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Encyclopedia > Red Book (audio CD standard)
Red Book (audio CD standard)
Media type Optical disc
Encoding 2 channels of PCM audio, each signed 16-bit values sampled at 44100 Hz
Capacity up to 700 MB
Read mechanism 780 nm wavelength semiconductor laser
Developed by Sony & Philips
Usage Audio and data storage

Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). It is named after one of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD and CD-ROM formats. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a modulation technique. ... Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... “Standard” redirects here. ... CD re-directs here; see Cd for other meanings of CD. Image of a compact disc (pencil included for scale) A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... Specification redirects here. ... CD redirects here. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Look up format in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The first edition of the Red Book was released in 1980 by Philips and Sony;[1] it was adopted by the Digital Audio Disc Committee and ratified as IEC 908. The standard is not freely available and must be licensed from Philips. At the time of writing, the cost per the relevant Philips order form [2] is US$5,000. As of 2006, the IEC 908 document is now known as IEC 60908 and is also available as a PDF download for $242.[3] Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...

Contents

Redbook Audio Specifications

The basic specifications state that

  1. Maximum playing time is 78 minutes (including pauses)
  2. Minimum duration for a track is 4 seconds
  3. Maximum number of tracks is 99
  4. Maximum number of index points (subdivisions of a track) is 99 with no maximum time limit
  5. International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) should be recorded on CD-Rs to appear on the replicated discs

On a compact disc or a DVD, a track is a consecutive set of sectors on the disc containing a block of data. ... The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC), defined by ISO 3901, is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. ...

Technical details

The pits in a CD are 500 nm wide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.
The pits in a CD are 500 nm wide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.

The Red Book specifies the physical parameters and properties of the CD, the optical "stylus" parameters, deviations and error rate, modulation system (Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, EFM) and error correction (Cross-interleaved Reed-Solomon coding, CIRC), and subcode channels and graphics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An audio CD of mine. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An audio CD of mine. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) is an encoding technique used by CDs and MiniDiscs. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Besides digital audio, a Compact Disc contains digital data called subcode, which is multiplexed with the digital audio. ...


It also specifies the form of digital audio encoding: 2-channel signed 16-bit PCM sampled at 44,100 Hz. Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a modulation technique. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...


An audio CD can represent frequencies up to 22.05 kHz — the Nyquist frequency of the 44.1 kHz sample rate. The Nyquist frequency, named after Harry Nyquist or the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, is half the sampling frequency of a discrete signal processing system. ...


The bit rate is 1411.2 kbps: In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ...


44,100 samples per second × 16 bits per sample × 2 channels = 1,411,200 bps = 1,411.2 kbit/s. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ...


Sample values range from -32768 to +32767.


On the disc, the data is stored in sectors of 2352 bytes each, read at 75 sectors per second. Onto this the overhead of EFM, CIRC, L2 ECC, and so on, is added, but these are not typically exposed to the application reading the disc.


By comparison, the bit rate of a "1x" data CD is defined as 2048 bytes per sector × 75 sectors per second = 150 KiB/s, or approximately 9.2 million bytes per minute. A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For the computer industry magazine, see Byte (magazine). ...


Copy prevention

Some major recording publishers have begun to sell CDs that violate the Red Book standard. Some do so for the purpose of copy prevention, using systems like Copy Control. Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... Copy control logo Copy Control is the generic name of a copy protection system, used from 2001 until 2006 on several digital audio disc releases by EMI and Sony BMG Music Entertainment in several regions (Europe, Canada, the United States, Australia). ...


Some do so for extra features such as DualDisc, which includes both a CD-layer and a DVD-layer whereby the CD-layer is much thinner, 0.9 mm, than required by the Red Book, which stipulates a nominal 1.2 mm, but at least 1.1 mm. Philips and many other companies have warned them that including the Compact Disc Digital Audio logo on such non-conforming discs may constitute trademark infringement. Either in anticipation or in response, recent copy-protected CDs bear stickers and warnings that the CD is not standard and may not play in all CD players, and no longer display the long-familiar logo. DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


Replication

A multi-track CD image format is required for multi-track CDs. If a single-track image format like .ISO is used, then only the first track will be retained and no other tracks would be replicated. A disk image is a computer file containing the complete contents and structure of a data storage device. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

XCP-Aurora Extended Copy Protection (XCP) is a software package developed by the British company First 4 Internet, (which on 20 November 2006, changed its name to Fortium Technologies Ltd - see links below), and sold as a copy protection or digital rights management (DRM) scheme for compact discs. ... The 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal was a public scandal dealing with Sony BMG Music Entertainments surreptitious distribution of rootkit software on audio compact discs. ... Digital Rights Management (often abbreviated to DRM) is any of several technologies used by publishers to control access to digital data (such as software, music, movies) and hardware, handling usage restrictions associated with a specific instance of a digital work. ... Compact disc recordings contain two channels of 44. ...

External links

  • Philips' Audio Standards licensing info
  • IEC 60908 publication info

References

  1. ^ How the CD was developed. BBC News (August 17, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  2. ^ Document no. 28/10/04-3122 783 0027 2
  3. ^ IEC 60908 Ed. 2.0 b:1999 Audio recording - Compact disc digital audio system
Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The Orange Book (or Orange Books) is a series of technical standards published by Philips containing full specifications of the CD-MO, CD-R and CD-RW discs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rainbow Books. ... VCD redirects here. ... The Blue Book or Enhanced Music CD specification describes the Enhanced Music CD disc format. ... Enhanced Music Compact Disc logo/trademark Compact Disc Interactive logo/trademark Enhanced CD, also known as CD Extra and CD Plus, is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both compact disc and CD-ROM... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitising and storing photos in a CD. Launched in 1992, the disks were designed to hold nearly 100 high quality images, scanned prints and slides using special proprietary encoding. ... The Philips Green Book specifies the standard for interactive, multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players[1]. This compact disc format is unusual, because it hides the initial tracks which contains the software and data files used by the CD-i players. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... Double Density Compact Disc (DDCD) is a compact disc-based optical disc technology developed by Sony. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
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A standard compact disc, often known as an audio CD to differentiate it from later variants, stores audio data in a format compliant with the red book standard.
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The design of the CD was originally conceived as an evolution of the gramophone record, rather than primarily as a data storage medium.
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The write laser of the CD recorder changes the color of the dye to allow the read laser of a standard CD player to see the data as it would an injection molded compact disc.
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