Recombination usually refers to the biological process of genetic recombination and meiosis, a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells. It is also referred to as crossing over or change of phase. Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles observed at different loci (plural of locus) in two parental individuals become shuffled in offspring individuals. ... In biology, meiosis is the process that allows one diploid cell to divide in a special way to generate haploid cells in eukaryotes. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...
Other possible uses of the term are as follows:
In chemistry, it is the state in which the hydrogen and oxygen gases which form within the battery cell during charging are recombined to form water.
In physical cosmology, the event after the Big Bang during which electrons became bound to nuclei. After the decoupling of matter and radiation, which happened at about the same time as recombination, ambient photons could travel freely, and are visible today as the Cosmic Microwave Background.
In physics, Lord Kelvin's Knot theory describes atoms as knots of swirling vortices in the æther. This is helpful in understanding the mechanics of matter absorbing and emitting radiant energy, during reionization and ionization, in the Ionosphere.
In solid state physics of semiconductors, carrier recombination is a process by which electrons and electron holes are mutually eliminated, and is balanced with carrier generation to establish the carrier density at thermal equilibrium.
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Recombination of electrons and holes is a process by which both carriers annihilate each other: electrons occupy - through one or multiple steps - the empty state associated with a hole.
In the case of non-radiative recombination, it is passed on to one or more phonons and in Auger recombination it is given off in the form of kinetic energy to another electron.
Recombination in a depletion region and in situations where the hole and electron density are close to each other cannot be described with the simple model and the more elaborate expressions for the individual recombination mechanisms must be used.
In contrast, geneticrecombination is performed by the cell during the preparation of gametes (sperm, egg, pollen) which are used for sexual reproduction.
Both recombination and mutations can contribute to the evolution of an organism, but geneticrecombination is the primary source of the genetic distinctions between individuals in a population, and must therefore be the principal driving force behind evolution.
Since homologous recombination is performed by the cell, it therefore occurs by design, and we do not understand these reactions well enough to recognize the capability of these genetic modifications.
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