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Encyclopedia > Red Sea
Location of the Red Sea
Location of the Red Sea

The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb sound and the Gulf of Aden. In the north are the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba) and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal). The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion. Image File history File links Created using Planiglobe [1] which uses a Creative Commons license [2]. Made some modifications myself. ... Image File history File links Created using Planiglobe [1] which uses a Creative Commons license [2]. Made some modifications myself. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Bab-el-Mandeb area with description The Bab-el-Mandeb, alternatively Bab el Mandab, Bab al Mandab, or Bab al Mandeb meaning Gate of Tears in Arabic (باب المندب), is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Djibouti, north of Somalia on the Horn of... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... The northern end of the Red Sea is bifurcated by the Sinai Peninsula, creating the Gulf of Suez (Arabic: خليج السويس; transliterated: Khalyj as-Suways) in the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Occupying a part of the Great Rift Valley, the Red Sea has a surface area of about 174,000 square miles (450,000 km²): being roughly 1,200 miles (1,900 km) long and, at its widest point, over 190 miles (300 km) wide. It has a maximum depth of 8,200 feet (2,500 m) in the central median trench and an average depth of 1,640 feet (500 m), but there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals. The sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species and 200 soft and hard corals and is the world's most northern tropical sea. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ...


The Red Sea is one of the most saline water bodies in the world, due to the effects of the water circulation pattern, resulting from evaporation and wind stress. Salinity ranges between 3.6 and 3.8%. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...

Contents

Name

Red Sea is a direct translation of the Greek Erythra Thalassa (Ερυθρά Θάλασσα), Latin Mare Rubrum, Arabic Al-Baḥr Al-Aḥmar (البحر الأحمر), and Tigrinya Qeyḥ bāḥrī (ቀይሕ ባሕሪ). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (7667x633, 1247 KB) Eilat and the Red Sea Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose...


The name of the sea does not indicate the color of the water since it is not red. It may signify the seasonal blooms of the red-coloured cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum near the water surface. Some suggest that it refers to the mineral-rich red mountains nearby which are called Harei Edom (הרי אדום). Edom, meaning "ruddy complexion", is also an alternative Hebrew name for the red-faced biblical character Esau (brother of Jacob), and the nation descended from him, the Edomites, which in turn provides yet another possible origin for Red Sea.[citation needed] Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Species T. contortum Trichodesmium is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Edom (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; red) is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation purportedly descended from him. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Esau (Hebrew ‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw) is the oldest son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of Jacob in the biblical Book of Genesis. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ...


Another hypothesis is that the name comes from the Himyarite, a local group whose own name means red.[citation needed] A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ...


Yet another theory favored by some modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south, the same way the Black Sea's name may refer to north. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used color words to refer to the cardinal directions[citation needed]. Herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably.[1] For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A compass rose showing the cardinal directions Cardinal directions or cardinal points are the four principal directions or points of the compass in plane. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


A final theory suggests that it was named so because it borders the Egyptian Desert which the ancient Egyptians called the Dashret or "red land"; therefore it would have been the sea of the red land.[citation needed] Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


The association of the Red Sea with the Biblical account of the Exodus, in particular in the Passage of the Red Sea, goes back to the Septuagint translation of the book of Exodus from Hebrew into Koine, in which Hebrew Yam suph (ים סוף), meaning Reed Sea, is translated as Erythra Thalassa (Red Sea). Yam Suph is also the name for the Red Sea in modern Hebrew. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... In Black is the traditional Exodus Routes as agreed on by Biblical Scholars, Historians, and Geologists. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ... The Sea of Reeds would have looked similar to the above scene. ...


History

The Egyptians were the first to attempt a mission of exploration in the Red Sea.


The Bible, in the book of Exodus, famously tells the story of how Moses leads the Israelites across its headwaters, (presumably the Reed Sea which has since disappeared because of the Suez Canal water diversion) to freedom, by using the powers of God to part the waters. There is no extant archaeological evidence to support this claim. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... The Sea of Reeds would have looked similar to the above scene. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In Black is the traditional Exodus Routes as agreed on by Biblical Scholars, Historians, and Geologists. ...


It was a Greek sailor, Hippalus, who conferred an international dimension upon the Red Sea in his manifesto on the voyage of the Eritrea Sea and thus opened it up to an immense and exclusive trade with Asia. It was only from the 15th century onwards that Europe began to show interest in this area. In 1798, France charged General Bonaparte with invading Egypt and capturing the Red Sea. Although he failed in his mission, the engineer J.B. Lepere, who took part in it revitalised the plan for a canal which had been envisaged during the reign of the Pharaohs. The Suez Canal was opened in November 1869. At the time, the British, French, and Italians shared the trading posts. The posts were gradually dismantled following the First World War. After the Second World War, the Americans and Soviets exerted their influence whilst the volume of oil tanker traffic intensified. However, the Six Day War culminated in the closure of the Suez Canal from 1967 to 1975. Still today, in spite of patrols by the major maritime fleets in the waters of the Red Sea, the Suez Canal has never recovered its supremacy over the Cape route, which is believed to be less vulnerable. Hippalus was a Greek navigator who probably lived in the 1st century BCE. He is sometimes conjectured to have been the captain of the Greek explorer Eudoxus of Cyzicus ship. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


Oceanography

The Red Sea lies between arid land, desert and semi-desert. The main reasons for the better development of reef systems along the Red Sea is because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern, The Red Sea water mass exchanges its water with the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean via the Gulf of Aden. These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation and cold water in the north and relatively hot water in the south. This article is about arid terrain. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ...


Climate: The climate of the Red Sea is the result of two distinct monsoon seasons; a northeasterly monsoon and a southwesterly monsoon. Monsoon winds occur because of the differential heating between the land surface and sea. Very high surface temperatures coupled with high salinities makes this one of the hottest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world. The average surface water temperature of the Red Sea during the summer is about 26°C in the north and 30°C in the south, with only about 2°C variation during the winter months. The overall average water temperature is 22°C. The rainfall over the Red Sea and its coasts is extremely low averaging 0.06 m per year; the rain is mostly in the form of showers of short spells often associated with thunderstorms and occasionally with dust storms. The scarcity of rainfall and no major source of fresh water to the Red Sea result in the excess evaporation as high as 205 cm per yr and high salinity with minimal seasonal variation. For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Categories: Stub ...


Salinity: The Red Sea is one of the most saline water bodies in the world, due to the effects of the water circulation pattern, resulting from evaporation and wind stress. Salinity ranges between 3.6 and 3.8%.


Tidal range: In general tide ranges between 0.6 m in the north, near the mouth of the Gulf of Suez and 0.9 m in the south near the Gulf of Aden but it fluctuates between 0.20 and 0.30 m away from the nodal point. The central Red Sea (Jeddah area) is therefore almost tideless, and as such the annual water level changes are more significant. Because of the small tidal range the water during high tide inundates the coastal sabkhas as a thin sheet of water up to a few hundred meters rather than inundating the sabkhas through a network of channels. However, south of Jeddah in the Shoiaba area the water from the lagoon may cover the adjoining sabkhas as far as 3 km whereas, north of Jeddah in the Al-kharrar area the sabkhas are covered by a thin sheet of water as far as 2 km. The prevailing north and northeastern winds influence the movement of water in the coastal inlets to the adjacent sabkhas, especially during storms. Winter mean sea level is 0.5 m higher than in summer. Tidal velocities passing through constrictions caused by reefs, sand bars and low islands commonly exceed 1-2 m per sec.


Current: In the Red Sea detailed current data is lacking, partially because they are weak and variable both spatially and temporally. Temporal and spatial currents variation is as low as 0.5 m and are governed mostly by wind. In summer NW winds drive surface water south for about four months at a velocity of 15-20 cm per sec., whereas in winter the flow is reversed resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. The net value of the latter predominates, resulting in an overall drift to the northern end of the Red Sea. Generally the velocity of the tidal current is between 50-60 cm per sec with a maximum of 1 m per sec. at the mouth of the al-Kharrar Lagoon. However, the range of north-northeast current along the Saudi coast is 8-29 cm per sec.


Wind Regime: With the exception of the northern part of the Red Sea, which is dominated by persistent north-west winds, with speeds ranging between 7 and 12 km per hr., the rest of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are subjected to the influence of regular and seasonally reversible winds. The wind regime is characterized by both seasonal and regional variations in speed and direction with average speed generally increasing northward. For the 1928 film, see The Wind. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The shape of each panel of this road sign, and the broken lines at the ends, represents an arrow; a space-consuming central bar of the arrow sign is dispensed with. ...


Wind is the driving force in the Red Sea for transporting the material either as suspension or as bedload. Wind induced currents play an important role in the Red Sea in initiating the process of resuspension of bottom sediments and transfer of materials from sites of dumping to sites of burial in quiescent environment of deposition. Wind generated current measurement is therefore important in order to determine the sediment dispersal pattern and its role in the erosion and accretion of the coastal rock exposure and the submerged coral beds. Various meters Measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. ...


Geology

Dust storm over the Red Sea
Dust storm over the Red Sea

The Red Sea formed by Arabia splitting from Africa due to plate tectonics. This split started in the Eocene and accelerated during the Oligocene. The sea is still widening and it is considered that the sea will become an ocean in time (as proposed in the model of John Tuzo Wilson). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x687, 85 KB)Dust storm over the Red Sea - July 26, 2005 image description here Image courtesy of NASA GSFC / MODIS Rapid Response Team File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x687, 85 KB)Dust storm over the Red Sea - July 26, 2005 image description here Image courtesy of NASA GSFC / MODIS Rapid Response Team File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... John Tuzo Wilson, CC , OBE , D.Sc , FRSC (October 24, 1908–April 15, 1993) was a Scottish Canadian geophysicist and geologist who achieved worldwide acclaim for his contributions to the theory of plate tectonics, the idea that the rigid outer layers of the Earth (crust and part of the upper...


Sometime during the Tertiary period the Bab el Mandeb closed and the Red Sea evaporated to an empty hot dry salt-floored sink. Effects causing this would be:- Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Bab-el-Mandeb area with description The Bab-el-Mandeb, alternatively Bab el Mandab, Bab al Mandab, or Bab al Mandeb meaning Gate of Tears in Arabic (باب المندب), is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Djibouti, north of Somalia on the Horn of...

Today surface water temperatures remain relatively constant at 70–77 °F (21–25 °C) and temperature and visibility remain good to around 660 feet (200 m), but the sea is known for its strong winds and tricky local currents. Perim is a volcanic island in the Strait of Mandeb off the southwestern coast of Yemen. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... An ice cap is a dome-shaped ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


In terms of salinity, the Red Sea is greater than the world average, approximately 4 percent. This is due to several factors: 1) high rate of evaporation and very little precipitation, 2) a lack of significant rivers or streams draining into the sea, and 3) limited connection with the Indian Ocean (and its lower water salinity).


A number of volcanic islands rise from the center of the sea. Most are dormant, but in 2007, Jabal al-Tair island erupted violently. Jabal al-Tair Island (Jebel Teir, Tair Island, Al-Tair Island, Jazirat at-Tair; Arabic: , literally, Bird Island) is a roughly circular volcanic island, which lies in the Red Sea, about half way between Yemen and Eritrea. ...


Living resources

Red Sea coral and marine fish

The Red Sea is a rich and diverse ecosystem. More than 1100 species of fish[2] have been recorded in the red sea, and around 10% of these are found nowhere else.[3] This also includes around 75 species of deepwater fish.[2] The rich diversity is in part due to the 2000 km of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000-7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the blue hole at Dahab). These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of red sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) alan slater 2003 dahab red sea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) alan slater 2003 dahab red sea I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... // See the List of deep water fish of the Red Sea Ambassidae Ambassis gymnocephalus, Bald glassy Ambassis urotaenia, Banded-tail glassy perchlet Apistidae Apistus carinatus, Ocellated waspfish Aploactinidae Cocotropus steinitzi Ptarmus gallus Apogonidae Apogon gularis Apogon hungi Apogon micromaculatus Apogon quadrifasciatus, Twostripe cardinal Apogon smithi, Smiths cardinalfish Apogon spongicolus... // Acropoma japonicum , Glowbelly, Acropomatidae Ariosoma mauritianum , Blunt-tooth conger, Congridae Arnoglossus marisrubri , Bothidae Bembrops caudimacula , Percophidae Champsodon omanensis , Champsodontidae Cynoglossus acutirostris , Sharpnose tonguesole, Cynoglossidae Dysomma fuscoventralis , Synaphobranchidae Facciolella karreri , Nettastomatidae Grammonus robustus , Bythitidae Harpadon erythraeus , Synodontidae Heptranchias perlo , Sharpnose sevengill shark, Hexanchidae Hippocampus kelloggi , Great seahorse, Syngnathidae Iago omanensis , Bigeye... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... Species Acropora cytherea Acropora echinata Acropora humilis Acropora paniculata Acropora valida Acropora is a genus of coral in the phylum cnidaria. ... Species Porites is a genus of Scleractinian coral which is characterised by a finger-like morphology. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... A blue hole is a submarine cave or sinkhole. ... Evening in Dahab on the Gulf of Aqaba. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... There are 44 species of shark found in the Red Sea[1]. This list is not exhaustive. ...


The special biodiversity of the area is recognised by the Egyptian government, who set up the Ras Mohammed National Park in 1983. The rules and regulations governing this area protect local wildlife, which has become a major draw for tourists, in particular for diving enthusiasts. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Ras Mohammed is a national park located at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...


Divers and snorkellers should be aware that although most Red Sea species are innocuous, a few are hazardous to humans.[4] Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... ... Although most species in the Red Sea pose no threat to humans, there are a few notable exceptions. ...


Other marine habitats include sea grass beds, salt pans, mangroves and salt marshes. Johnsons seagrass in Florida coast Seagrass (or sea-grass in British English) is a term that refers to flowering plants from two plant families (Potamogetonaceae and Hydrocharitacea) that grow in the marine environment. ... A salt pan is a geological formation found in deserts. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ...


Mineral resources

In terms of mineral resources the major constituents of the Red Sea sediments are as follows:

  • Biogenic constituents:
Nannofossils, foraminifera, pteropods, siliceous fossils
  • Volcanogenic constituents:
Tuffites, volcanic ash, montmorillonite, cristobalite, zeolites
  • Terrigenous constituents:
Quartz, feldspars, rock fragments, mica, heavy minerals, clay minerals
  • Authigenic minerals:
Sulfide minerals, aragonite, Mg-calcite, protodolomite, dolomite, quartz, chalcedony.
  • Evaporite minerals:
Magnesite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, polyhalite
  • Brine precipitate:
Fe-montmorillonite, goethite, hematite, siderite, rhodochrosite, pyrite, sphalerite, anhydrite.

Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... A sample of montmorillonite Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate mineral that typically forms in microscopic crystals, forming a clay. ... Common in volcanic rocks, cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of quartz and tridymite. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium silicates, sometimes with minor amounts of iron, magnesium and other cations. ... Strictly, a mineral that is a sulfide. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Chalcedony knife, AD 1000-1200 Bloodstone redirects here. ... Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Anhydrite is a mineral - anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... Polyhalite is a mineral, a hydrated sulphate of potassium, Calcium and Magnesium, formula (K.Ca)2. ... Goethite, named after the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low temperature environments. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Siderite is also the name of a type of iron meteorite. ... Rhodochrosite from Sweet Home Mine, Alma, Colorado, USA Pink is the most common color of Rhodochrosite. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample The unit cell of sphalerite Sphalerite (ZnS) is a gay mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ...

Desalination plants

There is extensive demand of desalinated water to meet the requirement of the population and the industries along the Red Sea.


There are at least 18 desalination plants along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia which discharge warm brine and treatment chemicals (chlorine and anti-scalants) that may cause bleaching and mortality of corals and diseases to the fish stocks. Although this is only a localized phenomenon, it may intensify with time and have a profound impact on the fishing industry.


The water from the Red Sea is also utilized by oil refineries and cement factories for cooling purposes. Used water drained back into the coastal zones may cause harm to the nearshore environment of the Red Sea.


Facts and figures at a glance

  • Length: ~1900 km - 79% of the eastern Red Sea with numerous coastal inlets
  • Maximum Width: ~ 306–354 km – Massawa (Eritrea)
  • Minimum Width: ~ 26–29 km - Bab el Mandeb Strait (Yemen)
  • Average Width: ~ 280 km
  • Average Depth: ~ 490 m
  • Maximum Depth: ~2850 m
  • Surface Area: 438-450 x 10² km²
  • Volume: 215–251 x 10³ km³
  • Approximately 40% of the Red Sea is quite shallow (under 100 m), and about 25% is under 50 m deep.
  • About 15% of the Red Sea is over 1000 m depth that forms the deep axial trough.
  • Shelf breaks are marked by coral reefs
  • Continental slope has an irregular profile (series of steps down to ~500 m)
  • Centre of Red Sea has a narrow trough (~ 1000 m; some deeps may exceed 2500 m)

Bab-el-Mandeb area with description The Bab-el-Mandeb, alternatively Bab el Mandab, Bab al Mandab, or Bab al Mandeb meaning Gate of Tears in Arabic (باب المندب), is the strait separating the continents of Asia (Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula) and Africa (Djibouti, north of Somalia on the Horn of...

Some of the research cruises in the Red Sea

Numerous research cruises have been conducted:

  • Arabia Felix (1761-1767)
  • Vitiaz (1886-1889)
  • Valdivia (1898-1894)
  • Pola (1897-98) Southern Red Sea and (1895/96 – Northern Red Sea
  • Ammiraglio Magnaghi (1923/24)
  • Snellius (1929 –1930)
  • Mabahiss (1933-1934 and 1934-1935)
  • Albatross (1948)
  • Manihine (1849 and 1952)
  • Calypso (1955)
  • Atlantis and Vema (1958)
  • Xarifa (1961)
  • Meteor (1961)
  • Glomar Challenger (1971)
  • Sonne (1997)
  • Meteor (1999)

Tourism

The sea is known for its spectacular dive sites such as Ras Mohammed, SS Thistlegorm (ship wreck), Elphinstone, The Brothers and Rocky Island in Egypt, Dolphin Reef in Eilat, Israel and less known sites in Sudan such as Sanganeb, Abington, Angarosh and Shaab Rumi (see photo above). Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... This article identifies popular recreational diving sites around the world and describes the features of a dive site. ... Ras Mohammed is a national park located at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. ... The SS Thistlegorm was British armed Merchant Navy ship built in 1940 by Joseph Thompson & Son in Sunderland, England. ... Rocky Island may refer to: Rocky Island an alternate name of Brooks Island in Richmond, California, United States of America in the San Francisco Bay Rocky Island an Island in Walsh Bay, Queensland, Australia Rocky Point Island also in Walsh Bay, Queensland, Australia Category: ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ...


The Red Sea became known a sought-after diving destination after the expeditions of Hans Hass in the 1950s, and later by Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Popular tourist resorts include Sharm-El-Sheikh and Hurghada (and recently Marsa Alam) and Dahab in Egypt, as well as Eilat, Israel in an area known as the Red Sea Riviera. Hans Hass Hans Hass (born January 23, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a biologist and mainly known for his documentaries about sharks, the energon theory, and his commitment to the protection of the environment. ... Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ... Sharm el-Sheikh is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, on the coastal strip between the Red Sea and Mount Sinai. ... Al-Mahmya: a tourist facility on the protected Giftun island off the coast near Hurghada. ... Marsa Alam is a town in Egypt, on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Evening in Dahab on the Gulf of Aqaba. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Nationalpark:.jpg ...


Bordering countries

Bordering countries are:

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Red Sea coast include:

Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... ARKIKO or (colonial Italian?) ARCHIGO, in modern usage rather spelled HIRGIGO, HARGIGO or HARKIKO, is an island in the Red Sea and part of the Northern Red Sea Zone region of modern Eritrea. ... Asseb (or Aseb) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Evening in Dahab on the Gulf of Aqaba. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Halaib is a port on the Red Seas African coast. ... Al Hudaydah (also written as Hodeidah) (Arabic: الحديدة) It is the fourth largest city in Yemen with a population of one million. ... Al-Mahmya: a tourist facility on the protected Giftun island off the coast near Hurghada. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - City 1,320 km²  (509. ... Marsa Alam is a town in Egypt, on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Massawa in the 19th century Massawa or Mitsiwa (15° 36′ 33″ N 39° 26′ 43″ E) is a port on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. ... Nuweiba is a coastal town in eastern part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, on the coast of Gulf of Aqaba. ... Egypt: Site of Safaga on the Red Sea (center). ... Location of Port Sudan Port Sudan (Arabic: ‎) is the capital of the state of Red Sea in Sudan and has nearly 475,000 residents. ... Sharm el-Sheikh is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, on the coastal strip between the Red Sea and Mount Sinai. ... Soma Bay beach Soma Bay [1] is a coastal resort on the Red Sea in Egypt. ... Suakin is a port in north eastern Sudan, on the Red Sea. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Taba (Arabic: طابا Hebrew: טאבה ) is a small Egyptian village near the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba. ... El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ...

References

  1. ^ Schmitt 1996
  2. ^ a b FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly
  3. ^ Siliotti, A. (2002) fishes of the red sea Verona, Geodia ISBN 88-87177-42-2
  4. ^ Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. (2004) Coral reef guide; Red Sea London, HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-715986-2
  • Hamblin, W. Kenneth, and Eric H. Christiansen. Earth's Dynamic Systems, 8th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998. ISBN 0-13-745373-6
Look up Red Sea in
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

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Coordinates: 22°00′N, 38°00′E Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Nationalpark:.jpg ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Robert Moresby was a distinguished captain of the British Royal Navy. ... In Black is the traditional Exodus Routes as agreed on by Biblical Scholars, Historians, and Geologists. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... The M/V al-Salam Boccaccio 98 (Arabic: Salam سلام means peace) was an Egyptian ROPAX (passenger/roll on-roll off) ferry, operated by El Salam Maritime Transport, that sank on 3 February 2006 in the Red Sea en route from Duba, Saudi Arabia, to Safaga in southern Egypt. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Black Sea's name may refer to "north." The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used colour words to refer to points on the compass.
Hippalus, who conferred an international dimension upon the Red Sea in his manifesto on the voyage of the Eritrea Sea and thus opened it up to an immense and exclusive trade with Asia.
The sea is still widening and there are small volcanic features in the deeper parts, it is considered that the sea will become an ocean in time (as proposed in the model of
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