and Eugene Forsey as exemplars of this strain of thought, which saw a central role for Christianity in public affairs and were profoundly critical of capitalism and the dominant business élites. Forsey became a Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) member, while Grant remained a Conservative - although he became disdainful of an overall shift in policy toward liberal economics and continentalism, something Forsey saw happening decades earlier. When the Conservative government of John Diefenbaker fell in 1963, largely due to the BOMARC controversy, Grant went into deep thinking about the nature of traditional Canadian nationhood and independence, and wrote Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism, a book that would become a lodestar of Red Toryism. The George Grant Reader. ... Hon. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 РAugust 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 Р1963). ... Canada played a minor, but occasionally important, role in the Cold War. ... A lodestar is a star that is used to find direction, particularly with reference to a pole star. ...


The origin of the adjective "red" is unknown. The reference may be to progressive aspects of Red Tory principles, since parties of the left have traditionally used the colour red.


Peak of predominance

The Red Tories historically served as the most powerful faction within the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Many of the party's leaders have been labeled Red Tories, including Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Robert Borden, John Diefenbaker, Robert Stanfield, and Joe Clark. Many others have been influential as cabinet ministers and thinkers, such as E. Davie Fulton, Dalton Camp, and John Farthing. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, KCMG, GCB, QC, PC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 – November 5, 1873 and October 17, 1878 – June 6, 1891. ... The Right Honourable Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Robert Stanfield, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark (born June 5, 1939 in High River, Alberta) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Honourable Edmund Davie Fulton, PC , OC , QC (March 10, 1916- May 22, 2000) was a Canadian politician and judge. ... The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... John Farthing John Farthing was a student, soldier, thinker, philosopher, economist, teacher, and the author of the seminal tory tract Freedom Wears a Crown, which became rather quickly an epistle of Red Toryism. ...


The main bastions of Red Toryism were Ontario, the Maritime provinces, and urban Manitoba, areas where the Red Tories dominated provincial politics. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party who have held power in that province for most of the time since Confederation, were often labelled as Red Tories, espeically under the leadership of William Davis from 1971 to 1985. Under Davis, the Tories often ran to the left of the Ontario Liberal Party. Some political commentators have suggested that the new leader of the Ontario Progressive Conservatives, John Tory, is in the mould of the Bill Davis Red Tory tradition. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario, also known as Tories) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... For the actor, professor, and waterskiier, see William B. Davis The Honourable William (Bill) Grenville Davis, PC , CC , O.Ont. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... John Tory John H. Tory, LL.B, BA, MPP (born May 28, 1954) is a Canadian businessman and leader of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. ...


Throughout the Atlantic provinces, traditional Red Tories are the dominant force in the provincial Progressive Conservative parties because of their support of the welfare state. This tends to explain why Canadian provinces are often ruled at the provincial level by a party that may be Conservative yet at the same time elect Liberal Members of Parliament to the Canadian House of Commons. In Western Canada, the Red Tory strain was significant only in Manitoba, and is particularly stronger in Winnipeg than in rural areas. The career of Duff Roblin, Premier of Manitoba from 1958 to 1967, is a prominant example. The Ministries of Premier Peter Lougheed in Alberta between 1971 and 1985 can be seen as somewhat of an anomaly - in a modern Alberta context - as his career has been viewed as another example of Red Toryism in practice. Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (French is an official language of the Manitoban legislature and courts) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked... Dufferin Roblin (born June 17, 1917) is a Canadian businessman and politician. ... Categories: Canada-related stubs | Manitoba premiers ... Peter Lougheed, painting by C. Leeper The Honourable Peter Lougheed, PC , CC , QC (born July 26, 1928, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian lawyer, politician and Canadian Football League player. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th (provinces and territories) 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19...


Decline

The dominance of Red Toryism can be seen as a part of the international post-war consensus that saw the welfare state embraced by the major parties of most of the western world. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Progressive Conservative Party suffered a string of electoral defeats under Red Tory leaders Robert Stanfield and Joe Clark. Pressure began to grow within the party for a new approach. Joe Clark's leadership was successfully challenged, and in the 1983 PC Leadership convention, members endorsed Brian Mulroney - who ran on a largely right-wing platform, but rejected free trade with the United States as proposed by another right-wing candidate, John Crosbie. Despite this early perception, the eagerness in which Mulroney's ministry embraced the Macdonald Commission's advocacy of bi-lateral Free-Trade would come to indicate a sharp drift toward neo-liberal economic policies, comparable to such contemporaries as Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher. As result of this schism within the party, Red Toryism began to decline in relevance as a political force within the Conservative party, as it fell out-of-sync with a current political and economic orthodoxy that seemed to favour a more individualist orienation. It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Robert Stanfield, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark (born June 5, 1939 in High River, Alberta) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Hon. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ...


Red Toryism never held much sway in Western Canada where smaller-government and support for continentalist policies were greater. The growing population and power of Alberta and British Columbia has also played an important role in this transformation. Eventually the explicitly anti-Red Tory Reform Party developed in the west. At the provincial level, Albertan Red Tory supporters of Peter Lougheed were marginalized following Ralph Klein's assumption of power. Continentalism refers to the policy and idea that a nation should not acquire territory outside of its continental limits. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th (provinces and territories) 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19... Peter Lougheed, painting by C. Leeper The Honourable Peter Lougheed, PC , CC , QC (born July 26, 1928, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian lawyer, politician and Canadian Football League player. ... Ralph Phillip Klein MLA (born November 1, 1942), leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservatives, is the current premier of the Canadian province of Alberta. ...


As right-wing support for the Federal Progressive Conservatives bled away to the Reform Party and then the Canadian Alliance, Red Tories increasingly gained control of the federal party. After the victory of the "Blue Tory" Peter MacKay at the 2003 PC Convetion, and in violation of a contract signed with the Red Tory David Orchard, MacKay merged the Tories with Stephen Harper's Alliance. Peter Gordon MacKay, PC , MP, BA, LL.B, (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... The 2003 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on May 31, 2003 to elect a leader or the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... Stephen Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Red Tories post-merger of federal parties

One of the most important issues facing the newly created Conservative Party is what Red Tories would do. The union has resulted in a number of Red Tories leaving the new party, either to retire or to defect to the Liberals. The latter group includes current and former Members of Parliament (MPs) Andr√© Bachand, John Herron, and Rick Borotsik. Joe Clark served the balance of his parliamentary term as a Progressive Conservative, outside of the new Conservative party caucus, before retiring from politics. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... André Bachand Not to be confused with André Bachand, Liberal MP from Missisquoi André Bachand (born December 8, 1961 in Quebec City, Quebec) is a Canadian politician, who represented the riding of Richmond—Arthabaska as member of the Progressive Conservatives from 1997 to 2003. ... John Herron. ... Rick Borotsik (born September 8, 1950 in Brandon, Manitoba) is a politician in Manitoba, Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark (born June 5, 1939 in High River, Alberta) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


Other high-profile Red Tories such as Sinclair Stevens and Flora MacDonald applied to re-register the old Progressive Conservative Party name; however, this was refused by Elections Canada. On March 26, 2004, the Progressive Canadian Party was registered with Elections Canada. It aims to be perceived as a revival of the "PC Party", but has only acheieved very minor results. The Honourable Sinclair McKnight Stevens, PC (born February 11, 1927) is a Canadian parliamentarian. ... Flora MacDonald (1722 – March 5, 1790), Jacobite heroine, was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Milton in the island of South Uist in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and his wife Marion, the daughter of Angus MacDonald. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Progressive Canadian Party (PC Party) is a minor federal political party in Canada. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ...


In the end, some Red Tories have decided to join the new Conservative Party. A group of them formed the Red Tory Council - a group constructed to give voice to the Red Tories, monitor the party and its positions, and to prevent too great a swing to the right. This group, however, was usurped in 2005 and replaced with a group called the Conservative Council, and it has been widely speculated by some Red Tories that such a move was undertaken to quell such dissent and inquiry in the new party's ranks. Many others have chosen to retain their principles, but refuse to align themselves formally with a political party, although the emergence of the Progressive Canadian Party, which claims to adhere to Red Tory values, is gaining some support.


Definition drift

With the conservative movement's drift to the economic and political right, the term Red Tory is often used today in the media not to refer to those in the traditional Red Tory tradition of George Grant, Dalton Camp or Robert Stanfield; but simply to moderates in the conservative movement, particularly those who reject or do not sufficiently embrace social conservatism, such as James Moore, Gerald Keddy, and Jim Prentice. Traditional Red Tories decry this as an oversimplification, as many Red Tories have either removed themselves from the Conservative Party, or have thrown their individual support to other parties. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The George Grant Reader. ... The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... James Moore is the name of more than one person of note: James Moore, colonial governor of South Carolina from 1700-03 and 1719-21. ... Gerald Keddy (born February 15, 1953 in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian politician. ... Jim Prentice, MP (born July 20, 1956, in South Porcupine, Timmins, Ontario) is a Canadian lawyer and politician. ...


For example, in the 2004 Conservative Party leadership election, Tony Clement and Belinda Stronach were sometimes referred to as a Red Tories even though they advocated privitization, tax cuts, curtailment of social and economic development spending and free trade with the United States. Clement and Stronach's stances are policies that most traditional Red Tories would reject. The 2004 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election took place on March 20, 2004 in Toronto, Ontario, and resulted in the election of Stephen Harper as the first leader of the new Canadian Conservative Party. ... Hon. ... The Honourable Belinda Stronach, PC, MP Belinda C. Stronach, PC, MP (born May 2, 1966 in Newmarket, Ontario) is a Canadian businesswoman, politician, and a Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) in the Canadian House of Commons. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


References

  • Christian, William Edward and C. Campbell (editors), Political Parties and Ideologies in Canada (Note: several editions of this textbook have appeared since 1974, reflecting the changes in Canada's politics.
  • Christian, William Edward and C. Campbell (editors) Parties, Leaders and Ideologies in Canada
  • Farthing, J. Freedom Wears a Crown
  • Grant, George Parkin. Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism (1965)
  • Horowitz, Gad. "Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation." Canadian Journal of Political Science (1966).
  • Campbell, Colin. CTtheory.net. Gad Horowitz Interviewed by Colin Campbell. [audio file], available online at http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=397.

External links

  • George Parkin Grant: Complex Canadian Critic of Technology and America
  • Social Philosophies and Toryism in Canada
  • The Red Tory's Creed (opinion)
  • Anatomy of a Red Tory, a critical opinion by Andrew Coyne, May 15, 2000

  Results from FactBites:
 
Red Tory (124 words)
Red Tory, popular term describing Canadian Conservatives who favoured an interventionist state and feared the increasing influence of the US upon Canada.
George GRANT, a self-described "red Tory," believed he was part of a tradition essential to the distinctiveness of Canada in N America.
"Red Tory" is used to refer loosely to the left wing of the CONSERVATIVE PARTY.
Red Tory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1843 words)
Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada.
Today, however, Red Tories are often simply characterized as the left wing factopm of the contemporary Conservative party, or a Conservative committed to the welfare state and/or liberal social policy.
Red Toryism derives largely from a British Tory and imperialist tradition that maintained the unequal division of wealth and political privilege among social classes can be justified, if members of the privileged class contribute to the common good.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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