FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Reconquista" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Reconquista
Progress of the Reconquista
Progress of the Reconquista

The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest") was a period of 750 years in which several Christian kingdoms slowly expanded themselves over the Iberian Peninsula at the expense of the Muslim Moorish states of Al-Ándalus (Arabic الأندلس, al-andalus). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Reconquista is a Spanish and Portuguese word meaning Reconquest. It can refer to the following: Reconquista, the war to drive the Moors out of Spain and Portugal by the Christian rulers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of... Battle of Simancas was a military battle that took place in 939 AD in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II of Leon and Muslim caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas, in which was decided the control of... The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1054 in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García V, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Casile and León. ... The Battle of Graus (or Siege of Graus) was a battle of the early Spanish Reconquista in spring 1063 (some sources say the battle was in early May, possibly around May 8). ... Combatants Sancho II of Castile Castile Alfonso VI of León León Commanders Sancho II of Castile Alfarez Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar Alfonso VI of León Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Llantada (Spanish:Batalla de Llantada) was fought on July 19, 1068 in... Combatants Sancho II of Castile Castile Alfonso VI of León León Commanders Sancho II of Castile Alfarez Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar Alfonso VI of León Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Golpejera also known as Golpejar (Spanish: Batalla de Golpejera o Golpejar) was... Combatants Castile Almoravids Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties 59,500 dead Unknown The Battle of az-Zallaqah الزلاقة (October 23, 1086) was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Castilian King Alfonso VI. Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call... Combatants Almoravids Castile Commanders Yusuf ibn Tashfin Sancho, son of Alfonso VI Casualties Sancho The Battle of Ucles was fought on 29 May 1108 between the Kingdom of Castile and the Almoravids. ... The Battle of Ourique took place in July 26, 1139, in the countryside outside the town of Ourique, present-day Alentejo (southern Portugal). ... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... Combatants Castile Moors The Battle of Jerez was fought in 1231 between Castile and the Moors. ... Combatants Castile Granada Commanders Alfonso XI of Castile Sir James Douglas Muhammed IV, Sultan of Granada The Battle of Teba took place on the 25th August 1330, below the Castello de la Estrella, Teba, a small settlement in Andalusia. ... Battle of Río Salado (October 30, 1340), was a united victory of Portugal King Afonso IV and Castilian King Alfonso XI over Muslim ruler Abu al-Hasan Ali of Marinid dynasty and Nasrid ruler Yusuf I. Categories: Spain-related stubs | Military stubs ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Arabic redirects here. ...


The Christian rulers widely proclaimed that they were re-conquering Christian territory lost to Muslim invaders. This ensured that Christian reinforcements would continue to arrive from other Christian realms, especially because the Papacy in Rome continued to support such efforts.


In reality the situation was much more nuanced and complicated. Christian (or Muslim) states would, from time to time, fight amongst themselves and even support certain rulers of the other side. Blurring the sides even further were groups of mercenaries who disregarded the religious sides on several occasions, fighting simply for whoever paid them better.


The Umayyad conquest of Hispania from the Visigoths occurred during the early 8th century, and the Reconquista began officially in 722 with the Battle of Covadonga, and ended in 1492 with the conquest of Granada. During all this time the fortunes of war changed several times and were interrupted by numerous periods of peace. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ...


In 1236 Cordoba, one of the few remaining Muslim strongholds, fell to Ferdinand III of Castile, and Granada became a vassal state, paying tribute for the next 250 years. Córdoba most commonly means Córdoba, Spain, a famous city in Spain inhabited since the time of ancient Rome, and the seat of the Emir of Córdoba and the Caliph of Córdoba. ... United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


The Portuguese Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve (Arabic الغرب — Al-gharb) under King Afonso III of Portugal. Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal. ... Arabic redirects here. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Afonso III of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ...


On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim ruler of Granada, Abu 'abd Allah Muhammad XII (Boabdil of Granada), surrendered his kingdom to Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) ending Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula. is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Sword of Boabdil Boabdil (a corruption of the name Abu Abdullah, or, in full, Abu abd-Allah Muhammad XII, Arabic: ) </a> (1460?–1533) was the last Moorish king of Granada (of the Nasrid dynasty). ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...

Contents

Background

In the early 5th century the invading Visigoths were commissioned as foederati by a much weakened Western Roman Empire to reconquer Hispania from the Vandals, Suevi, and Alans. In exchange, the Visigoths received Roman recognition to rule the Hispanic provinces under mere nominal Roman authority. With the Fall of the Western Roman Empire the Visigoths ruled an fully independent Visigothic Kingdom. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Visigothic Kingdom was an European power in the 5e en de 7e censury, created yn Gaul by the German people of the Visigoths when the Romains lost their control of their empire. ...


The reader is strongly advised to accept the given dates and borders with great caution. Known documents and primary sources are few, giving sparse, unclear, sometimes even contradictory information.


In 711 or 712 the kingdom was divided along unknown lines; Roderic, probably an usurper, was opposed by Achila II. Under unclear circumstances Roderic gathered his army and marched south to deal with an Arab invasion only to be defeated and probably killed[1] at the Battle of Guadalete. A large part of the Visigothic nobility also fell in that battle and the kingdom was left largely disorganized. Taking advantage of this sudden power vacuum, the Moors conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula, and pushed Achila II, and later his successor Ardo, more and more into the north-west until conquering the remainder of the kingdom. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Visigoths Ummayads Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Ardo was claimed by some to be the actual last king of the Visigoths in Hispania, as opposed to Roderic. ...


The Moors established an Emirate in the Iberian Peninsula subordinate to the Caliph in Damascus. The conquered were largely allowed to keep their property and social status, but most of the local rulers in vital key positions were replaced by Arab Muslims. While the conversion to Islam was encouraged by the Muslim elite, Christianity and Judaism were by and large tolerated; considered Non-Muslims but People of the Book, they were submitted to a series of discriminatory laws, among them the Pact of Umar. Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept in Islam. ... The Pact (Covenant) of Umar (c. ...


Beginning of the Reconquista

Probably in 718 Pelayo, a Visigothic nobleman, led a rebellion against Munuza, a local Muslim governor. Becoming a leader of the local nobility he gathered all available support and one his most important allies was Duke Pedro of Cantabria. Around 722 the Emir sent a military expedition to quell this rebellion resulting in the Battle of Covadonga where the forces of Pelayo prevailed. Monument in memory of Pelagius at Covadonga, site of his famous victory. ... Munuza was the Arab leader of northern Spain defeated by Pelayo. ... Peter or Pedro (d. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ...


Meanwhile the main Moorish army had crossed the Pyrenees, beginning an invasion into southern France. Checked by Odo the Great in the Battle of Toulouse in 721 they retreated and regrouped, receiving reinforcements. A later invasion was defeated by Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours in 732. Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Odo the Great (a. ... Combatants Aquitanians Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Odo of Aquitaine Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of a Frankish army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ...


King Pelayo began raiding the city of León, the main city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. He founded the small Kingdom of Asturias and started a royal dynasty, marrying his son and heir Favila to Duke Pedro’s daughter. Cathedral of León The Palacio de los Guzmanes, the provincial parliament (Diputación) in the capital Old local council Wikimedia Commons has media related to: León The city of León, located at 42. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Favila (Favilac or Fáfila) was the second king of Asturias from 737 to 739. ...


The Kingdom of Asturias

Main articles: Kingdom of Asturias and Repoblación

The kingdom of Asturias was located in the Cantabrian Mountains, a wet and mountainous region in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... The repoblación (Spanish for repopulation) was the ninth-century repopulating of a large region between the River Duero and the Cantabrian Cordillera which had been depopulated in the early years of the Reconquista. ... The red line shows where the Cantabrian Mountains are located in the North of Spain Pico Tres Mares, 2,150 m Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica in Spanish) is a mountain chain which extends for more than approximately 180 miles (300 km) across northern Spain, from the western limit of...


During the reign of King Alfonso II (791–842), the kingdom was firmly established. He is believed to have initiated diplomatic contacts with the kings of Pamplona and the Carolingians, thereby gaining official recognition of his crown from the Pope and Charlemagne. Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


Alfonso II also expanded his realm westwards conquering Galicia. There, the bones of St. James the Great were proclaimed to have been found in Compostela (from Latin campus stellae, literally "the star field") inside Galicia. Pilgrims came from all over Europe creating the Way of Saint James, a major pilgrimage route linking the Asturias with the rest of Christian Europe. Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... For people and places called Saint James, see the diambiguation page. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ...


Alfonso’s military strategy consisted of raiding the border regions of Vardulia (which would turn into the Castile). With the gained plunder further military forces could be paid, enabling him to raid the Moorish cities of Lisbon, Zamora, and Coimbra. For centuries the focus of these actions was not conquest but raids, plunder, pillage and tribute. He also crushed a Basque uprising, during which he captured the Alavite Munia; their grandson is reported to be Alfonso II. Celtic Gallaecia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Zamora is a city in Castile-Leon, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Russian prince Taking Tribute, by Nicholas Roerich, 1908 (Moscow). ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Alfonso II (759-842, king 791), Alfonso Is reputed grandson, bears the name of the Chaste. ...


During Alfonso II's reign a series of Muslim raids caused the transfer of Asturian capital to Oviedo. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Despite numerous battles the populations of neither the Umayyads — using the southern part of old Gallaecia (today's northern Portugal) as their base of operations — nor that of the Asturians, was sufficient to effect an occupation of these northern territories. Under the reign of Ramiro, famed for the legendary Battle of Clavijo, the border began to slowly move southward and Asturian holdings in Castile, Galicia, and León were fortified and an intensive programme of repopulation of the countryside begun in those territories. In 924 the Kingdom of Asturias became the Kingdom of León. Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Ramiro I (790?-850), became king of Asturias in 842. ... Battle of Clavijo a legendary battle in 844 AD in Spain between Christians forces led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Muslims, where Saint James is reputed to have aided the Christian Army. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... León province León (Llión in Asturian-leonese language) is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ...


The Pyrenees: a natural barrier

Main article: Spanish March

Once the Franks had driven the Moors out of France, the necessity of defending the mountain passes of the Pyrenees became an important point in Charlemagne's policy. Fortifications were built, and protection was given to the inhabitants of the old Roman cities, such as Jaca and Girona. The main passes were Roncesvalles, Somport and Junquera. Charlemagne settled in them the counties of Pamplona, Aragon and Catalonia (which was itself formed from a number of small counties, Pallars, Gerona, and Urgell being the most prominent) respectively. The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Jaca is also another name for the jackfruit. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... Somport (known also as the Aspe Pass, the Canfranc Pass, and Col du Somport in French) is a mountain pass in the central Pyrenees lying at 1632 m. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Pallars is one of the historical Catalan counties, collindant with the county of Ribagorça and the county of Urgell. ... Girona (Catalan: Girona, Spanish: Gerona, French: Gérone) is a city located in the northwest of Catalonia, Spain on the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. ... Urgell (Spanish: Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ...


In 778, the Frankish expedition against Saragossa failed and the rearguard of the army was destroyed while retreating to France, this event being recorded in the "Chanson de Roland". As a result the western Pyrenees were now free from both Moorish and Frankish rule. Four states appeared: the kingdom of Pamplona (later known as Navarre) and the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza. Navarre emerged as a kingdom around Pamplona, its capital, and controlled Roncesvalles pass. Its first king was Iñigo Arista. He expanded his domains up to the Bay of Biscay and conquered a small number of towns beyond the Pyrenees, but never directly attacked the Carolingian armies, as he was in theory their vassal. It was not until Queen Ximena in the 9th century that Pamplona was officially recognised as an independent kingdom by the Pope. Aragon, founded in 809 by Aznar Galíndez, grew around Jaca and the high valleys of the Aragon River, protecting the old Roman road. By the end of the 10th century, Aragon was annexed by Navarre. Sobrarbe and Ribagorza were small counties and had little significance to the progress of the Reconquista. For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas (counties) in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. ... Ribagorza is one of the historical Aragonese counties of Spain, corresponding to the present-day counties of Sobrarbe and Pallars. ... King Eneko Aritza (Iñigo Iñiguez Arista, in Basque, Eneko Aritza) (c. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The River Arag n or r o Arag n is one of the tributaries to the left of the river Ebro. ...


The Catalonian counties protected the eastern Pyrenees passes and shores. They were under the direct control of the Frankish kings and were the last remains of the Iberian Marches. Catalonia included not only the southern Pyrenees counties of Girona, Pallars, Urgell, Vic and Andorra but also some which were on the northern side of the mountains, such as Perpignan and Foix. However, the most important role was played by Barcelona, once it was conquered in 801 by Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne. In the late 9th century under Count Wilfred, Barcelona became the de facto capital of the region. It controlled the other counties' policies in a union, which led in 948 to the independence of Barcelona under Count Borrel II, who declared that the new dynasty in France (the Capets) were not the legitimate rulers of France nor, as a result, of his county. This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Pallars is one of the historical Catalan counties, collindant with the county of Ribagorça and the county of Urgell. ... Urgell (Spanish: Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ... The abbreviation/acronym VIC (all caps) may have one of several meanings, depending on context: A code for Victoria, Australia The Video Interface Chip from MOS Technology, used in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer (VIC sometimes colloquially refers to the VIC-20 computer itself, or to the VIC chip... Perpignan (French: Perpignan, pronounced ; Catalan Perpinyà, pronounced ) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... Château des Comtes de Foix Foix river Foix is a small town and commune, the préfecture (capital) of the Ariège département in France. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Wilfred I, called the Hairy (Vifredo el Velloso, also Wilfredo, Wifredo, Guifredo, or Guilfredo in Spanish and Guifré el Pilós in Catalan), was count of Urgel (870-897), Cerdaña (870-897), Barcelona (878-897), Gerona (878-897), Besalú (878-897), and Ausona (886-897). ... Borrel II, count of Barcelona (947-992), under whose mandate the Hispanic March sufferred a terrible attack from Almanzor, who in 985 razed Barcelona. ... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ...


These states were small and with the exception of Navarre did not have the same capacity for expansion as Asturias had. Their mountainous geography rendered them relatively safe from attack but also made launching attacks against a united and strong Al-Andalus impractical. In consequence, these states' borders remained stable for two centuries. “Navarra” redirects here. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Military culture in the medieval Iberian Peninsula

In a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected how the society had to be on the alert at all times. These forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target. Battles which took place were mainly between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions.


The cultural context of the Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula was different than that of the rest of Continental Europe in the Middle Ages, due to contact with the Moorish culture and the isolation provided by the Pyrenees (an exception to this is Catalonia, where Frankish influence remained strong). These cultural differences implied the use of doctrines, equipment, and tactics markedly different from those found in the rest of Europe during this period. For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


Medieval Iberian armies mainly comprised two types of forces: cavalry (mostly nobles, but including commoner knights from the 10th century) and infantry, or peones (peasants). Infantry only went to war if needed, which was not common.


Iberian cavalry tactics involved knights approaching the enemy and throwing javelins, before withdrawing to a safe distance before commencing another assault. Once the enemy formation was sufficiently weakened, the knights charged with thrusting spears (lances did not arrive in Hispania until the 11th century). There were three types of knights: royal knights, noble knights (caballeros hidalgos) and commoner knights (caballeros villanos). Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance. Royal knights were equipped in the same manner as their Gothic predecessors — braceplate, kite shield, a long sword (designed to fight from the horse) and as well as the javelins and spears, a Visigothic double-axe. Noble knights came from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knights were not noble, but were wealthy enough to afford a horse. Uniquely in Europe, these horsemen comprised a militia cavalry force with no feudal links, being under the sole control of the king or the count of Castile because of the "charters" (or fueros) - see "Repopulating Hispania: the origin of fueros" below. Both noble and common knights wore leather armour, javelins, spears and round-tasselled shields (influenced by Moorish shields), as well as a sword. An hidalgo or fidalgo was a member of the lower Spanish nobility. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


The peones were peasants who went to battle in service of their feudal lord. Poorly equipped (bows and arrows, spears and short swords), they were mainly used as auxiliary troops. Their function in battle was to contain the enemy troops until the cavalry arrived and to block the enemy infantry from charging the knights. Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Typically armour was made of leather, with iron scales; full coats of chain mail were extremely rare and horse barding completely unknown. Head protections consisted of a round helmet with nose protector (influenced by the designs used by Vikings who attacked during the 8th and 9th centuries) and a chain mail head piece. Shields were often round or kidney-shaped, except for the kite-shaped designs used by the royal knights. Usually adorned with geometric designs, crosses or tassels, shields were made out of wood and had a leather cover. For other uses, see Chainmail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


Steel swords were the most common weapon. The cavalry used long double-edged swords and the infantry short, single-edged ones. Guards were either semicircular or straight, but always highly ornamented with geometrical patterns. The spears and javelins were up to 1.5 metres long and had an iron tip. The double-axe, made of iron and 30 cm long and possessing an extremely sharp edge, was designed to be equally useful as a thrown weapon or in close combat. Maces and hammers were not common, but some specimens have remained, and are thought to have been used by members of the cavalry.


Finally, mercenaries were an important factor, as many kings did not have enough soldiers available. Norsemen, Flemish spearmen, Frankish knights, Moorish mounted archers and Berber light cavalry were the main types of mercenary available and used in the conflict. Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ...


This style of warfare remained dominant in the Iberian Peninsula until the late 11th century, when couched lance tactics entered from France and replaced the traditional horse javelin-shot techniques. In the 12th and 13th centuries, horse barding, suits of armour, double-handed swords and crossbows finally rendered the early Iberian tactics obsolete.


Repopulating Hispania: the origin of fueros

The Reconquista was a process not only of war and conquest, but also repopulation. Christian kings took their own people to locations abandoned by the Berbers, in order to have a population capable of defending the borders. The main repopulation areas were the Douro Basin (the northern plateau), the high Ebro valley (La Rioja) and central Catalonia. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Douro or Duero (Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. ... For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


The repopulation of the Douro Basin took place in two distinct phases. North of the river, between the 9th and 10th centuries, the "pressure" (or presura) system was employed. South of the Douro, in the 10th and 11th centuries, the presura led to the "charters" (or fueros). Fueros were used even south of the Central Range. The Douro or Duero (Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. ... The Douro or Duero (Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


The presura referred to a group of peasants who crossed the mountains and settled in the abandoned lands of the Duero Basin. Asturian laws promoted this system with laws, for instance granting a peasant all the land he was able to work and defend as his own property. Of course, Asturian and Galician minor nobles and clergymen sent their own expeditions with the peasants they maintained. This led to very feudalised areas, such as León and Portugal, whereas Castile, an arid land with vast plains and hard climate only attracted peasants with no hope in Biscay. As a consequence, Castile was governed by a single count, but had a largely mostly non-feudal territory with many free peasants. Presuras also appear in Catalonia, when the count of Barcelona ordered the Bishop of Urgell and the count of Gerona to repopulate the plains of Vic. León province León (Llión in Asturian-leonese language) is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... The abbreviation/acronym VIC (all caps) may have one of several meanings, depending on context: A code for Victoria, Australia The Video Interface Chip from MOS Technology, used in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer (VIC sometimes colloquially refers to the VIC-20 computer itself, or to the VIC chip...


During the 10th century and onwards, cities and towns gained more importance and power, as commerce reappeared and the population kept growing. Fueros were charters documenting the privileges and usages given to all the people repopulating a town. The fueros provided a means of escape from the feudal system, as fueros were only granted by the monarch. As a result, the town council (the concejo) was dependent on the monarch alone and had to help their lord (auxilium). The military force of the towns became the caballeros villanos. The first fuero was given by count Fernán González to the inhabitants of Castrojeriz in the 940 s. The most important towns of medieval Iberia had fueros or foros. In Navarre, fueros were the main repopulating system. Later on, in the 12th century, Aragon also employed the system; for example, the fuero of Teruel, which was one of the last fueros, in the early 13th century. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Ferdinand II González (930–970) was the first independent count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Lara, who had been named count of Arlanza and the Duero around the year 900, a descendent of Nuño Rasura, one of the two judges from Castile, and of Rodrigo... View of the mudéjar Cathedral of Teruel Teruel is a city in Aragon, Spain, the capital of Teruel Province. ...


From the mid-13th century on no more charters were granted, as the demographic pressure had disappeared and other means of repopulation were created. While presuras allowed Castile to have the only non-feudal peasants in Europe other than cossacks, fueros remained as city charters until the 18th century in Aragon, Valencia and Catalonia and until the 19th century in Castile and Navarre. Fueros had an immense importance for those living under them, who were prepared to defend their rights under the charter militarily if necessary. The abolition of the fueros in Navarre was one of the causes of the Carlist Wars. In Castile disputes over the system contributed to the war against Charles I (Castilian War of the Communities). This article needs cleanup. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... The Castilian War of the Communities is also known as the Revolt of the Comuneros, and in Spanish as la Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla. ...


The 10th and 11th centuries: crisis and splendour

The situation in the Moorish-ruled region of the Iberian Peninsula, Al-Andalus, during the 10th and 11th centuries played an important role in the development of the Christian kingdoms. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


The Caliphate of Córdoba

The 9th century saw the Berbers return to Africa in the aftermath of their revolts. During this period, many governors of large cities distant from the capital (Córdoba) planned to establish their independence. Then, in 929 the Emir of Córdoba (Abd-ar-Rahman III), the leader of the Umayyad dynasty, declared himself Caliph, independent from the Abbasids in Baghdad. He took all the military, religious and political power and reorganised the army and the bureaucracy. The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... For other persons of the same name, see Abd-ar-Rahman. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


After regaining control over the dissident governors, Abd-ar-Rahman III tried to conquer the remaining Christian kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, attacking them several times and forcing them back beyond the Cantabric range. His Christian subjects were largely left in peace, however.


Christian political forces then openly accused Abd-ar-Rahman III of the pederastic abuse of a Christian boy who was later canonized Saint Pelagius of Cordova as a result of the event. This became a rallying cry for subsequent generations of Christian soldiers, and is reputed to have provided much political strength and popular support to the Reconquista for centuries. The episode is seen by some modern scholars as part of a pattern of demonization of Muslims, portraying Islam as a morally inferior religion.[2] For other persons of the same name, see Abd-ar-Rahman. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... Saint Pelagius of Cordova (ca. ...


Later Abd-ar-Rahman's grandson became a puppet in the hands of the great Vizier Almanzor (al-Mansur, "the victorious"). Almanzor waged several campaigns attacking and sacking Burgos, Leon, Pamplona, Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela before his death in 1002. ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور (c. ...


Civil war

Between Almanzor’s death and 1031, Al-Andalus suffered many civil wars which ended in the appearance of the Taifa kingdoms. The taifas were small kingdoms, established by the city governors establishing their long wished-for independence. The result was many (up to 34) small kingdoms each centered upon their capital, and the governors, not subscribing to any larger-scale vision of the Moorish presence, had no qualms about attacking their neighbouring kingdoms whenever they could gain advantage by doing so. The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of...


The Kingdom of León

Alfonso III of Asturias repopulated the strategically-important León and established it as his capital. From his new capital, King Alfonso began a series of campaigns to establish control over all the lands north of the Duero. He reorganized his territories into the major duchies (Galicia and Portugal) and major counties (Saldaña and Castile), and fortified the borders with many castles. At his death in 910 the shift in regional power was completed as the kingdom became the Kingdom of León. From this power base, his heir Ordoño II was able to organize attacks against Toledo and even Seville. The Caliphate of Córdoba was gaining power, and began to attack León. Navarre and king Ordoño allied against Abd-al-Rahman but were defeated in Valdejunquera, in 920. For the next 80 years, the Kingdom of León suffered civil wars, Moorish attack, internal intrigues and assassinations, and the partial independence of Galicia and Castile, thus setting back the date of Christian's reconquest, and weakening the Christian forces. It was not until the following century that the Christians started to see their conquests as part of a long-term effort to restore the unity of the Visigothic kingdom. Alfonso III (c. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Saldaña is a town and municipality in the Tolima department of Colombia. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... ...


The only point during this period when the situation became hopeful for Leon was the reign of Ramiro II. King Ramiro, in alliance with Count Fernán González of Castile and his retinue of caballeros villanos, defeated the Caliph in Simancas in 939. After this battle, when the Caliph barely escaped with his guard and the rest of the army was destroyed, King Ramiro obtained 12 years of peace, but had to give González the independence of Castile as a payment for his help in the battle. After this defeat, Moorish attacks abated until Almanzor began his campaigns. Ramiro II King of Leon (931-951). ... Fernan Gonzalez (930-970) was the first independent Count from Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernandez, who had been named Count of Arlanza and the Duero around the year 900 AD, a descendent of Nuño Rasura, one of the two judges from Castile, and of Rodrigo_II, the first of the... Battle of Simancas was a military battle that took place in 939 AD in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II of Leon and Muslim caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas, in which was decided the control of...


It was Alfonso V in 1002 who finally defeated Almanzor and regained the control over his domains. Navarre, though attacked by Almanzor, remained. Alfonso V, called the Noble, king of León, son of Bermudo II by his second wife Elvira of Castile, reigned from 999 to 1027, and was the first Spanish monarch to use the title of king of Castile. ...


Navarrese hegemony

In the late 10th century, King Garcia II of Navarre received Biscay from Castile and under his reign, Navarre became the hegemonic kingdom in medieval Iberia. His son, Sancho the Great, who reigned between 1004 and 1035, annexed Castile due to his marriage, conquered Sobrarbe and Ribagorza and made the Kingdom of Leon his vassal after killing the only son of king Bermudo III. But following the Navarrese custom, king Sancho divided his kingdom among his sons: Castile (and Biscay) for Fernando, Navarre and Rioja for Sancho IV, Aragon for Ramiro and Sobrarbe (with Ribagorza) to Gonzalo. Ramiro soon had his brother Gonzalo killed and annexed his domains, while Fernando (naming himself king) married the daughter of Bermudo III, becoming king of Leon and Castile. García Sánchez Abarca of Navarre, called the Trembling, was king of Pamplona from 994 to 1000, which was a comparatively brief period, as his immediate predecessors and his immediate successors reigned decades each. ... Sancho III (c. ... Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas (counties) in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. ... Ribagorza is one of the historical Aragonese counties of Spain, corresponding to the present-day counties of Sobrarbe and Pallars. ... Bermudo III (1010–4 September 1037), king of León (1028–4 September 1037), son of Alfonso V of León by his wife Elvira Mendes, was the last scion of Peter of Cantabria to rule in the Leonese kingdom. ... Sancho IV can refer to: King Sancho IV of Navarre (d. ...


Kingdom of Castile

Ferdinand I of Leon was the leading king of the mid-11th century. He conquered Coimbra and attacked the taifa kingdoms, often demanding the tributes known as parias. Ferdinand's strategy was to continue to demand parias until the taifa was greatly weakened both miltiarily and financially. He also repopulated the Borders with numerous fueros. Following the Navarrese tradition, on his death in 1064 he divided his kingdom between his sons. His son Sancho II of Castile wanted to reunite the kingdom of his father and attacked his brothers, with a young noble at his side: Rodrigo Díaz (later known as El Cid Campeador). Sancho was killed in the siege of Zamora by the traitor Bellido Dolfos in 1072. His brother Alfonso VI took over Leon, Castile and Galicia. Ferdinand I of Castile, known as El Magno or the Great, (d. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Sancho II (1040-1072), called the Strong, or in Spanish, el Fuerte, was king of Castile (1065-1072) and León (1072). ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de... Zamora is a city in Castile-Leon, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ...


Alfonso VI the Brave gave more power to the fueros and repopulated Segovia, Ávila and Salamanca. Then, once he had secured the Borders, king Alfonso conquered the powerful Taifa kingdom of Toledo in 1085. Toledo, which was the former capital of the Visigoths was a very important landmark, and the conquest made Alfonso renowned throughout the Christian world. However, this "conquest" was conducted rather gradually, and mostly peacefully, for the course of several decades. It was not after sporadic and consistent population resettlements had taken place that Toledo was historically conquered. Alfonso VI was first and foremost a tactful monarch who chose to understand the kings of taifa and employed unprecedented diplomatic measures to attain political feats before considering the use of force. He adopted the title Imperator totius Hispaniae ("Emperor of all Hispania", referring to all the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, and not just the modern country of Spain). Alfonso's more aggressive policy towards the Taifas worried the rulers of those kingdoms, who called on the African Almoravids for help. The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Ávila province Ávila is a province of western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... The title of Imperator (totius) Hispaniae (Latin for Emperor of (All) Spain was borne, traditionally, by the monarchs of León, from at least the tenth century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ...


The Almoravids

The Almoravids were a Muslim militia, their ranks mainly composed of African and Berber Moors, and unlike the previous Muslim rulers, they were not so tolerant towards Christians and Jews. Their armies entered the Iberian peninsula on several occasions (1086, 1088, 1093) and defeated king Alfonso in Battle of Sagrajas in 1086 , but their purpose was not to conquer the Christian kingdoms but to unite all the Taifas in a single Almoravid Caliphate. Their actions halted the southward expansion of the Christian kingdoms. Their only defeat came at Valencia in 1094, due to the actions of El Cid. Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Combatants Castile Almoravids Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties 59,500 dead Unknown The Battle of az-Zallaqah الزلاقة (October 23, 1086) was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Castilian King Alfonso VI. Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


Meanwhile, Navarre lost all importance under king Sancho IV, for he lost Rioja to Sancho II of Castile, and nearly became the vassal of Aragon. At his death, the Navarrese chose as their king Sancho Ramirez, king of Aragon, who thus became Sancho V of Navarre and I of Aragon. Sancho Ramírez gained international recognition for Aragon, uniting it with Navarre, expanding the borders south, conquering Huesca deep in the valleys in 1096 and building a fort 25 km away from Zaragoza. Sancho IV (in Spanish Sancho IV El de Peñalén), (c. ... Sancho II (1040-1072), called the Strong, or in Spanish, el Fuerte, was king of Castile (1065-1072) and León (1072). ... Sancho of Aragon (c. ... Huesca (Aragonese Uesca, Catalan Osca) is a city in Aragon, Spain. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


Catalonia came under intense pressure from the taifas of Zaragoza and Lérida, and also from internal disputes, as Barcelona suffered a dynastic crisis which led to open war among the smaller counties; but by the 1080s, the situation calmed, and the dominion of Barcelona over the smaller counties was restored. La Seu Vella, the Romanesque-Gothic old Cathedral of Lleida La Seu Vella Lleida (Catalan: Lleida, Spanish: Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain. ...


Expansion into the Crusades and military orders

In the High Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom. The Reconquista was originally a mere war of conquest. It only later underwent a significant shift in meaning toward a religiously justified war of liberation (see the Augustinian concept of a Just War). The papacy and the influential Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy not only justified the anti-Islamic acts of war but actively encouraged Christian knights to seek armed confrontation with Moorish "infidels" instead of with each other. From the 11th century onwards indulgences were granted: In 1064 Pope Alexander II promised the participants of an expedition against Barbastro a collective indulgence 30 years before Pope Urban II called the First Crusade. Not until 1095 and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers which holds that a conflict can and ought to meet the criteria of philosophical, religious or political justice, provided it follows certain conditions. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, William I, who placed it under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... Alexander II (died April 21, 1073), born Anselmo da Baggio , Pope from 1061 to 1073, was a native of Milan. ... The War of Barbastro was an international expedition, sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Barbastro from the Moors. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in...


But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ (militia Christi): in a letter, Urban II tried to persuade the reconquistadores fighting at Tarragona to stay in the Peninsula and not to join the armed pilgrimage to conquer Jerusalem since their contribution for Christianity was equally important. The pope promised them the same rewarding indulgence that awaited the first crusaders. Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Later military orders like the order of Santiago, Montesa, Order of Calatrava and the Knights Templar were founded or called to fight in Iberia. The Popes called the knights of Europe to the Crusades in the peninsula. After the so called Disaster of Alarcos, French, Navarrese, Castilian, Portuguese and Aragonese armies united against the Muslim forces in the massive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). The big territories awarded to military orders and nobles were the origin of the latifundia in today's Andalusia and Extremadura, in Spain, and Alentejo, in Portugal. Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... 17th century interpretation of saint James as the Moor-killer from the Peruvian school of Cuzco. ... The Order of Montesa was a Christian military order, territorially limited to the Kingdom of Aragón. ... The order emblem, a greek cross in gules with fleur-de-lis at its ends. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... Latifundia are pieces of landed property covering tremendous areas. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Capital Mérida Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... NUTS II Alentejo region. ...


Legacy

Real or legendary episodes of the Reconquista are the subject of much of Medieval Portuguese-, Spanish- and Catalan-language literature, such as the cantar de gesta. Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... A cantar de gesta is the Spanish version of the Old French chanson de geste. ...


Some noble genealogies show the close relations (although not very numerous) between Muslims and Christians. For example, Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, whose rule is considered to have marked the peak of power for Moorish Iberia, married Abda, daughter of Sancho Garcés of Navarra, who bore him a son – named Abd al-Rahman, and commonly known in pejorative sense as Sanchuelo (Little Sancho, in Arabic: Shanjoul). After his father's death, Sanchuelo/Abd al-Rahman, son of a Christian princess, was a strong contender to take over the ultimate power in Muslim Al-Anadalus. A hundred years later, King Alfonso VI of Castile, considered among the greatest of the Medieval Spanish kings, designated as his heir his son (also a Sancho) by the refugee Muslim princess Zaida of Seville. Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور (c. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Sancho, centred, flanked by his queen, Urraca, left, and his brother, Ramiro, right. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ... Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo (983 – 1009), born and died in Córdoba, was the son of Almanzor and chief minister of Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Princess Zaida Of Seville (ca. ...


The word Reconquista itself should be regarded as an explanation for a long unplanned historical shift or even as Christian and European propaganda by the new reigning houses to justify their rule as inheritance. 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


It has also been proposed that the war left the Iberian kingdoms with deep economic crises, leading to the expulsion of the Jews (who had lived in the Iberian Peninsula for over ten centuries) in order to confiscate their funds and property. It should be noted however that the Portuguese Reconquista ended in 1249 and that the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms were already profiting from their maritime expansion before the Jews were expelled (see Portugal in the period of discoveries and History of Spain). For additional context, see History of Portugal. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ...


The Reconquista was a war with long periods of respite between the adversaries, partly for pragmatic reasons, and also due to infighting among the Christian kingdoms of the North spanning over seven centuries. Some populations practiced Islam or Christianity as their own religion during these centuries, so the identity of contenders changed over time.


Earlier Christians fighting the Moors, such as Pelayo, could plausibly be described as natives opposing foreign invasion and conquest; however, by the time most parts of Muslim Iberia were (re)conquered by Christian forces, the Muslim population there was centuries old, and much of it undoubtedly composed of converted Iberians rather than migrants from other Muslim lands. Granada at the time of its conquest in 1492 was as thoroughly Arab and Muslim a city as were Cairo or Damascus at the time. Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ...


Moreover, the ease with which the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was directly and immediately continued by the exploits of conquistadors beyond the Atlantic clearly shows that for Spaniards at the time, conquest of non-Christian territory and its transformation into a Catholic, Spanish-speaking land were legitimate, whether or not a claim of prior possession of the land could be advanced. A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ...


Nevertheless, the expression "Reconquista" continues to be used to designate this historical period by most historians and scholars in Spain and Portugal, as well as internationally.


Christian in-fighting

The battle against Moors did not keep the Christian kingdoms from battling among themselves or allying with Islamic kings. For example, the earlier kings of Navarre were close to the Banu Qasi of Tudela (who, from their part, originated in the 7th century conversion of Christian Count Cassius). Some Moorish kings had wives or mothers born Christians (for years the Moors demanded a yearly tribute of Christian young girls for their harems). This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Tudela is a town and municipality in Spain, in the northern province of Navarra. ... Count Cassius (8th century), also Count Casius, kumis Kasi or kumis Qasi, was a Hispano-Roman or Visigoth nobleman that originated the Banu Qasi dynasty. ...


Also some Christian champions like El Cid were contracted by Taifa kings to fight against their neighbours. Indeed, El Cid got his first battle experience at 1063 the Battle of Graus – where he and other Castilians had taken the side of al-Muqtadir, Muslim emir of Zaragoza against the Christian forces of Ramiro I of Aragon. Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... The Battle of Graus (or Siege of Graus) was a battle of the early Spanish Reconquista in spring 1063 (some sources say the battle was in early May, possibly around May 8). ... Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Muqtadir was a member of the Banu Hud family and ruled Zaragoza from 1049-1082. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... This genealogy of Aragonese kings from a 16th century Spanish manuscript gives Ramiro I a prominent place. ...


In the late years of Al-Andalus, Castile had the military power to conquer the remains of the kingdom of Granada, but the kings preferred to claim the tribute of the Muslim parias. The trade of Granadan goods and the parias were a main way for African gold to enter medieval Europe. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Expulsion of the Muslims and Jews

Main article: Alhambra decree

For Old Arabs, the unity of race prevailed over the difference of creed and added another discriminatory system among Muslims supremacy over Christians and Jews. In addition to discriminatory laws as stated by the Code Of Umar, ghettos grouping respectively Christians and Jews were the regular rule of cohabitations of the communities which members also have a distinctive cloth or badge, yellow for the Jews (yellow badge), blue for the Christians. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment...


The last rules of ethnic and religious purity of the Modern Age were the Spanish cleanliness of blood and the expulsion of Jews by Manuel I in Portugal. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Limpieza de sangre (in Spanish), Limpeza de sangue (in Portuguese), both meaning cleanliness of blood was a concept of Iberian Modern History. ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ...


Most Muslims and Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain and Portugal and have their assets seized. Many Muslims and Jews moved to North Africa rather than submit to forced conversion. During the Islamic administration, Christians and Jews were allowed to convert or retain their religions with many reduced rights and a tax, which if not paid the penalty was death, although during the time of the Almoravids and especially the Almohads they were also treated badly, in contrast to the policies of the earlier Umayyad rulers. This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


The new Christian hierarchy, on the other hand, demanded heavy taxes and gave them nominal rights, but only in heavily Islamic regions, such as Granada, until their own power was sufficient, and the influence of the Inquisition strong enough, to make further expulsion both possible and economically feasible. In 1496, under Archbishop Hernando de Talavera, even the Muslim population of Granada was forced to accept Christianity. In 1502, the king and queen declared submission to Catholicism officially compulsory in Castilian domains. Emperor Charles V did the same for the Kingdom of Aragon in 1526.[3] These policies were not only officially religious in nature but also effectively seized the wealth of the vanquished. For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...


Most of the descendants of those Muslims and Jews who submitted to compulsory conversion to Christianity rather than exile during the early periods of the Inquisition, the Moriscos and Conversos respectively, were later expelled from Spain and Portugal when the Inquisition was at its height. The expulsion was carried out more severely in Eastern Spain (Valencia and Aragon), due to local animosity towards Muslims and Moriscos — mainly for economic reasons. For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


Because some Muslims, and Jews, shared common ancestors with Christians, it was difficult to expel all of those with non-Christian ancestors from Iberia. However the Spanish state had success in expelling the "Moriscos". Those descended from practicing Muslims or Jews at the time of the Reconquista, however, were for a long time suspected of various crimes including practicing Islam or Judaism, or crimes against the Spanish state and finally expelled from peninsula. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Social types under the Reconquista

The advances and retreats created several social types:

  • The Mozarabs: Christian in Muslim-held lands. Some of them migrated to the North in times of persecution.
  • The Muladi: Christians who converted to Islam after the arrival of the Moors.
  • The Renegade: Christian individuals who embraced Islam and often fought against their former compatriots.
  • The Jewish conversos (pejoratively known as "Marranos"): Jews who either voluntarily or compulsorily became Christians. Some of them were crypto-Jews who kept practicing Judaism. Eventually all Jews were forced to leave Spain in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal some years later. Their Converso descendants became victims of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions.
  • The Mudéjar: Muslims dwelling in land conquered by the Christians, usually peasants. Their characteristic architecture of adobe bricks was frequently employed in churches commissioned by the new lords. Their descendants after 1492 were called Moriscos

Currently, the festivals of moros y cristianos (Castilian or Spanish), mors i cristians (Valencian or Catalan) and mouros e cristãos (Portuguese or Galician) these meaning "Moors and Christians" recreate the fights as colorful parades with elaborate garments and lots of fireworks, especially on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, popularly known as Levante. The Mozarabs (in Spanish, mozárabes; in Portuguese, moçárabes) were Iberian Christians living under Muslim dominion, and their descendants. ... A Muladi (pl: Muladies) is a term used to describe a sect of Moslems living in Spain with mostly Christian origins. ... Look up renegade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Crypto-Judaism is secret practicing of Judaism while publicly pretending to be of another faith. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... Teruel: Tower of the Cathedral, one of ten Mudéjar monuments of Aragón that comprise the World Heritage Site The Courtyard of the Dolls in the Alcázar of Seville Tower of the Santa maría church in Calatayud Las Ventas, Madrids Neo-Mudéjar bullfighting ring Mud... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Parade of a Christian filà of Moros y Cristianos festival in Alcoy. ... Levante, also referred to as El Levante (Spanish) or El Llevant (Valencian), is a name used to refer to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. ...


Fiction

The Guy Gavriel Kay historical fantasy novel The Lions of Al-Rassan is set in an alternate universe version of medieval Spain, and features Rodrigo, a main character who is clearly modeled on El Cid. The underlying story of the book is based on the Reconquista, though in a fictionalized and romantic form. Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... The Lions of Al-Rassan is a work of historical fantasy by Guy Gavriel Kay. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Reconquista

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hitti, The Arabs: A Short History
  2. ^ Walter Andrews and Mehmet Kalpaklı, The Age of Beloveds, Duke University Press, 2005; p.2
  3. ^ Censorship and Book Production in Spain During the Age of the Incunabula, Ignacio Tofiño-Quesada. Graduate Center, CUNY.

Philip Khuri Hitti was a western scholar of Islam. ...

Bibliography

  • Payne, Stanley, "The Emergence of Portugal", in A History of Spain and Portugal: Volume One.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Atlas of the Crusades. Facts On File, Oxford (1991)
  • Tofiño-Quesada, Ignacio, "Censorship and Book Production in Spain During the Age of the Incunabula", Graduate Center, CUNY.
  • Watt, W. Montgomery: A History of Islamic Spain. University Press of Edinburgh (1992).
  • Watt, W. Montgomery: The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe. (Edinburgh 1972).
  • Timothy Reuter, Christopher Allmand, David Luscombe, Rosamond (EDT) McKitterick, " The New Cambridge Medieval History", Cambridge University Press, Sep 14, 1995, ISBN 0-521-36291-1.

Further reading

  • Bishko, Charles Julian, 1975. The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095–1492 in A History of the Crusades, vol. 3: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, edited by Harry W. Hazard, (University of Wisconsin Press)
  • Alexander Pierre Bronisch: Reconquista und Heiliger Krieg — die Deutung des Krieges im christlichen Spanien von den Westgoten bis ins frühe 12. Jahrhundert, Münster, Aschendorff, 1998, ISBN 3-402-05839-1
  • Joseph F. O´Callaghan: "Reconquest and crusade in Medieval Spain", Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8122-3696-3
  • Derek William Lomax: Die Reconquista. Die Wiedereroberung Spaniens durch das Christentum Deutsche Übersetzung durch Holger Fliessbach. Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München 1980. ISBN 3-453-48067-8
  • Philippe Sénac: La frontière et les hommes — (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle) le peuplement musulman au nord de l'Ebre et les débuts de la reconquête aragonaise, Paris, Maisonneuve et Larose, 2000, ISBN 2-7068-1421-7

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The ‘Reconquista’—Mexico’s Dream of ‘Retaking’ the Southwest (3348 words)
They call it the “reconquista,” Spanish for “reconquest,” and they view the millions of Mexican illegal aliens entering this country as their army of invaders to achieve that takeover.
The Span ish government, however, mounted a “re conquista” to again subject this territory to their control, the first reconquista in Amer ican history.
It took a combination of Criollos (ethnic Spaniards born in the New World), Indi ans associated with them and Mestizos (racially mixed people) to defeat Imperial Spain; but by 1821, after 38 years of struggle, they triumphed, and modern Mexico was born.
Reconquista travel guide (458 words)
Reconquista may not be the big tourist city you would jump at the chance of travelling to.
Nearby Avellaneda is 4km across the river and it's 25,000 residents add to the general population of the area.
The stretch of highway between Avellaneda and Reconquista fills with walkers and cyclists in the summertime who make the most of the warm weather to get some exercise.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m