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Encyclopedia > Rectum
Rectum
Anatomy of the anus and rectum
The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx.
Gray's subject #249 1183
Artery middle rectal artery, inferior rectal artery
Vein middle rectal veins, inferior rectal veins
Nerve inferior anal nerves, inferior mesenteric ganglia[1]
Lymph internal iliac lymph nodes
Precursor Hindgut
MeSH Rectum
Dorlands/Elsevier r_05/12697487

The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. The human rectum is about 12 cm long. At its commencement its caliber is similar to that of the sigmoid colon, but near its termination it is dilated, forming the rectal ampulla. Diagram of the rectum and anus. ... Image File history File links Gray1077. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The middle rectal artery usually arises with the inferior vesical artery, a branch of the internal iliac artery. ... The inferior rectal artery (inferior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that supplies blood the the rectum. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The middle rectal veins (or middle hemorrhoidal vein) take origin in the hemorrhoidal plexus and receive tributaries from the bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle. ... The lower part of the external hemorrhoidal plexus is drained by the inferior rectal veins (or inferior hemorrhoidal veins) into the internal pudendal vein. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The Inferior rectal nerves (inferior anal nerves, inferior hemorrhoidal nerve) occasionally arises directly from the sacral plexus; it crosses the ischiorectal fossa, with the inferior hemorrhoidal vessels, toward the anal canal and the lower end of the rectum, and is distributed to the Sphincter ani externus and to the integument... The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The internal iliac lymph nodes (or hypogastric) surround the hypogastric vessels, and receive the lymphatics corresponding to the distribution of the branches of the hypogastric artery, i. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... The large intestine, or the organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy This article is about the bodily orifice. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The rectum is about 12 cm. ...

Contents

Role in human defecation

The rectum intestinum acts as a temporary storage facility for feces. As the rectal walls expand due to the materials filling it from within, stretch receptors from the nervous system located in the rectal walls stimulate the desire to defecate. If the urge is not acted upon, the material in the rectum is often returned to the colon where more water is absorbed. If defecation is delayed for a prolonged period, constipation and hardened feces results. The Human Nervous System. ... Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material (feces) from the digestive tract via the anus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ...


When the rectum becomes full the increase in intrarectal pressure forces the walls of the anal canal apart allowing the fecal matter to enter the canal. The rectum shortens as material is forced into the anal canal and peristaltic waves propel the feces out of the rectum. The internal and external sphincter allow the faeces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting faeces. The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine. ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Medical procedures

For the diagnosis of certain ailments, a rectal exam may be done. A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... A rectal examination or rectal exam is an internal examination of the rectum by a physician. ...


Suppositories may be inserted into the rectum as a route of administration for medicine. Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


The endoscopic procedures colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are performed to diagnose diseases such as cancer. Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ... Sigmoidoscope inserted through the anus and rectum and into the sigmoid colon. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Temperature taking

Body temperature can also be taken in the rectum. Rectal temperature can be taken by inserting a mercury thermometer for 3 to 5 minutes, or a digital thermometer until it "beeps", not more than 25 mm (1 inch) into the rectum via the anus. Due to recent concerns related to mercury poisoning, the use of mercury thermometers is now discouraged. Normal rectal temperature generally ranges from 36 to 38 °C (97.6 to 100.4 °F) and is about 0.5 °C (1 °F) above oral (mouth) temperature and about 1 °C (2 °F) above axillary (armpit) temperature. Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... A mercury-in-glass thermometer is a thermometer consisting of mercury, in a glass tube. ... A common mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy This article is about the bodily orifice. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Axillary vein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The armpit (or axilla) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder. ...


Many pediatricians recommend that parents take infants and toddler's temperature in the rectum for two reasons: This article is about the branch of medicine. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ...

  • (1) Rectal temperature is the closest to core body temperature and in children that young, accuracy is critical.
  • (2) Younger children are unable to cooperate when having their temperature taken by mouth (oral) which is recommended for children, ages 6 and above and for adults.

In recent years, the introduction of ear (tympanic) thermometers and changing attitudes on privacy and modesty have led some parents and doctors to discontinue taking rectal temperatures. Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Sexual stimulation

Due to the proximity of the anterior wall of the rectum to the vagina in females or to the prostate in males and the shared nerves thereof, rectal stimulation or penetration can result in sexual arousal. For further information on this aspect, see anal sex. The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Stimulation is the irritating action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state... Turn on redirects here. ... Roman men having anal sex. ...


Additional images

See also

Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In a conic section, the latus rectum is the chord parallel to the directrix through the focus. ... Wikibooks has more on the topic of Conic section Types of conic sections Table of conics, Cyclopaedia, 1728 In mathematics, a conic section (or just conic) is a curve that can be formed by intersecting a cone (more precisely, a right circular conical surface) with a plane. ... In mathematics, the latus rectum of a conic section is the chord parallel to the directrix and passing through the single focus, or one of the two foci. ... The pectinate line (anocutaneous line, dentate line, anal verge, anorectal junction) is a line which marks the end of the rectum and the beginning of the anal canal. ...

References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rectum definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (277 words)
Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine.
The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus.
The word rectum comes from the Latin rectus meaning straight (which the human rectum is not).
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Rectum (276 words)
rectum The part of the alimentary canal that is adjacent to the anus and in which faeces are stored prior to defecation.
End portion of the alimentary canal, distinguished from the rectum by the transition from an internal mucous membrane layer to one of skinlike tissue and by its narrower diameter.
The rectum shortens, pushing the feces into the anal canal, where internal and external sphincters allow them to be passed or...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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