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Encyclopedia > Red Brick universities
The Aston Webb building, Birmingham
The Aston Webb building, Birmingham
Victoria Building tower, Liverpool
Victoria Building tower, Liverpool
Firth Court, University of Sheffield
The main Entrance to Old College at the University of Wales Aberystwyth
The main Entrance to Old College at the University of Wales Aberystwyth

Red Brick (or perhaps better, Redbrick) originally referred to the six "civic" British universities which were founded in the industrial cities of England in the Victorian era and which achieved university status before World War II. The modern term roughly equates to those members of the so-called Russell Group of universities founded between 1850 and 1960, although the terms are by no means mutually inclusive. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 601 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 601 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Sir Aston Webb, portrait by Solomon Joseph Solomon, ca 1906 Sir Aston Webb (May 22, 1849 - August 21, 1930) was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2136x2848, 1918 KB)Victoria Building, University of Liverpool. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2136x2848, 1918 KB)Victoria Building, University of Liverpool. ... Victoria Building The Victoria Building was historically the administrative heart of the University of Liverpool, housing the University Library as well as offices for most of the senior academic staff. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 825 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Sheffield Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 825 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Sheffield Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The University of Wales (Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a federal university founded in 1893. ... “British Universities” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

The civic universities

The civic university movement started in 1851 with Owens College, Manchester (now the University of Manchester), which became the founding college of the federal Victoria University in 1880 and attained university status when the federal university was dissolved in 1903. 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... This page is about the British Victoria University. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The seven civic universities were:[1]

These universities were distinguished by being non-collegiate institutions that admitted men without reference to religion or background and concentrated on imparting to their students "real-world" skills, often linked to engineering. In this sense, they owed their heritage to University College London and to the Humboldt University of Berlin, both of which emphasised practical knowledge over the academic sort. This focus on the practical also distinguished the "Red Brick" universities from the ancient English universities of Oxford and Cambridge and from the newer (although still pre-Victorian) University of Durham, collegiate institutions which concentrated on divinity, the liberal arts and imposed religious tests (e.g. assent to the Thirty-Nine Articles) on staff and students. Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh), usually grouped with Dundee (which was originally part of St Andrews - see below), were founded on a different basis. Website http://www. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ... For the Australian university, see University of Newcastle, Australia. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... The University of Sheffield is a research university, located in Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Affiliations 1994 Group European University Association Association of MBAs EQUIS Universities UK N8 Group Association of Commonwealth Universities Website http://www. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Ancient universities is a British term to indicate those of the universities that were founded in the middle ages. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Dundee is the principal university in the city and Royal burgh of Dundee, Scotland. ...


Origins of the term

The term "Red Brick" or "Redbrick" was first coined by a professor of Spanish (Edgar Allison Peers) at the University of Liverpool to describe these civic universities (under the pseudonym "Bruce Truscot" in his 1943 book Redbrick University).[2][3] His reference was inspired by the fact that The Victoria Building at the University of Liverpool (which was designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed in 1892) is built from a distinctive red pressed brick, with terracotta decorative dressings. On this basis, the University of Liverpool (which was itself originally part of the aforementioned Victoria University together with Owens College in Manchester) can be argued to be the "original" red brick university. With the Birmingham University Act receiving assent on 24 May 1900, the first red brick university to receive its Royal Charter was the University of Birmingham. Edgar Allison Peers (7 May 1891 – 21 December 1952), also known by his pseudonym Bruce Truscot, was an English Hispanist and educationist. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. ... Victoria Building The Victoria Building was historically the administrative heart of the University of Liverpool, housing the University Library as well as offices for most of the senior academic staff. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... The Natural History Museum has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Website http://www. ...


However, the term was to become more nebulous. The University of Reading, founded in the late 19th century as an extension college of Oxford, received its charter in 1926. Despite being the first university to be based on a self-contained campus, Reading is often classed as one of the civic universities and is therefore "Red Brick", as is Queen's University Belfast, which became a civic university in 1908, having previously been established in 1845 as a university college of the Queen's University of Ireland (which was later renamed as Royal University of Ireland). Whiteknights Lake Whiteknights Lake in winter The University Great Hall, on the London Road Campus The University of Reading is a university in the English town of Reading, Berkshire. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A campus university is a British term for a University situated on one site - with student accommodation, teaching and research facilities, and leisure activities all together. ... Queens University Belfast is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland and a member of the Russell Group (a lobby group of major research universities in the United Kingdom). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Queens University of Ireland was established formally by Royal Charter on September 3, 1850 as the degree awarding university of the Queens Colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway that were established in 1845 to afford a university education to members of all religious denominations in Ireland. ... The Royal University of Ireland was founded in accordance with the University Education (Ireland) Act 1879 as an examination and degree awarding university based on the model of the University of London. ...


University College London itself, and colleges from the 19th and early 20th centuries which later achieved university status prior to 1963, are also sometimes described as "Red Brick". This broader designation includes institutions such as: Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ...

Additionally, the University of Dundee, formerly "University College Dundee", was founded in the late 19th century and then spent many years as a constituent college of the University of St Andrews, until it received its own charter. - it has many features in common with the original "Red Brick" universities of large northern English cities, although it has other features it shares with the Scottish ancients. The University of Exeter (usually abbreviated as Exon. ... The Venn Building The University of Hull, also known as Hull University, is an English university located in Hull (or Kingston upon Hull), a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire. ... University of Leicester seen from Victoria Park - Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough tower, the Charles Wilson building. ... The University of Nottingham is a leading research and teaching university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... The University of Southampton is a university situated in the city of Southampton, on the south coast of Great Britain. ... The University of Dundee is the principal university in the city and Royal burgh of Dundee, Scotland. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ...


The term "redbrick" is also used to cover the original constituent institutions of the University of Wales, those being; Aberystwyth, Bangor, Swansea and Cardiff and St David's College, Lampeter. The University of Wales (Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a federal university founded in 1893. ... The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, a Member Institution of the federal University of Wales, was the first university institution to be established in Wales. ... The University of Wales, Bangor (UWB) is a constituent institution of the University of Wales based in the small city of Bangor in the county of Gwynedd in North Wales, United Kingdom. ... Swansea University (Welsh: Prifysgol Abertawe) is located in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. ... The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ... University of Wales, Lampeter Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan   University of Wales, Lampeter (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan) is a university in Lampeter, Wales, the oldest degree awarding institution in Wales, and the third oldest in England and Wales after Oxford and Cambridge. ...


Keble College, Oxford is notable for being both a red-brick built college within the University of Oxford and a "Red Brick"-style institution which places a similarly strong emphasis on engineering and sciences. College name Keble College Collegium Keblense Named after John Keble Established 1870 Sister College Selwyn College Warden Professor Dame Averil Cameron DBE FBA JCR President Paul Dwyer Undergraduates 435 MCR President Tom Robinson Graduates 219 Homepage Boatclub Keble College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


In 1963, the Robbins Report recommended expansion of the British university system - the universities established after this report are often known as the "plate glass universities". The Robbins Report was a British government-commissioned report into the future of higher education in the country. ... The University of Yorks Central Hall is an example of plate glass architectural design. ...


See also

Oxbridge is a name used to refer to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the two oldest in the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world. ... The University of Wales (Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a federal university founded in 1893. ... This is a list of universities in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 1994 Group is a coalition of smaller research-intensive universities founded to defend their interests after the larger research-intensive universities founded the Russell Group. ... The University of Yorks Central Hall is an example of plate glass architectural design. ... In the United Kingdom, the term New University has two meanings regarding British universities. ...

References

  1. ^ A history of the HE environment | Staff | University of St Andrews
  2. ^ Peers, Edgar Allison (1943). Redbrick University. 
  3. ^ Peers, Edgar Allison (1996). Redbrick University Revisited. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0853232598. 

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