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Encyclopedia > Recycling
The international recycling symbol.
The international recycling symbol.
Environmental technology
Environmental science

Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling generally prevents the waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions, compared to virgin production.[1] Recycling is a key concept of modern waste management and is the third component of the waste hierarchy. Image File history File links Recycle001. ... Image File history File links Recycle001. ... The Universal Recycling Symbol, here rendered with a black outline and green fill. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Air Pollution#Control devices. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... This article is about green building construction. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by mans industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. ...


Recyclable materials, also called "recyclables", may originate from a wide range of sources including the home and industry. They include glass, paper, aluminium, asphalt, iron, textiles and plastics. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or garden waste, is also recyclable with the assistance of micro-organisms through composting or anaerobic digestion. For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... Food waste (also called garbage [1], especially in North American English) is any form of biodegradable waste that was originally intended for consumption. ... Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be comprised of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ...


Recyclates are sorted and separated into material types. Contamination of the recylates with other materials must be prevented to increase the recyclates' value and facilitate easier reprocessing for the ultimate recycling facility. This sorting can be performed either by the producer of the waste or within semi- or fully-automated materials recovery facilities. Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. ... A materials recovery facility or materials reclaimation facility (MRF -- pronounced murf) is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers. ...


There are two common household methods of recycling. In curbside collection (UK: kerbside collection), consumers leave presorted recyclable materials in front of their property to be collected by a recycling vehicle. With a "bring" or carry-in system, the householder takes the materials to collection points, such as transfer stations or civic amenity sites. Kerbside collection (curbside collection US) is the strategy of local authorities to collect recyclable resources from the household alongside normal mixed waste collections. ... Scania front loader WCV A waste collection vehicle (WCV)/ refuse collection vehicle (RCV), garbage truck (in North America), rubbish truck (in Australia), or dustcart, or sometimes dustbin wagon (in Britain and other Commonwealth countries), is a truck specially designed to pick up smaller quantities of waste and haul it to... The Hiriya transfer station, largest in the Middle East located at Tel Aviv and mechanical biological treatment facility A transfer station is a building for the temporary deposition of some wastes. ... A civic amenity site (or CA site)is a facility where the public can dispose of household waste and also often containing recycling points. ...


The term recycling does not generally include reuse, in which existing items are used for a new purpose. Reuse is using an item more than once. ...

Contents

History

Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station.
Recycling and rubbish bin in a German railway station.

Recycling has been a common practice throughout human history. In pre-industrial times, scrap made of bronze and other precious metals was collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse, and in Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was downcycled as a base material in brick making. The main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in ever more-populated sites. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (644x967, 492 KB) Summary Rotated and croped version of Image:DeutscheBahnRecycling20050814_CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (644x967, 492 KB) Summary Rotated and croped version of Image:DeutscheBahnRecycling20050814_CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... Downcycling is the recycling of a material into a material of lesser quality. ...


Paper recycling began in Britain in 1921, when the British Waste Paper Association (now Confederation of Paper Industries) was established to encourage trade in waste paper recycling.


Resource shortages caused by the world wars, and other such world-changing occurrences greatly encouraged recycling. Massive government promotion campaigns were carried out in World War II in every country involved in the war, urging citizens to donate metals and conserve fiber, as a matter of significant patriotic importance. Resource conservation programs established during the war were continued in some countries without an abundance of natural resources, such as Japan, after the war ended. A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The next big investment in recycling occurred in the 1970s, due to rising energy costs. Recycling aluminum uses only 5% of the energy required by virgin production; glass, paper and metals have less dramatic but very significant energy savings when recycled feedstock is used [2]. The passage of the Clean Water Act of 1977 in the USA created strong demand for bleached paper (office paper whose fibre has already been bleached white increased in value as water effluent became more expensive). The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ...

A recycling bin at a park in northern California.

In 1973, the city of Berkeley, California began one of the first curbside collection programs with monthly pick ups of newspapers from residences. Since then several countries have started and expanded various doorstep collection schemes. Around this time, Woodbury, New Jersey was also a forerunner of the recycling industry in the United States, being the first in the state to mandate it. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Woodbury highlighted in Gloucester County. ...


In 1987, the Mobro 4000 barge hauled garbage from New York to North Carolina, where it had been denied. It was then sent to Belize, where it was denied as well. Finally, the barge returned to New York and the garbage was incinerated. The incident led to heated discussions about waste disposal and recycling. The Mobro 4000 is a barge made famous in 1987 for hauling the same load of trash along the east coast of North America from New York to Belize and back before a way was found to dispose of the garbage. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


One event that initiated recycling efforts occurred in 1989 when Berkeley banned the use of polystyrene packaging for keeping McDonald's hamburgers warm. One effect of this ban was to raise the ire of management at Dow Chemical, the world's largest manufacturer of polystyrene, which led to the first major effort to show that plastics can be recycled. By 1999, there were 1,677 companies in the USA alone involved in the post-consumer plastics recycling business. Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. In terms of market capitalization, it is the second-largest chemical company in the world, smaller than only DuPont. ...


In Germany the introduction of a Packaging Ordinance under the Waste Act led to the introduction of the Green Dot program. Originally launched by Duales System Deutschland GmbH (DSD) in 1990, the scheme has since been rolled out to 23 other European countries. The Green Dot scheme is captured under the European "Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive - 94/62/EC" and is binding for all companies if their products use packaging. The Green Dot (German: Der Grüne Punkt) is the license symbol of a European network of industry-funded systems for recycling the packaging materials of consumer goods. ...


Benefits

A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia.

Recycling is beneficial in two ways: it reduces the inputs (energy and raw materials) to a production system and reduces the amount of waste produced for disposal. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Angelo Tsirekas 2007 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Angelo Tsirekas 2007 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


A study conducted by the Technical University of Denmark found that in 80% of cases, recycling is the most efficient method to dispose of household waste.[2] Technical University of Denmark The Technical University of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)) was founded in 1829 as the College of Advanced Technology (Danish: Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt) belonging to the University of Copenhagen. ...


Some materials like aluminum can be recycled indefinitely as there is no change to the materials. Other recycled materials like paper require a percentage of raw materials (wood fibers) to be added to compensate for the degradation of existing fibers. Recycling aluminium saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminium[2] because the melting temperature is reduced from 900 °C to 600 °C. It is by far the most efficient material to recycle. Recycling plastic saves 70% of the energy used in creating new plastic, and paper recycling saves 40% of the energy required to make a new product.[2]


The resources being processed are purer, thus less energy is needed to process them. Additionally less energy is needed to transport them from the place of extraction (e.g. bauxite/aluminium ore mines in Brazil or coniferous forests in Scandinavia as compared to domestic areas). Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


This reduces the environmental, social, and usually the economic costs of manufacturing.


For example, bauxite mines in Brazil displace indigenous people, create noise pollution from blasting, machinery and transport, and create air pollution in the form of particulates (dust). The habitat loss and visual destruction is also negative both to the aesthetic qualities of the areas and the local environment.


The most commonly used methods for waste disposal (landfill, pyrolysis, incineration) may be environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Therefore any way to reduce the volume of waste being disposed in this fashion may be beneficial. The maximum environmental benefit is gained by waste minimization (reducing the amount of waste produced), and reusing items in their current form such as refilling bottles. Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... For other forms of waste plant that produce energy see waste-to-energy. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


In the past recycling has been a fragmented industry with recycling companies only accepting specific materials for recycling, or only common materials such as plastic or metals. More recent approaches have resulted in recycling companies that accept a wide variety of materials or emerging market materials such as ceiling tiles, carpet, stained wood etc.. An example of a company that accepts a wide variety of materials, including emerging recycling markets is the Green Recycling Network.


Drawbacks and criticism

Main article: Recycling criticism

All recycling techniques consume energy for transportation and processing and some also use considerable amounts of water, although recycling processes seldom amount to the level of resource use associated with raw materials processing.[3] The following are criticisms of many popular points used for recycling. ...


There may also be drawbacks with the collection methods associated with recycling. Increasing collections of separated = | title=Plastic Recycling is a Work In Progress | date=2006-03-30 | publisher= | url =http://www.evco-research.com/press/NY%20Times%203-30-02%20Plastic%20Recycling%20-Deutsch.pdf | work =The New York Times | pages = | accessdate = 2007-10-21 | language = }}</ref>


Negative consequences from mercury recycling have been cited by The Wall Street Journal.[4] The article traces mercury recovered from American recycling programs into sales of mercury for alluvial mining activities in Brazil. During the autumn of 2006,recycling will take place. Thus, there is no need for the government to mandate it. The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ...

  • Each year the United States fills up less than 10 square miles of landfill space. Once full, much of that land gets turned into parks.
  • Tree farmers plant more trees than they cut down.
  • Government mandated recycling is more expensive than putting the garbage into landfills, which means that this recycling uses up more resources than it saves.
  • Some small towns with landfills are happy to import garbage from other cities and states because it provides jobs and tax revenue.
  • Today's modern landfills are much cleaner and safer, and much less likely to leak and pollute, than the landfills of the past.

Recycling techniques

Base layer of asphalt concrete

Many different materials can be recycled but each type requires a different technique. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x851, 881 KB)Shot by Estr4ng3d, Helwan-Korayimat Road (Cairo, Egypt) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1097x851, 881 KB)Shot by Estr4ng3d, Helwan-Korayimat Road (Cairo, Egypt) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ...


Aggregates & concrete

Main article: Concrete recycling

Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up, which in turn saves trees and habitats. When structures made of concrete are to be demolished, concrete recycling is an increasingly common method of disposing of the rubble. ... Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress. ... A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large solid chunks of raw material into smaller chunks. ...


Batteries

Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals
Some batteries contain toxic heavy metals

The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult: they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual recycling process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium, harmful materials which must be handled with care. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ...


Lead-acid batteries, like those used in automobiles, are relatively easy to recycle and many new lead-acid batteries contain a high percentage of recycled material.


Biodegradable waste

Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes
Anaerobic digesters produce biogas and soil improver from organic wastes

Biodegradable waste can be recycled into useful material by biological decomposition. There are two mechanisms by which this can occur. The most common mechanism of recycling of household organic waste is home composting or municipal curbside collection of green wastes sent to large scale composting plants. Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Grasscycling refers to leaving grass clippings on the lawn when mowing. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Image File history File links MBT_anaerobicdigesters. ... Image File history File links MBT_anaerobicdigesters. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ...


Alternatively organic waste can be converted into biogas and soil improver using anaerobic digestion. Here organic wastes are broken down by anaerobic microorganisms in biogas plants. The biogas can be converted into renewable electricity or burnt for environmentally friendly heating. Advanced technologies such as mechanical biological treatment are able to sort the recyclable elements of the waste out before biological treatment by either composting, anaerobic digestion or biodrying. Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... Biodrying is the process by which biodegradable waste is rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall weight. ...


Sulabh International, an Indian NGO designed a cheap toilet system that recycles human waste into biogas and fertiliser.[5] Sulabh International is an Indian based social service organization which works to promote human rights, environmental sanitation, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management and social reforms through education. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... The international symbol for recycling. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ...


Electronics disassembly and reclamation

Main article: Electronic waste
Abandoned monitor
Abandoned monitor

The direct disposal of electrical equipment — such as old computers and mobile phones — is banned in many areas due to the toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be achieved in a cost-effective manner. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2393x1987, 2424 KB) A computer monitor| in the gutter. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2393x1987, 2424 KB) A computer monitor| in the gutter. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ...


Electronic devices, including audio-visual components (televisions, VCRs, stereo equipment), mobile phones and other hand-held devices, and computer components, contain valuable elements and substances suitable for reclamation, including lead, copper, and gold. They also contain a plethora of toxic substances, such as dioxins, PCBs, cadmium, chromium, radioactive isotopes, and mercury. Additionally, the processing required to reclaim the precious substances (including incineration and acid treatments) release, generate and synthesize further toxic by-products. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ...


In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills come from discarded electronics.[6]Some regional governments are attempting to curtail the accumulation of electronics in landfills by passing laws obligating manufacturers and consumers to recycle these devices,[7] but because in many cases safe dismantlement of these devices in accordance with first world safety standards is unprofitable,[citation needed] historically much of the electronic waste has been shipped to countries with lower or less rigorously-enforced safety protocols. Places like Guiyu, China dismantle tons of electronics every year, profiting from the sale of precious metals, but at the cost of the local environment and the health of its residents.[8][9] The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Mining to produce the same metals, to meet demand for finished products in the west, also occurs in the same countries, and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recommended that restrictions against recycling exports be balanced against the environmental costs of recovering those materials from mining. Hard rock mining in the USA produces 45% of all toxics produced by all USA industries (2001 US EPA Toxics Release Inventory).


Printer ink cartridges & toners

Printer ink cartridges can be recycled. They are sorted into different brands and models which are then resold back to the companies that created these cartridges. The companies then refill the ink reservoir which can be sold back to consumers. Toner cartridges are recycled the same way as ink cartridges, using toner instead of ink. This method of recycling is highly efficient as there is no energy spent on melting and recreating the recycled object itself. An ink cartridge is a replaceable component of an ink-jet printer that contains the ink (and sometimes the print-head itself) that is spread on paper during printing. ... A color toner bottle Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. ...


Ferrous metals

Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Steel crushed and baled for recycling at Ozark Adventist Academy(box)
Main articles: Steel and Blast furnace

Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest materials to recycle, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either remelted in an Electric Arc Furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (around 25% scrap).[10] Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal, with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 813 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Recycling Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 813 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Recycling Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ...


Non-ferrous metals

Main article: Aluminium recycling

Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. These pieces or bales are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processing is identical for both. Aluminium recycling is the process by which aluminium can be reused in products after its initial production. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


Due to the high melting point of aluminium ore, large amounts of energy are required to extract aluminium from ore, making the environmental benefits of recycling aluminium enormous. Recycling aluminium only results in approximately 5% of the CO2 that would be released during the production of raw aluminium.[12] The percentage is even smaller when considering the complete cycle of mining and transporting the aluminium. Also, as open-cut mining is most often used for obtaining aluminium ore, mining destroys large sections of natural land. El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ...


An aluminium can is 100% recyclable. Every time a can is recycled, enough energy is saved to power a television for about three hours (compared to mining and producing a new can).[13]

Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass
Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass

Image File history File linksMetadata Glass-recycling. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Glass-recycling. ... For the corporation, see Waste Management Incorporated Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local amenity. ...

Glass

Main article: Glass recycling

Glass bottles and jars are gathered via curbside collection schemes and bottle banks, where the glass may be sorted into color categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed. Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass Glass recycling is the process of turning waste glass into usable products. ... Glassphalt is a variety of asphalt that uses crushed glass. ...


Paper

Main article: Paper recycling

Recycled paper is made from waste paper, usually mixed with fresh wood pulp. If the paper contains ink, it must be deinked. This also removes fillers, clays, and fiber fragments. Barge filled with waste paper, on the Hudson River in New York City Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ...


Almost all paper can be recycled today, but some types are harder to recycle than others. Papers coated with plastic or aluminum foil, and papers that are waxed, pasted, or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Gift wrap paper also cannot be recycled. Different types of paper are usually sorted before recycling, such as newspapers and cardboard boxes.


Different grades of paper are recycled into different types of new products. Old newspapers are usually made into new newsprint, egg cartons, or paperboard. Old corrugated boxes are made into new corrugated boxes or paperboard. High-grade white office paper can be made into almost any new paper product: stationery, newsprint, magazines, or books.


Sometimes recyclers ask for the removal of the glossy inserts from newspapers because they are a different type of paper. Glossy inserts have a heavy clay coating that some paper mills cannot accept. Most of the clay is removed from the recycled pulp as sludge which must be disposed. If the coated paper is 20% by weight clay, then each ton of glossy paper produces more than 200 kg of sludge and less than 800 kg of fiber. Uncoated (no clay), recycled newsprint gives less sludge and more useable fiber. Newsprint is low-cost, low-quality, non-archival paper. ...


Paper can only be recycled a finite number of times due to the shortening of paper fibers making the material less versatile. Often it will be mixed with a quantity of virgin material, referred to as downcycling. This does not however exclude the material from being used in other processes such as composting or anaerobic digestion, where further value can be extracted from the material in the form of compost or biogas. Downcycling is the recycling of a material into a material of lesser quality. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ...


Plastic

Main article: Plastic recycling

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges - because of the massive number of types of plastic, they each carry a resin identification code, and must be sorted before they can be recycled. This can be costly - while metals can be sorted using electromagnets, no such 'easy sorting' capability exists for plastics. In addition to this, while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling, lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic. Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ... Sorted household plastic waiting to be hauled away for reprocessing. ...


Plastics recycling rates lag far behind those of other items, such as newspaper and aluminium; consumers are typically unsure of how to recycle plastics, and compared to paper and metals fewer recycling facilities exist.[citation needed]


Textiles

Main article: Textile recycling

When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of. Most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. Textile recycling is the method of reusing or reprocessing used clothing, fibrous material and clothing scraps from the manufacturing process. ...


Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. There is a trend of moving these facilities from developed countries to developing countries.[14] A scavenger pouring water onto the paper she has collected, in order to increase the weight of, and thus the profit made from, her collection, in Hong Kong. ...


Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and for use in paper manufacture or material suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still be disposed of in a landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units. [15]


Fibre reclamation mills sort textiles according to fibre type and colour. Colour sorting eliminates the need to re-dye the recycled textiles. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibres and blended with other selected fibres, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibres and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibres can also be compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.


Timber

A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
A tidy stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
Main article: Recycling timber

Recycling timber has become popular due to its image as an environmentally friendly product, with consumers commonly believing that by purchasing recycled wood the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. Greenpeace also view recycled timber as an environmentally friendly product, citing it as the most preferable timber source on their website. The arrival of recycled timber as a construction product has been important in both raising industry and consumer awareness towards deforestation and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) GIMP Palette Name: Pallet Palette Columns: 16 9 11 7 Index 0 14 11 30 Index 1 14 15 12 Index 2 16 17 20... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) GIMP Palette Name: Pallet Palette Columns: 16 9 11 7 Index 0 14 11 30 Index 1 14 15 12 Index 2 16 17 20... Demolishers pulling timber from an old wool store in Sydney, Australia, which will later be re-used for timber flooring. ...


Other Techniques

Several other materials are also commonly recycled, frequently at an industrial level.


Ship breaking is one example that has associated environmental, health, and safety risks for the area where the operation takes place; balancing all these considerations is an environmental justice problem. Ship breaking or ship demolition involves breaking up of ships for scrap. ... Environmental justice Environmental justice (EJ) is a holistic effort to analyze and overcome the power structures that have traditionally thwarted environmental reforms. ...


Tires are also commonly recycled. Used tires can be added to asphalt, producing road surfaces that are more durable, create less traffic noise, and absorb precipitation better than traditional asphalt [citation needed]. Tires can also be used to make rubber mulch, which is used on playgrounds for safety. Tires may refer to: the plural of tire the Italian name for Tiers, Italy, a town in South Tyrol, Italy Category: ... Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits. ... Rubber Mulch will give you an opportunity to spend more time enjoying your landscape and less time maintaining it. ...


Metal scavenged from automobiles can also be recycled at an industrial scale.


International Universal Recycling Codes

The communication and identification are laid out in International Universal Recycling Codes. These codes outline what material an item is made from, to facilitate easier reprocessing. The communication and identification are laid out in International Universal Recycling Codes. ... The communication and identification are laid out in International Universal Recycling Codes. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal
Look up Recycling in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Types of recycling
General topics
Recycling by region
Trade associations

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Downcycling is the recycling of a material into a material of lesser quality. ... Recyclable waste is a waste type that has the potential to be recycled. ... A materials recovery facility or materials reclamation facility (MRF -- pronounced murf) is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Reuse. ... Pollution prevention (P2) is a term used to describe a series of techniques that are used to reduce the amount of pollution generated. ... Cheapcycle is a new phenomenon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Full Depth Recycling or Full Depth Reclamation, also called FDR, is a process that rebuilds worn out asphalt pavements by recycling the existing roadway. ... The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) is the process the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ... Hydrochloric acid regeneration or HCl regeneration refers to a chemical process for the reclamation of bound and unbound HCl from metal chloride solutions as hydrochloric acid. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with products throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products (OECD 1999). ... PAYT is an abbreviation for pay as you throw, a system used in some towns to determine the charge for trash pickup. ... This article outlines the position and trends of recycling in Canada. ... Rates of household recycling in Ireland have increased dramatically since the late 1990s, but are still lagging behind European averages. ... // The curbside collection systems for recyclates employed vary across the Netherlands: the GFT (Groente Fruit en Tuinafval) box or Green box - nearly almost all municipalities except some quarters of major cities. ... Recycling booth in Lausanne Switzerland is highly active on the recycling and anti-littering front and is one of the top recyclers in the world with a mean of 76% of all currently recyclable items being recycled. ... The majority of recycling undertaken in the United Kingdom is undertaken by statutory authorities. ... A collection center for recyclables in Santa Monica, California, USA In New York City, people can be seen earning money by collecting recyclables and receiving the return deposit. ... The International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) is an international, independent and non-profit making association, working in the public interest to promote and develop sustainable waste management worldwide. ... The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) is the leading professional association in the solid waste field in North America. ... The Chartered Institute of Wastes Management (CIWM) is the professional organisation of professionals in the Waste Management Industry in the United Kingdom, but also has members in the Republic of Ireland. ...

References

  1. ^ PM Advisor hails recycling as climate change action, Lets recycle, accessed 8.11.06
  2. ^ a b c d "The price of virtue", The Economist, 2007-06-07. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. 
  3. ^ http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/recycling/awareness/facts/factsheets/aluminum.htm
  4. ^ (April 20, 2006).
  5. ^ "Sulabh Internationals cheap toilet system that recycles human waste into biogas". 
  6. ^ Poison PCs/Toxic TVs Executive Summary, Silicon Valley Toxic Corporation, Accessed 13.11.06
  7. ^ California to electronics industry: No toxins for you! Nate Anderson, (2006) Accessed 13.111.06
  8. ^ Activists Push for Safer E-Recycling, Accessed 13.11.06
  9. ^ Computer age leftovers, Denver Post, Accessed 13.11.06
  10. ^ Sustainable Development and Steel Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Accessed 16.11.06
  11. ^ Steel: The Foundation of a Sustainable Future Sustainability Report of the World Steel Industry 2005, Accessed 16.11.06
  12. ^ Recycling metals - aluminium and steel. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  13. ^ http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/recycling/awareness/facts/factsheets/aluminum.htm
  14. ^ UK in 'frightening' reliance on foreign textile sorting, www.letsrecycle.com, Retrieved 8.11.06
  15. ^ Councils "need to understand" importance of textile quality, www.letsrecycle.com, Retrieved 24.11.06

  Results from FactBites:
 
Municipal Solid Waste - Recycling (728 words)
Recycling is a series of activities that includes collecting recyclable materials that would otherwise be considered waste, sorting and processing recyclables into raw materials such as fibers, and manufacturing raw materials into new products.
Recycled materials also are used in innovative applications such as recovered glass in roadway asphalt (glassphalt) or recovered plastic in carpeting, park benches, and pedestrian bridges.
While recycling has grown in general, recycling of specific materials has grown even more drastically: 50 percent of all paper, 34 percent of all plastic soft drink bottles, 45 percent of all aluminum beer and soft drink cans, 63 percent of all steel packaging, and 67 percent of all major appliances are now recycled.
Recycling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1270 words)
State support for recycling may be more expensive than alternatives such as landfill; recycling efforts in New York City in the USA cost $57 million per year.
Reuse is distinguished from recycling, where the good is reduced to a raw material and used in the making of a new good (example: crushing of bottles to make glass for new bottles).
Recycling is generally at its peak during wartime or energy shortages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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