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Encyclopedia > Reconnaissance
Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944
Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944

Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. It is part of combat intelligence. Compare to counterintelligence. Image File history File links Captain Mruk with a Soviet reconaissance patrol Radom-Kielce Home Army Area, during the Operation Tempest, August of 1944 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Captain Mruk with a Soviet reconaissance patrol Radom-Kielce Home Army Area, during the Operation Tempest, August of 1944 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... A Red Army is a communist army. ... Armia Krajowa Polish 7th Infantry Division of the Radom-Kielce Area, during the Operation Tempest Operation Tempest (Polish: Plan Burza, sometimes also translated as Operation Storm) was a series of planned local uprisings prepared by the Polish Home Army during World War II. The main aim of the operation was... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Counterintelligence or counter-espionage is the act of seeking and indentifying espionage activities. ...

Often referred to as recce /ˈre.ki/ (British & Commonwealth) or recon (USA), the associated verb is reconnoiter in American English or reconnoitre in British English. A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ... American English (AmE) is the form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the written English language in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language. ...

Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships, submarines, or aircraft, or by setting up covert observation posts. Reconnaissance may also be carried out by satellites or unmanned aircraft. Espionage is not normally considered to be covered by the term reconnaissance, as reconnaissance involves uniformed military forces operating ahead of the main force, as oposed to non-combatant individuals within the enemy lines. Patrolling is a military tactic. ... Royal Navy Vanguard class submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...

Reconnaissance seeks to collect information about an enemy. This includes types of enemy units, locations, numbers, and intentions or activity. A number of acronyms exist for the information to be gathered - mainly coined by the US - including salt (size, activity, location, and time), salute (size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment), sam & doc (strength, armament, movement, deployment, organization, and communications). Thus reconnaissance is a fundamental tactic which helps to build an intelligence picture.


Airborne photo reconnaissance

Main article: Surveillance aircraft A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ...

On 16 October 1912 a Bulgarian Albatros aircraft was used to perform Europe's first reconnaissance flight in combat conditions. October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... 1912 was a leap year starting on Monday. ...

During the First World War, photo reconnaissance was one of the early uses of the aeroplane. Aviators such as Fred Zinn evolved an entire range of new flying and photography techniques to use the new technology in the equally new environment of trench warfare. World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... Friedrich Wilhelm Fred Zinn of Battle Creek, Michigan, was one of the volunteer American aviators who flew with the French Aéronautique Militaire in World War I. He is one of the early pioneers of using aerial photography for wartime reconnaissance. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the ground, facing each other. ...

Before the Second World War the conventional wisdom was to use converted bomber types for airborne photo reconnaissance. These bombers retained their defensive armament, which was vital since they were unable to avoid interception. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ...

In 1939 Flying Officer Maurice Longbottom of the RAF was among the first to suggest that airborne reconnaissance may be a task better suited to fast, small aircraft which would use their speed and high service ceiling to avoid detection and interception. Although this seems obvious now, with modern reconnaissance tasks performed by fast, high flying aircraft, at the time it was radical thinking. He proposed the use of Spitfires with their armament and radios removed and replaced with extra fuel and cameras. This led to the development of the Spitfire PR variants. Spitfires proved to be extremely successful in their reconnaissance role and there were many variants built specifically for that purpose. A Flying Officers sleeve/shoulder insignia Flying Officer is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a single-seat fighter used by the RAF and many Allied countries in World War II. The Spitfires elliptical wings gave it a very distinctive look; their thin cross-section gave it speed; the brilliant design of Chief Designer R.J. Mitchell and his successors... The Supermarine Spitfire was one of the best fighter aircraft of its time. ...

Immediately after World War II, long range aerial reconnaissance was taken up by adapted jet bombers - such as the English Electric Canberra, and its American development, the Martin B-57 - capable of flying higher or faster than the enemy. The onset of the Cold War led the development of highly specialized and secretive strategic reconnaissance aircraft (or "spyplanes"), such as the Lockheed U-2 and its successor, the SR-71 Blackbird (both from the United States). Flying these aircraft became an exceptionally demanding task, as much because of the aircraft's extreme speed and altitude as it was because of the risk of being captured as spies. As a result, the crews of these aircraft were invariably specially selected and trained. After the Korean war, RB-47 aircraft were used. These were at first converted B-47 jet bombers, but later were RB-47 aircraft, specially designed as reconnaissance planes. They did not carry any bombs. They had large cameras mounted in the belly of the plane, and with a truncated bomb bay used for carrying flash bombe. English Electric Canberra B.2. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s, and remaining in service until the early years of the 21st century. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... The U-2 is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude Surveillance aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... An SR-71 in flight The Lockheed SR-71 Type A, unofficially known as the Blackbird, is a long-range, advanced, strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by Lockheeds Skunk Works (also responsible for the U-2 and many other advanced aircraft). ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...

Reconnaissance in force

Reconnaissance in force (RIF) is a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable (but not decisive) force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength, deployment, and other tactical data. The RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ...

Reconnaissance by fire (or speculative fire, "spec fire") is a tactic which applies a similar principle. When not trying to be stealthy, reconnaissance units may fire on likely enemy positions to provoke a reaction. Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ...

The term reconnaissance in force is sometimes used ironically, as a means to disguise an intention of full engagement without specific instructions to do so, or as a way to provoke the enemy into a retaliatory action that puts them at a disadvantage.

See also

Cap Badge The Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR) is a United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF) unit. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military. ... Official Name USMC Force Reconnaissance Force Recon Marines Branch United States Marine Corps Command Structure MARFORPAC; MEF I, III; MEU(SOC) 11, 13, 15, 31 MARFORLANT, MEF II; MEU(SOC) 22, 24, 26 MARFORRES, Reserves Description MEU(SOC) Deep Recon Capability, Special Operations Capability Readiness Any shore in the world... The Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, or JFCC ISR is a component of US Strategic Command. ... The 1st American Regiment was originally raised during the Seven Years War by Robert Rogers and were better known as Rogers Rangers. ...

External links

  • Reconnaissance and Surveillance Operations—Canadian Land Forces manual about armoured reconnaissance (PDF)

  Results from FactBites:
:: Welcome to the National Reconnaissance Office :: (265 words)
The NRO is a joint organization engaged in the research and development, acquisition, launch and operation of overhead reconnaissance systems necessary to meet the needs of the Intelligence Community and of the Department of Defense.
In February 1995, CORONA, a photoreconnaissance program in operation from 1960 to 1972, was declassified and 800,000 CORONA images were transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration.
In December 1996, the NRO announced for the first time, in advance, the launch of a reconnaissance satellite.
Lone Sentry: Reconnaissance Units, German (WWII U.S. Intelligence Bulletin, November 1942) (1225 words)
Against the defense area, the aim of the reconnaissance unit is to use its speed to surround and destroy the enemy.
A reconnaissance unit may be forced by the task allotted to it, or by enemy action, to adopt the defensive temporarily.
Reconnaissance at night is mostly a question of watching roads and keeping the enemy under observation from such concealment as woods and farms.
  More results at FactBites »



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