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Encyclopedia > Red Fox
Red Fox

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Vulpes
Species: V. vulpes
Binomial name
Vulpes vulpes
Linnaeus, 1758
Red Fox range
Red Fox range
Synonyms

Vulpes fulva, Vulpes fulvus Redd Foxx (December 9, 1922 – October 11, 1991), born John Elroy Sanford,[1] was an American comedian best known for his starring role on the television sitcom Sanford and Son. ... Image File history File links Description: Red Fox Source: National Park Service File links The following pages link to this file: Vulpes Red Fox ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

The Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. In Great Britain and Ireland, where there are no longer any other native wild canids, it is referred to simply as "the fox". It has the widest range of any terrestrial carnivore, being native to Canada, Alaska, almost all of the contiguous United States, Europe, North Africa and almost all of Asia, including Japan. It was introduced in Australia in the 19th century.[2] As its name suggests, its fur is predominantly reddish-brown, but there is a naturally occurring grey morph known as the Silver Fox; a strain of tame Silver Fox has been produced from these animals by systematic domestication. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... This article is about the animal. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tame Silver Foxes are the results of an experiment to domesticate the silver fox, started many years ago in Russia. ...

Contents

Distribution

Red Fox (V. v. schrencki) lying in snow in Hokkaidō, Japan
Red Fox (V. v. schrencki) lying in snow in Hokkaidō, Japan

Today, the Red Fox has a range spanning most of North America and Eurasia, southern Australia, and with several populations in North Africa. File links The following pages link to this file: Red Fox Categories: Conditional use images | Wikipedia featured pictures ... File links The following pages link to this file: Red Fox Categories: Conditional use images | Wikipedia featured pictures ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


In Australia the Red Fox is an introduced species and a serious conservation problem.[3] Introduction occurred about 1850, for recreational fox hunting,[4] Alien species redirects here. ...


In North America the Red Fox is native in boreal regions, introduced in temperate regions.[5] There is a recent fossil record of Red Foxes in boreal North America, and one subspecies of these native boreal foxes extends south in the Rocky Mountains.[6] In temperate North America, Red Foxes are derived from European Red Foxes, which were introduced into the Southeastern United States around 1650-1750[7][8] for fox hunting,[9], and from there to California for the fur trade. The first introduction is attributed to Robert Brooke, Sr., who is said to have imported 24 Red Foxes from England.[10]. The introduced European Red Fox may have interbred with the scarce indigenous population to produce a hybrid population.[11] The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... This article is about a biological term. ...


Three subspecies of Red Fox are found in India: Vulpes vulpes montana (the Tibetan Red Fox), found in Ladakh and the Himalayas, Vulpes vulpes griffithi (the Kashmir Fox) found in Jammu and Kashmir less the Ladakh sector, and Vulpes vulpes pusilla (the Desert Fox) found in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan and in Kutch, Gujarat. A subspecies, the Japanese Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) migrated from India to China and eventually to Japan, where the Red Fox is also known by the Japanese name kitsune (狐). , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. ...


Physical description

A Red Fox sitting in a meadow in Denmark.
A Red Fox sitting in a meadow in Denmark.

The largest species within the genus Vulpes, the Red Fox may reach an adult weight of 3–14 kg (6.6–30.8 lb),[12] but this varies from region to region; foxes living in Canada and Alaska tend to be larger than foxes in the United Kingdom, which are in turn larger than those inhabiting the Southern United States.[13] Head and body length is 18 to 33.75 in (46 to 86 cm), with a tail of 12 to 21.75 in (30.5 to 55.5 cm)[14] Size can be estimated from tracks. Red Fox footprints are normally about 4.4 cm (1¾ inch) wide and 5.7 cm (2¼ inch) long. A normal Red Fox's trotting stride is about 33-38 cm (13-15 inch).[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x700, 1083 KB) La: Vulpes vulpes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x700, 1083 KB) La: Vulpes vulpes. ... A meadow is a habitat of rolling or flat terrain where grasses predominate. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Historic Southern United States. ... The trot is a gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forwards at the same time. ... Stride is a type of piano-playing, used primarily in jazz. ...


The Red Fox is most commonly a rusty red, with white underbelly, black ear tips and legs, and a bushy tail usually with a distinctive white tip. The "red" tone can vary from dark chestnut to golden, and in fact can be "agouti", with bands of red, brown, black and white on each individual hair. In North America, the Red Fox's pelt has long, soft hair, whereas the fur of European Red Foxes is flatter and less silky.[16] In the wild, two other colour phases are also seen. The first is silver or black, comprising 10% of the wild population. Approximately 30% of wild individuals have additional dark patterning, which usually manifests as bold markings on the face, with a stripe across the shoulders and down the centre of the back. The stripes form a "cross" over the shoulders, and these foxes are therefore often called cross foxes. Farmed stock are mostly silver, but may be almost any colour including spotted or blotched with white. Agouti refers to a number of species of rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in several different animals. ...

As seen in this fox on San Juan Island, the color of the Red Fox varies considerably between individuals.
As seen in this fox on San Juan Island, the color of the Red Fox varies considerably between individuals.

Fox eyes are gold to yellow and have distinctive vertical-slit pupils, similar to those of domestic cats. Their eyesight is also as sharp as that of a feline[citation needed], and combined with their extreme agility for a canid, the Red Fox has been referred to as "the cat-like canid". Its long bushy tail with distinctive white tip provides balance for large jumps and complex movement. Its strong legs allow it to reach speeds of approximately 50 km/h (30 miles per hour), a great benefit to catching prey or evading predators.[citation needed] A forest on San Juan Island San Juan Island is the second-largest and most populous of the San Juan Islands in northwestern Washington, USA. Washington State Ferries serves Friday Harbor, which is San Juan Islands major population center, the San Juan County seat, and the only incorporated town... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Schreber, 1775 For alternative meanings see cat (disambiguation). ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


In general, the spacing between the canine teeth is approximately 1116–1  (18 to 25 mm) apart. Foxes lack the facial muscles necessary to bare their teeth, unlike most other canids.[13] An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


During the autumn and winter, the Red Fox will grow more fur. This so-called "winter fur" keeps the animal warm in the colder environment. The fox sheds this fur at the onset of spring, reverting back to the short fur for the duration of the summer.


Ecology

Red Fox with prey
Red Fox with prey

The Red Fox is found in a variety of biomes, from prairies and scrubland to forest settings. It is most suited to lower latitudes but does venture considerably far north, competing directly with the Arctic Fox on the tundra. The Red Fox has also become a familiar sight in suburban and even urban environments both in Europe and in North America. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1897x1262, 550 KB) Title: Red Fox with Prey Alternative Title: (none) Creator: West, Robin Source: WO3535-25 Publisher: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contributor: DIVISION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS Language: EN - ENGLISH Rights: (public domain) Audience: (general) Subject: predator, canine, mammal... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1897x1262, 550 KB) Title: Red Fox with Prey Alternative Title: (none) Creator: West, Robin Source: WO3535-25 Publisher: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Contributor: DIVISION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS Language: EN - ENGLISH Rights: (public domain) Audience: (general) Subject: predator, canine, mammal... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...


Dietary habits

Red Foxes are largely carnivorous. The majority of their diet consists of invertebrates, such as insects, mollusks, earthworms and crayfish. They do also eat some plant material, especially blackberries, apples, plums and other fruit. Common vertebrate prey includes rodents (such as mice and voles), rabbits, birds, eggs, amphibians, small reptiles and fish.[17] Foxes have been known to kill deer fawns. In Scandinavia, predation by Red Fox is the most important mortality cause for neonatal Roe deer.[18] They will scavenge carrion and other edible material they find, and in urban areas, they will scavenge on human refuse, even eating from pet food bowls left outside. Analysis of country and urban fox diets show that urban foxes have a higher proportion of scavenged food than country foxes.[19] They typically eat 0.5–1 kg (1–2 lb) of food a day. This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... For the LPG album, see The Earthworm (album). ... Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish, or crawdads, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species See text. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... This article is about the rodent. ... For other uses, see Vole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ...


They usually hunt alone. With their acute sense of hearing, they can locate small mammals in thick grass, and they jump high in the air to pounce on the prey. They also stalk prey such as rabbits, keeping hidden until close enough to catch them in a short dash. Foxes tend to be extremely possessive of their food and will not share it with others. Exceptions to this rule include dog foxes feeding vixens during courtship and vixens feeding cubs.[13]


Red Foxes have proportionately small stomachs for their size and can only eat half as much food in relation to their body weight as wolves and dogs can (about 10% compared with 20%). In periods of abundance, foxes will cache excess food against starvation at other times. They typically store the food in shallow holes (5–10 cm deep). Foxes tend to make many small caches, scattering them across their territories rather than storing their food in a single central location. This is thought to prevent the loss of the fox's entire food supply in the event that another animal finds the store.[20] To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-2 m and 10-1 m (1 cm and 10 cm). ... For other uses, see cache (disambiguation). ...


Interspecific relationships

Along with the Gray Fox, the Red Fox is the most common species of fox in North America. The two species prefer different habitats. The Red Fox prefers sparsely-settled, hill areas with wooded tracts, marshes and streams. The Gray is found in brushy areas, swamplands and rugged, mountainous terrain. Where their ranges overlap, the smaller Gray Foxes tend to be the dominant species due to higher levels of aggression.[21] Red Foxes tend to be dominant in areas where they co-exist with Arctic Foxes. The larger, more aggressive Red Fox can dominate Arctic Foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.[22] Red Foxes in the San Joaquin Valley of California compete with the smaller endangered San Joaquin Kit Fox.[23] For other uses, see Gray Fox (disambiguation). ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ...


In areas in North America where Red Fox and Coyote populations are sympatric, fox territories tend to be located outside of coyote territories. The principal cause of this separation is believed to be active avoidance of coyotes by the foxes. Interactions between the two species vary in nature, ranging from active antagonism, to indifference. The majority of aggressive encounters are initiated by coyotes, and there are few reports of Red Foxes acting aggressively toward coyotes except when attacked or when their pups were approached. Foxes and coyotes have sometimes been seen feeding together.[24] For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ...


In Israel, the Red Fox shares its habitat with the Golden Jackal. Where their ranges meet, the two canids compete due to near identical diets. Foxes ignore jackal scents or tracks in their territories, and avoid close physical proximity with jackals themselves. Studies show that in areas where jackals became very abundant, the population of foxes decreases significantly, apparently because of competitive exclusion.[25] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Golden Jackal range The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus), also called the Asiatic or Common Jackal, is a mammal of the order carnivora native to North and East Africa, Southeastern Europe and South Asia to Burma. ...


Red Foxes sometimes compete with Eurasian Badgers for earthworms, eggs, fruits and den sites. Badgers have been known to kill and eat fox cubs. However, violence between the two animals is thought to be uncommon, and most encounters amount to little more than mutual indifference.[26] Foxes have on occasion shared dens with Eurasian Badgers.[27] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The Eurasian or European badger, Meles meles, is a mammal indigenous to most of Europe (excluding northern Scandinavia, Iceland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Cyprus) and to many parts of Asia, from about 15° to 65° North, and from about 10° West to 135° East. ...


Eurasian Lynxes tend to depress fox populations in areas where the two species are sympatric. The killing of Red Foxes by Eurasian Lynxes is uncommon but occurs during winter and spring, the main period when foxes establish new territories.[28] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ...


Behavior

Living as it does in a wide variety of habitats, the Red Fox displays a wide variety of behaviours. In Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids,[29] MacDonald and Sillero-Zubiri state that two populations of the Red Fox may be behaviourally as different as two species. David W. Macdonald is a British zoologist. ... Claudio Sillero-Zubiri was born in Argentina and is a British zoologist. ...


The Red Fox is primarily crepuscular with a tendency to becoming nocturnal in areas of great human interference (and artificial lighting); that is to say, it is most active at night and at twilight. It is generally a solitary hunter. If a fox catches more food than it can eat, it will bury the extra food (cache) to store it for later. Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


In general, each fox claims its own territory; it pairs up only in winter, foraging alone in the summer. Territories may be as large as 50 km² (19 square miles); ranges are much smaller (less than 12 km², 4.6 sq mi)) in habitats with abundant food sources, however. Several dens are utilized within these territories; dens may be claimed from previous residents such as marmots, or dug anew. A larger main den is used for winter living, birthing and rearing of young; smaller dens are dispersed throughout the territory for emergency and food storage purposes. A series of tunnels often connects them with the main den. One fox may only need a square kilometre of land marked by recognition posts that are special smells that come from a scent gland located just above a fox's tail. In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 10 km² (1,000 hectares) and 100 km² (10,000 hectares). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Species See text. ...


The Red Fox has been considered a monogamous species, however evidence for polygamy (polygyny and polyandry) includes males’ extra-territorial movements during breeding season (possibly searching for additional mates) and males’ home ranges overlapping two or more females’ home ranges. Such variability is thought to be linked to variation in the spatial availability of key resources such as food.[1] The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ...


The Red Fox primarily forms monogamous pairs each winter, which cooperate to raise a litter of 4–6 kits (also called pups) each year; but in various locales and for various incompletely explored reasons they may also practice polygamy (multiple males sharing a single female and/or vice versa). Young foxes disperse promptly on maturity (approx. 8–10 months). In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The reason for this "group living" behaviour is not well understood; some researchers believe the non-breeders boost the survival rate of the litters while others believe there is no significant difference, and such arrangements are made spontaneously due to a resource surplus.


Socially, the fox communicates with body language and a variety of vocalizations. Its vocal range is quite large and its noises vary from a distinctive three-yip "lost call" to a shriek reminiscent of a human scream. It also communicates with scent, marking food and territorial boundary lines with urine and faeces.


John James Audubon noted that cross foxes tended to be shyer than their fully red counterparts. He conjectured that the reason was due to the greater commercial value its fur, thus forcing it to adopt a warier behaviour in order to evade hunters.[30] John James Audubon (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, hunter, and painter. ...


Reproduction

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The Red Fox breeding period varies widely due to its broad distribution; southern populations breed from December to January, central populations from January to February and northern populations from February to April. Females have an annual estrous period of between 1 and 6 days; ovulation is spontaneous. Copulation is loud and short, usually lasting no more than 20 seconds. Although a female may mate with several males (who fight amongst each other for the right), she will eventually settle with only one. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1002 × 666 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)by nicole skdolke[[Link titleBold text]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1002 × 666 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)by nicole skdolke[[Link titleBold text]] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ...

A fox kit sitting on a stone
A fox kit sitting on a stone

Males will supply food to females up to and after birthing, otherwise leaving the female alone with her kits (also called cubs or pups) in a "maternity den". An average litter size is five kits, but may be as large as 13. Kits are born blind and may weigh as much as 150 grams (0.33 lb). Their eyes are open by two weeks and the kits have taken their first exploratory steps out of the den by five weeks; by ten weeks they are fully weaned. Download high resolution version (1897x1262, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1897x1262, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


In autumn of the same year, the young foxes will disperse and claim their own territories. The Red Fox reaches sexual maturity by ten months of age, and may live for 12 years in captivity but will usually only live three years in the wild. This article is about the temperate season. ...


Foxes and humans

Red Fox sculpture in Japan
Red Fox sculpture in Japan

The Red Fox has both positive and negative standing with humans, often being loved or hated. This has been most visible in the United Kingdom where fox hunting with dogs was a traditional sport and an occasional localised means of culling, until this was made illegal in Scotland in August, 2002, and in England and Wales in February, 2005. The fox features in much folklore (see Reynard), usually as a wily villain, though sometimes also as the underdog who triumphs over human efforts to control or destroy it. Download high resolution version (731x1000, 236 KB)Statue of fox at Shinto Inari shrine adjacent to Todaiji (Todai-ji) Buddhism Buddhist temple Nara Japan. ... Download high resolution version (731x1000, 236 KB)Statue of fox at Shinto Inari shrine adjacent to Todaiji (Todai-ji) Buddhism Buddhist temple Nara Japan. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Fox hunting legislation refers to various laws and legislative history related to fox hunting in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. ... This article is about the country. ... The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act in the United Kingdom passed in 2004. ... Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, Reynardt and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic tales from medieval Europe. ...


Like other wild animals, foxes are considered vectors of disease. The Red Fox helps farmers by preying on animals that damage crops but is considered to be a pest by farmers involved in poultry farming. In some places,[vague] the Red Fox is used as a food animal.[31] In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ...


Greater visibility in nature documentaries and sympathetic portrayals in fiction have improved the Red Fox's reputation and appeal in recent years.


In Hong Kong, it is a protected species under Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Cap 170. List of protected species in Hong Kong. ...


Fur trade

The Red Fox is of some importance in the fur industry. The fur of a silver fox was once considered by the natives of New England to be worth over 40 beaver skins. A chieftain accepting a gift of silver fox fur was seen as an act of reconciliation.[31] Silver foxes were first commercially bred on Prince Edward Island, Canada in 1878. Red Foxes are among the most commonly bred animals in fur farms, along with American Minks.[32] Today, silver fox is traditionally used for collars and cuffs, wraps and stoles, while common Red Fox fur is used for trimming and for full fur garments.[16] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Tame Silver Foxes are the results of an experiment to domesticate the silver fox, started many years ago in Russia. ... Silklamb chasuble with bottened bluefox, dyed. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1777) The American Mink is a trademark of the American Legend Cooperative The American Mink, Neovison vison, is a North American member of the Mustelidae family found in Alaska, Canada and most of the United States. ...


Livestock predation

An urban fox investigating a domestic pet in a garden in Birmingham, UK
An urban fox investigating a domestic pet in a garden in Birmingham, UK

Red Foxes are generally considered to be the most serious predator of free range poultry. The safest option known in poultry protection is to keep the flock and the fox physically separated, usually with fencing. A fence needs to be at least 2 m high in order to keep out most foxes, though on some rare occasions, a determined fox might succeed in climbing over.[33] Surplus killing will often occur in enclosed spaces such as huts, with discarded feathers and headless bodies usually being the main indicators of fox predation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x1058, 467 KB) Summary Description: An urban fox investigating a domestic pet in a garden in Birmingham, UK Date: Photographed 2001 by me. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1469x1058, 467 KB) Summary Description: An urban fox investigating a domestic pet in a garden in Birmingham, UK Date: Photographed 2001 by me. ... This article is about the British city. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Orders of magnitude (length) 1 E-13 m 1 E-12 m 1 E-11 m 1 E-10 m 1 E-9 m 1 E-8 m 1 E-7 m 1 E-6 m 1 E-5 m 1 E-4 m 1 E-3 m 1 E...


Although poultry is the most commonly-taken domesticated prey, Red Foxes will on some occasions kill young or small animals, particularly lambs and kids. In exceptional circumstances, they may attack sub-adult and adult sheep and goats and sometimes small calves.[15] Foxes will usually kill lambs or kids by repeatedly biting the neck and back, which is usually the result from young animals being caught while lying down. Other than with poultry, fox predation on livestock can be distinguished from dog or coyote predation by the fact that foxes rarely cause severe ossular damage when feeding.[15] Red Foxes also are noted for carrying small carcasses back to their dens to feed their young which may account for some poultry, lambs and kids that disappear and are never found.[15] Scientific studies in Britain found that between 0.5 % and 3 % of otherwise viable lambs may be taken by foxes, described as a small amount when compared to the mortality caused by exposure, starvation and disease.[34] Sheep redirects here. ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


In human imagination

Further information: Foxes in fiction
Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 children's book.
Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 children's book.

The emblematic Red Fox is a frequent player in the stories of many cultures. A trickster character, the word Sly is almost invariably associated with foxes in English, and the connotation of a sneaking intelligence (or even magic powers of stealth) are seen in traditional tales of Europe, Japan, China, and North America (though here the Coyote usually plays this role). // In many cultures, the fox appears in folklore as a symbol of cunning and trickery, or as a familiar animal possessed of magic powers. ... Reynard the fox. ... Reynard the fox. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Trickster (disambiguation). ... Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. ...


In the European fable tradition, running from Aesop's Fables, to Jean de La Fontaine's Fabliaux and the Reynard tales, the fox ranges from immoral villain (as the Fox in the hen house), to sly operator (either foolish or crafty), to wise observer (as a mouthpiece for the moral in some Aesop tales) to clever underdog (exemplified by the Reynard tradition). Some historians argue that the fox came to symbolise the survival strategies of European peasantry from the Medieval period to the French Revolution. Peasants admired guile and wit needed to out manoeuvre the powers of aristocracy, state and church, just as they saw the fox use these same qualities to raid their livestock under cover of darkness.[35] For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... The fabliau (plural fabliaux or fablieaux) is a comic, usually anonymous tale written by jongleurs in northeast France circa the 13th Century. ... Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, Reynardt and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic tales from medieval Europe. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Feral foxes in Australia

Feral foxes in Australia pose a serious conservation problem. According to the Australian Government, the Red Fox was introduced to Australia for hunting in 1855, but has since become wide-spread, and is considered responsible for the decline in a number of species of native animals in the "critical weight range". In a program known as Western Shield, Western Australia state government authorities conduct aerial and hand baiting on almost 35,000 km² (8.75 million acres) to control foxes and feral cats. The West Australian conservation department, CALM, estimates introduced predators are responsible for the extinction of ten native species in that state, while Western Shield targets the conservation of 16 others. A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Western Shield, managed by the Western Australias Department of Environment and Conservation, is a nature conservation program, safeguarding Western Australias native animals and bringing them back from the brink of extinction. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surviving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia[1][2]. Here, kittens from two feral litters are fostered by a domestic mother. ... The Department of Environment and Conservation is a department of the Government of Western Australia that is responsible for implementing the states conservation and environment policies. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Western Shield, managed by the Western Australias Department of Environment and Conservation, is a nature conservation program, safeguarding Western Australias native animals and bringing them back from the brink of extinction. ...


According to the Tasmanian government, Red Foxes have recently been introduced to the previously fox free island of Tasmania. An eradication program is being conducted by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water.[36] An independent member of the Tasmanian state Parliament, Ivan Dean, has claimed that the fox introductions are a hoax, a claim the Minister for Primary Industry, David Llewellyn described as a "load of rubbish".[37] Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Ivan Dean is the Mayor of the Launceston City Council, in Tasmania and member of the Tasmanian Legislative Council or upper house; in the electoral division of Windermere. ...

In Australia, foxes are usually controlled with baits or the animals shot with the aid of spotlighting. The eyeshine signature (from the tapetum lucidum in the eye) of foxes, and body shape and silhouette are used to identify them. Success has also been found with the reintroduction of the native "Australian Dog", the Dingo, which has been shown to control the number of feral foxes, and a consequential increase in native fauna.[38]
Mornington Peninsula is a national park in Victoria (Australia), 77 km south of Melbourne. ... Bait is any substance used to attract prey, e. ... Spotlighting or shining is a method of hunting nocturnal animals using off-road vehicles and high-powered lights. ... Tapetum lucidum in a calf eye, with the retina hanging down. ... For other uses, see Silhouette (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ...


Subspecies

  • Vulpes vulpes abietorum
  • Vulpes vulpes aeygptica
  • Vulpes vulpes alascensis
  • Vulpes vulpes alpherakyi
  • Vulpes vulpes alticola
  • Vulpes vulpes anatolica
  • Vulpes vulpes arabica
  • Vulpes vulpes atlantica
  • Vulpes vulpes barbara
  • Vulpes vulpes beringiana
  • Vulpes vulpes cascadensis
  • Vulpes vulpes caucasica
  • Vulpes vulpes crucigera
  • Vulpes vulpes daurica
  • Vulpes vulpes diluta
  • Vulpes vulpes dolichocrania
  • Vulpes vulpes dorsalis
  • Vulpes vulpes flavescens
  • Vulpes vulpes fulva
  • Vulpes vulpes fulvus
  • Vulpes vulpes griffithi
  • Vulpes vulpes harrimani
  • Vulpes vulpes hoole
  • Vulpes vulpes ichnusae
  • Vulpes vulpes induta
  • Vulpes vulpes jakutensis
  • Vulpes vulpes japonica
  • Vulpes vulpes karagan
  • Vulpes vulpes kenaiensis
  • Vulpes vulpes krimeamontana
  • Vulpes vulpes kurdistanica
  • Vulpes vulpes macroura
  • Vulpes vulpes montana
  • Vulpes vulpes necator
  • Vulpes vulpes ochroxanta
  • Vulpes vulpes palaestina
  • Vulpes vulpes peculiosa
  • Vulpes vulpes pusilla
  • Vulpes vulpes regalis
  • Vulpes vulpes rubricosa
  • Vulpes vulpes schrencki
  • Vulpes vulpes septentrionalis
  • Vulpes vulpes silacea
  • Vulpes vulpes splendidissima
  • Vulpes vulpes stepensis
  • Vulpes vulpes topolica
  • Vulpes vulpes tschiliensis
  • Vulpes vulpes vulpecula
  • Vulpes vulpes vulpes
  • Vulpes vulpes waddelli

References

  1. ^ a b Macdonald, D.W. & Reynolds, J.C. (2004). Vulpes vulpes. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-09. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ Vulpes vulpes. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  3. ^ European red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Australian Department of the Environment and Water Resources (2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  4. ^ Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  5. ^ World Conservation Union (IUCN) Invasive Species Specialist Group Global Invasive Species Database, accessed 2008-02-19.
  6. ^ Crabtree, Bob (April-May 1998). On the trail of a gray ghost - studying mountain gray foxes. National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  7. ^ Presnall, C.C. (1958). The Present Status of Exotic Mammals in the United States. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 22(1).
  8. ^ Churcher, C.S. (1959). The Specific Status of the New World Red Fox. Journal of Mammalogy, 40(4). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  9. ^ Lioncrusher's Domain -- Carnivora Species Information
  10. ^ Fox Hunting and the ban - Ten things you didn't know. Icons (2006). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  11. ^ Index of Species Information: Vulpes vulpes. Fire Effects Information System. United States Forest Service. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  12. ^ Vulpes vulpes. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  13. ^ a b c Macdonald, David (1987). Running with the Fox, p224. ISBN 0-044-40199-X. 
  14. ^ Red Fox profile. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
  15. ^ a b c d Fox Predation — Description. Procedures for Evaluating Predation on Livestock and Wildlife. Texas Natural Resource Server. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  16. ^ a b Facts on fur types. International Fur Trade Federation. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  17. ^ Diet. Derbyshire Fox Rescue. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  18. ^ Jarnemo, Anders (July 2004). "Predation processes: behavioural interactions between Red Fox and roe deer during the fawning season". Journal of Ethology 22 (2): 167–173. doi:10.1007/s10164-004-0118-2. ISSN 1439-5444. 
  19. ^ Fox food. Wild about Leicester. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  20. ^ Cacheing. Derbyshire Fox Rescue. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  21. ^ Wildlife notes: Foxes. Pennsylvania Game commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  22. ^ Rudzinski, D. R.; H. B. Graves, A. B. Sargeant, G. L. Storm (October 1982). "Behavioral Interactions of Penned Red and Arctic Foxes". Journal of Wildlife Management 46 (4): 877–884. doi:10.2307/3808220. 
  23. ^ "Competitive interactions between endangered kit foxes and non-native red foxes" (April 2005). Western North American Naturalist 65 (2): 153-163. 
  24. ^ Alan B Sargeant; Stephen H Allen (1989). "Observed Interactions Between Coyotes and Red Foxes". Journal of Mammology (3): 631–633. 
  25. ^ Behavioural responses of red foxes to an increase in the presence of golden jackals: a field experiment (PDF). Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  26. ^ Natural History of the Red Fox. Wildlife Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  27. ^ Journal of Zoology, Volume 263, Part 4, August 2004
  28. ^ Journal of Zoology, Volume 270, Part 4, December 2006
  29. ^ Macdonald, David W; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri (2004). Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-198-51556-1. 
  30. ^ Audubon, John James (1967). The Imperial Collection of Audubon Animals, p307. ASIN B000M2FOFM. 
  31. ^ a b Morton, Thomas (1972). New English Canaan: Or, New Canaan (Research Library of Colonial Americana), p188. ISBN 0405033095. 
  32. ^ The Fur Trade. WorldAnimal.net. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  33. ^ Katie Thear. Protecting the Poultry Flock — Foxes and Fences. Poultry Pages. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  34. ^ McDonald, R., Baker, P. & Harris, S. (1997). Is the fox a pest?, the ecological and economic impact of foxes in Britain. Electra Publishing. 
  35. ^ Robert Darnton, "Peasants tell tales: the meaning of Mother Goose" in The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history. N.Y.: Vintage Basic Books, (1984)
  36. ^ Hard Evidence of Foxes Discovered in Tasmania. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania website. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  37. '^ Tassie 'hoodwinked. Mercury newspaper website. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  38. ^ Tracey Millen (Oct–Nov 2006). "Call for more dingoes to restore native species" (PDF). ECOS 133.  (Refers to the book Australia's Mammal Extinctions: a 50,000 year history. Christopher N. Johnson. ISBN 978-0521686600.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the U.S. Forest Service. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David W. Macdonald is a British zoologist. ... Claudio Sillero-Zubiri was born in Argentina and is a British zoologist. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identification number assigned by Amazon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1983 in literature, other events of 1984, 1985 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The correct title of this article is . ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies has information related to:
Look up Fox in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Vulpes vulpes (TSN 180604). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 18 March 2006.
  • Menon, Vivek. A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Dorling Kindersley, Delhi, 2003.
  • MacDonald, David (1991). Running with the Fox. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-1886-3. 
  • European Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Australian Department of the Environment and Water Resources, 2004]
  • Red Fox, The Nature Conservatory Species Profile
  • The Fox Website, University of Bristol mammal group
  • The Fox Forest, educational site about foxes
  • Wildlife Online, extensive information about the natural history of the Red Fox, also contains a quick ref page under 'speed read'


  Results from FactBites:
 
Red Fox: Wildlife Notebook Series - Alaska Department of Fish and Game (937 words)
Red fox populations in Southeast Alaska are sparse, but the animal is found in the Taku and Stikine river valleys and the Mendenhall Flats.
The red fox measures 22 to 32 inches (56-82 cm) in head and body length, and the tail is 14 inches to 16 inches (35- 43 cm) long.
Red foxes displaying a distinct color pattern are referred by the name of that phase (i.e., red, cross, silver, fl).
NTA - Red Fox (1601 words)
Red fox are slightly heavier in the northern parts of their ranges, and slightly lighter in far southern locations.
Red fox prefer open areas where visibility is good, and often seek out open places in the forests when hunting or resting for the day.
Red fox are vulnerable to rabies, and rabid animals can infect pets or even man. They are also vulnerable to several diseases and severe devastation can and does occur when populations are high enough for easy transmission.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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