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Encyclopedia > Red Terror
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The most common use of Red Terror in English refers to the campaign of mass arrests, deportations, and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government in Soviet Russia from 1918 to 1922. The mass repressions were conducted without judicial process by the secret police organization Cheka, a predecessor of NKVD and KGB. The term Red Terror may refer to: The Russian 1918-1922 Red Terror Spanish Red Terror during the Civil War Red terror (Spain) The 1977-1978 Red Terror in Ethiopia The race horse Red Terror The Red Terror, a figure in the Warhammer 40,000 game. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... Bold text Although there are earlier related examples, the history of terrorism in the modern sense seems to have emerged around the mid 19th-century. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 - July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of terrorist organizations. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... Communist terrorism is terrorism carried out in the name of furthering Communist goals or teachings. ... Eco-terrorism is defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigations Domestic Terrorism Section as the use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against innocent victims or property by an environmentally-oriented, subnational group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, and knows that they will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... A Lone Wolf (Lone-wolf activist to proponents, Lone-wolf terrorist to opponents) is someone who commits violent acts in support of some group, movement, or ideology, but does so alone, outside of any command structure. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A repressed memory, according to some theories of psychology, a memory (often traumatic) of an event or environment which is stored by the unconscious mind but outside the awareness of the conscious mind. ... Extrajudicial punishment is physical punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority, and as such, constitutes a violation of basic human rights (such as the right to due process and humane treatment). ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


Some authors use the term "Red Terror" to describe the last six weeks of the "Reign of Terror" of the French Revolution, ending on July 28, 1794 (execution of Robespierre), to distinguish it from the subsequent period of the White Terror [1] (historically this period has been known as the Great Terror (French: la Grande Terreur)). For the Doctor Who British TV serial, see The Reign of Terror (Doctor Who). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into White Terror. ...

Contents

Purpose of the Soviet Red Terror

The stated purpose of this campaign was struggle with counter-revolutionaries labeled as "enemies of the people", although many Russian communists openly proclaimed that Red Terror was needed for extermination of entire social groups or "ruling classes" to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. Communist leader Grigory Zinoviev declared in September 1918: A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... The term ruling class refers to the ruling elite of a given society, even in democracies. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ...

"To dispose of our enemies, we will have to create our own socialist terror. For this we will have to train 90 million of the 100 million of Russians and have them all on our side. We have nothing to say to the other 10 million; we will have to get rid of them." [2]

Many people were executed simply for who they were, not for their deeds. Martin Latsis, chief of the Ukrainian Cheka, explained in newspaper "Red Terror": Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

"Do not look in the file of incriminating evidence to see whether or not the accused rose up against the Soviets with arms or words. Ask him instead to which class he belongs, what is his background, his education, his profession. These are the questions that will determine the fate of the accused. That is the meaning and essence of the Red Terror" [3]

Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

History

The campaign of mass repressions was officially initiated as retribution for the assassination of Petrograd Cheka leader Moisei Uritsky, and attempted assassination of Vladimir Lenin by Fanya Kaplan on August 30, 1918. While recovering from his wounds, Lenin instructed: "It is necessary - secretly and urgently to prepare the terror" [4] However even before the assassinations, Lenin was sending telegrams to "to introduce mass terror" in Nizhny Novgorod in response to a suspected civilian uprising there, and "crush" peasants in Penza who protested, sometimes violently, to requisition of their grain by military detachments [2]  : Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader whose assassination helped precipitate the Red Terror. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan, in 1907 Faina Yefimovna Kaplan (Фаина Ефимовна Каплан; 1883–September 3, 1918), a. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Penza (Пе́нза) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Penza Oblast in the Volga Federal District. ...

Comrades!... You must make example of these people. (1) Hang (I mean hang publicly, so that people see it) at least 100 kulaks, rich bastards, and known bloodsuckers. (2) Publish their names. (3) Seize all their grain. (4) Single out the hostages per my instructions in yesterday's telegram.

Five hundred "representatives of overthrown classes" were executed immediately after assassination of Uritsky [5]. The first official announcement of Red Terror, published in Izvestiya, "Appeal to the Working Class" on September 3, 1918 called for the workers to "crush the hydra of counterrevolution with massive terror! ... anyone who dares to spread the slightest rumor against the Soviet regime will be arrested immediately and sent to concentration camp" [2] . This was followed by the decree "On Red Terror", issued September 5, 1918 by the Cheka. On 15 October, checkist Gleb Boky proudly reported that 800 alleged enemies had been shot and another 6,229 imprisoned [4]. Casualties in the fall of 1918 was between 10,000 and 15,000 based on lists of summarily executed people published in newspaper "Cheka Weekly" and other official press. For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The 16th-century German illustrator has been influenced by the Beast of Revelation in his depiction of the Hydra. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Extrajudicial punishment is physical punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority, and as such, constitutes a violation of basic human rights (such as the right to due process and humane treatment). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On 16 March 1919 all military detachments of Cheka were combined in a single body, the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic which numbered 200,000 in 1921. These troops policed labor camps, ran the Gulag system, conducted requisitions of food, put down peasant rebellions, riots by workers, and mutinies in the Red Army, which was plagued by desertions [2] The Internal Troops and Red Army practiced true terrorism tactics such as taking and execution numerous hostages, often in connection with desertions of forcefully mobilized peasants. It is believed that more than 3 million deserters escaped from Red Army in 1919 and 1920. Around 500,000 deserters were arrested in 1919 and close to 800,000 in 1920 by Cheka troops and special divisions created to combat desertions [2]. Thousands of deserters were killed, and their families were often taken hostages. According to Lenin instructions, Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Prodrazvyorstka (prodovolstvennaya razvyorstka) (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка in Russian, or food apportionment) was... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Internal Troops (full name Internal Troops of the MVD), now called the Federal Guard are the 250,000 strong uniformed military mobile force of the Russian security forces (MVD) and are used to deal with major disturbances and internal security matters. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from someone or something to which you owe allegiance, responsibility or loyalty. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a...

"After the expiration of the seven-day deadline for deserters to turn themselves in, punishment must be increased for these incorrigible traitors to the cause of the people. Families and anyone found to be assisting them in any way whatsoever are to be considered as hostages and treated accordingly" [2]

In September 1918, only in twelve provinces of Russia, 48,735 deserters and 7,325 "bandits" were arrested, 1,826 were killed and 2,230 were executed. A typical report from a Cheka department stated:

"Yaroslavl Province, 23 June 1919. The uprising of deserters in the Petropavlovskaya volost has been put down. The families of the deserters have been taken as hostages. When we started to shoot one person from each family, the Greens began to come out of the woods and surrender. Thirty-four deserters were shot as an example". [2]

This campaign marked the beginning of the Gulag, and some scholars have estimated that 70,000 were imprisoned by September, 1921. Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


Numerous abuses have been committed during the Red Terror. According to Edvard Radzinsky, "it became a common practice to take a husband hostage and wait for his wife to come and purchase his life with her body" [5]. The Pyatigorsk Cheka organized a "day of Red Terror" to execute 300 people in one day. They ordered local Communist Party organizations to draw up execution lists. According to one of chekists, "this rather unsatisfactory method led to a great deal of private settling of old scores... In Kislovodsk, for lack of a better idea, it was decided to kill people who were in the hospital" [2]. Edvard Radzinsky (Russian: ) (b. ... Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятигорск) is a city of a population of over 200,000 (2002) located in Stavropol Krai on the Podkumok River in the Northern Caucasus Federal District of Russia about twenty kilometers from Mineralnye Vody, at 44°2′N 43°4′E. The name Pyatigorsk means five mountains in Russian... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chekism is a word that has been used by historians and political observers to describe political system in the Soviet Union and contemporary Russia. ... Kislovodsk (Russian: ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ...


Interpretations by historians

Most historians agree that Bolsheviks simply had no other means except mass terror to stay in power, because they had no popular support [2], [6]. Bolsheviks only got a quarter of the vote at the height of their popularity in the elections [7]. Massive strikes by Russian workers were "mercilessly" suppressed during Red terror [7] Bolsheviks saw bourgeoisie, landowners, and peasantry and intelligentsia in Russia as class enemies of the industrial workers, whom they claimed to represent. However, industrial workers comprised only 1 to 2% of Russia's population, and only 5.3% of them were members of Bolshevik party [6]. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... July 20, 1953 TIME magazine ironic cover: Lavrenty Beria: Enemy of the people. ...


Robert Conquest concluded that [7] "unprecedented terror must seem necessary to ideologically motivated attempts to transform society massively and speedily, against its natural possibilities." Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ...


Richard Pipes said that despotism and violence were the intrinsic properties of every Communist regime in the world [6] He also argued that Communist terror follows from Marxism teaching that considers human lives as expendable material for construction of the brigher future society. He cited Marx who once wrote that "The present generation resembles the Jews whom Moses led through the wilderness. It must not only conquer a new world, it must also perish in order to make a room for the people who are fit for a new world" [6] Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... This article is about one-party states ruled by Communist Parties. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Edvard Radzinsky noted that Joseph Stalin himself wrote a nota bene "Terror is the quickest way to new society" beside the following passage in a book by Marx: "There is only one way to shorten and ease the convulsions of the old society and the bloody birth pangs of the new - revolutionary terror" [5] Edvard Radzinsky (Russian: ) (b. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nota Bene is a Latin phrase meaning Note Well, coming from notâre -- to note. ...


Other repression campaigns by communists

By extension, the term Red Terror came to refer to any acts of violence carried out by communist or communist-affiliated groups. Often, such acts were carried out in response to (and/or followed by) similar measures taken by the anti-communist side in the conflict. See White Terror. It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ...


Examples of these other "Red Terrors" include the executions of 590 people accused of involvement in the counterrevolutionary coup against the Hungarian Soviet Republic on June 24, 1919, as well as many acts of violence by the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War and during the Cultural Revolution in China. The bloody campaign that claimed tens of thousands of lives in Eritrea and Ethiopia during the rule of the Derg is also known as the Red Terror in those countries. Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Red Terror in Spain is the name given to the atrocities committed by the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, when many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Derg party badge, c1979. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam, in December 2006 convicted of genocide in absentia for his role the Red Terror The Ethiopian Red Terror (1977-1978) was a violent political campaign in Ethiopia undertaken during the leadership of the Derg, a socialist military junta. ...


Hungarian Red Terror

Red Terror in Hungary (vörösterror) was an ideology, a movement and a set of atrocities during the reign of Hungarian Soviet Republic. When communists lead by Béla Kun grabbed power with the aid of socialdemocrats and putsched Mihály Károlyi, the leader after the civilian revolution; most radical communists thought that no more amenable chances will be to take absolute power and to realise the utopia of "proletar dictature". So the time has come to showdown with every enemies of communism. Ideologists who strongly propagated these beliefs - the necessity of "revolutional terror" as themself called - were Georg Lukács [8] and Tibor Szamuely [9] (but socialdemocrats in the governmenmt mainly, and strongly opposed these ideas). With the ideological aid of these persons, the bolshevist József Cserny laid up some detachment of 200 people called "Lenin Boys" (Lenin-fiúk), who tried to take control over the countryside, and in Budapest other detachments has been formatted. They orderly organized "requisition patrols" and pocketed goods from civic houses, and they captured and arrested their putative or real enemies. Numerous atrocities, exterminations and crimes have been recorded [10][11]. These exterminations happened with intense and bizarre cruelty, for example detachments forced the relatives to help the executions, or tormented their victims before or during their agony. Finally, the government itself became fed up with these activities and condemned them as homicide, and detachments must been dismissed [12]. The book of Dr. Albert Váry crown lawyer (1922) documents 590 dead victims of terror, other sources speak about a number between 370 and 587 [13]. Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... Béla Kun Béla Kun (born Béla Kohn) (February 20, 1886, in Szilágycseh, today Cehu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Romania, died August 29, 1938 in the Soviet Union) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who ruled Hungary for a brief period in 1919. ... Count Mihály Adam Georg Nikolaus Károlyi von Nagykárolyi (March 4, 1875-March 20, 1955) was briefly Hungarys leader in 1918-19 during an ill-fated spell of democracy. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic in the tradition of Western Marxism. ... Tibor Szamuely Tibor Szamuely (1890 – 1919) was a Hungarian Communist leader. ...


See also

In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Notes

  1. ^ French Revolution
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  3. ^ Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia - Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.
  4. ^ a b Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin (2000). The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-14-028487-7, page 34.
  5. ^ a b c Edvard Radzinsky Stalin: The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives, Anchor, (1997) ISBN 0-385-47954-9, pages 152-155
  6. ^ a b c d Richard Pipes Communism: A History (2001) ISBN 0-812-96864-6, pages 39.
  7. ^ a b c Robert Conquest Reflections on a Ravaged Century (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 101
  8. ^ Lukács: Social Hinterland of White Terror; Lukács: Article in Népszava, 15. apr. 1919.: "The lordship of police power means that we have the occasion for liquidating the ruling classes. The second is here, but we must use it up!"
  9. ^ Szamuely Tibor in 20th of April 1919. said on a speech in Győr: "Now the power is in our hands. Who want the old reign to come back, that should to be hanged on harshly. The one of this kind must be neck-bitten. The victory of Hungarian proletariat till this times required no serious numbers of victims. But now there is the need of bloodshed. We mustn't afraid of blood, the blood is like steel: strengthens the hearth and strengthens the proletar bunch. Blood will make us gigantean. [...] We will exterminate the whole burgeoisie, if we'll have to.
  10. ^ Honismeret 2003
  11. ^ A modernizacia kora 2003
  12. ^ Atrocities of Lenin Boys - the terror commando of Soviet Republic (Hungarian).
  13. ^ Sorensen: "Did Hungary Become Fascist?"; see Leslie Eliason - Lene Bogh Sorensen: Fascism, Liberalism, and Social Democracy in Central Europe: Past and Present, Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2002, ISBN 8772887192

Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Yevgenia Markovna Albats (Russian: ; born 5 September 1958 [1] [2]) is a Russian investigative journalist, political scientist, writer, and radio host. ... Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... Edvard Radzinsky (Russian: ) (b. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ...

References and further reading

  • Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stephane Courtois, Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7. Chapter 4: The Red Terror
  • Melgounov, Sergey Petrovich (1925) The Red Terror in Russia. London & Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.

The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Sergei Petrovich Melgunov (Russian: ) (December 24 or 25, 1879-May 26, 1956) was a Russian historian, publicist and politician best known for his opposition to the Soviet government and his numerous works on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War. ...

External links


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Red Terror tells the story of an Ethiopian family in the 1975 revolution.
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The Red Terror (791 words)
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