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Encyclopedia > Recombinant DNA
GloFish are a type of zebrafish with recombinant DNA. Genes for fluorescent proteins have been inserted into their genome to produce their fluorescent colors.
GloFish are a type of zebrafish with recombinant DNA. Genes for fluorescent proteins have been inserted into their genome to produce their fluorescent colors.

Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA that is engineered through the combination or insertion of one or more DNA strands, thereby combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together.[1] In terms of genetic modification, recombinant DNA is produced through the addition of relevant DNA into an existing organismal genome, such as the plasmid of bacteria, to code for or alter different traits for a specific purpose, such as immunity.[1] It differs from genetic recombination, in that it does not occur through processes within the cell or ribosome, but is exclusively engineered.[1] GloFish image from http://www. ... GloFish image from http://www. ... A group of GloFish fluorescent fish An ordinary zebrafish The GloFish is a trademarked brand of genetically modified (GM) fluorescent zebrafish with bright red, green, and orange fluorescent color. ... The name zebrafish applies to several different kinds of fish with striped bodies considered to resemble a zebra: Brachydanio rerio, also called Danio rerio or the Zebra Danio, is a commonly used model organism in studies of biological development. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of the genetic material (usually DNA; but can also be RNA) is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ...


The Recombinant DNA technique was engineered by Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in 1973. They published their findings in a 1974 paper entitled "Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids in vitro", which described a technique to isolate and amplify genes or DNA segments and insert them into another cell with precision, creating a transgenic bacterium. Recombinant DNA technology was made possible by the discovery of restriction endonucleases by Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith, for which they received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Stanley Norman Cohen is an American geneticist. ... Herbert (Herb) Boyer (born 1936) is a Co-recipient of the 1996 Lemelson-MIT Prize and a co-founder of Genentech. ... Transgenic bacteria, refers to bacteria which have been genetically engineered. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases. ... Werner Arber (born June 3, 1929) is a Swiss microbiologist. ... Daniel Nathans (October 30, 1928 - November 16, 1999) was a U.S. microbiologist. ... Hamilton Smith (1931- ) is a Nobel prize winning geneticist. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...

Contents

Introduction

Because of the importance of DNA in the replication of new structures and characteristics of living organisms, it has widespread importance in recapitulating via viral or non-viral vectors, both desirable and undesirable characteristics of a species to achieve characteristic change or to counteract effects caused by genetic or imposed disorders that have effects upon cellular or organismal processes. Through the use of recombinant DNA, genes that are identified as important can be amplified and isolated for use in other species or applications, where there may be some form of genetic illness or discrepancy, and provides a different approach to complex biological problem solving.


Applications and methods

Cloning and relation to plasmids

Main article: Cloning
A simple example of how a desired gene is inserted into a plasmid. In this example, the gene specified in the white color becomes useless as the new gene is added.
A simple example of how a desired gene is inserted into a plasmid. In this example, the gene specified in the white color becomes useless as the new gene is added.

The use of cloning is interrelated with Recombinant DNA in classical biology, as the term "clone" refers to a cell or organism derived from a parental organism,[1] with modern biology referring to the term as a collection of cells derived from the same cell that remain identical.[1] In the classical instance, the use of recombinant DNA provides the initial cell from which the host organism is then expected to recapitulate when it undergoes further cell division, with bacteria remaining a prime example due to the use of viral vectors in medicine that contain recombinant DNA inserted into a structure known as a plasmid.[1] For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Viral vectors are a tool commonly used by biologists to deliver genetic material into cells inside a living organism or cultured in vitro. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ...


Plasmids are extrachromosomal self-replicating circular forms of DNA present in most bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. Coli), containing genes related to catabolism and metabolic activity,[1] and allowing the carrier bacterium to survive and reproduce in conditions present within other species and environments. These genes represent characteristics of resistance to bacteriophages and antibiotics[1] and some heavy metals, but can also be fairly easily removed or separated from the plasmid by restriction endonucleases,[1], which regularly produce "sticky ends" and allow the attachment of a selected segment of DNA, which codes for more "reparative" substances, such as peptide hormone medications including insulin, growth hormone, and oxytocin. In the introduction of useful genes into the plasmid, the bacteria are then used as a viral vector, which are encouraged to reproduce so as to recapitulate the altered DNA within other cells it infects, and increase the amount of cells with the recombinant DNA present within them. E. coli redirects here. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ...


The use of plasmids is also key within gene therapy, where their related viruses are used as cloning vectors or carriers, which are means of transporting and passing on genes in recombinant DNA through viral reproduction throughout an organism.[1] Plasmids contain three common features -- a replicator, selectable marker and a cloning site.[1] The replicator or "ori"[1] refers to the origin of replication with regard to location and bacteria where replication begins. The marker refers to a gene that usually contains resistance to an antibiotic, but may also refer to a gene that is attached alongside the desired one, such as that which confers luminescence to allow identification of successfully recombined DNA.[1] The cloning site is a sequence of nucleotides representing one or more positions where cleavage by restriction endonucleases occurs.[1] Most eukaryotes do not maintain canonical plasmids; yeast is a notable exception.[2] In addition, the Ti plasmid of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be used to integrate foreign DNA into the genomes of many plants. Other methods of introducing or creating recombinant DNA in eukaryotes include homologous recombination and transfection with modified viruses. Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... The structure of the Ti plasmid Ti plasmid is a circular plasmid that uses Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transduce its genetic material to plants. ... Binomial name Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith & Townsend, 1907 Synonyms Bacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend 1907 Pseudomonas tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Duggar 1909 Phytomonas tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Bergey et al. ... Chromosomal crossover is the process by which two chromosomes, paired up during Prophase I of meiosis, exchange some distal portion of their DNA. Crossover occurs when two chromosomes, normally two homologous instances of the same chromosome, break and then reconnect but to the different end piece. ... Stop editing pages god ...


Chimeric plasmids

An example of chimeric plasmid formation from two "blunt ends" via the enzyme, T4 Ligase.
An example of chimeric plasmid formation from two "blunt ends" via the enzyme, T4 Ligase.

When recombinant DNA is then further altered or changed to host additional strands of DNA, the molecule formed is referred to as "chimeric" DNA molecule,[1] with reference to the mythological chimera, which consisted as a composite of several animals.[1] The presence of chimeric plasmid molecules is somewhat regular in occurrence, as, throughout the lifetime of an organism[1], the propagation by vectors ensures the presence of hundreds of thousands of organismal and bacterial cells that all contain copies of the original chimeric DNA.[1] For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Look up chimera, Chimaera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the production of chimeric plasmids, the processes involved can be somewhat uncertain[1], as the intended outcome of the addition of foreign DNA may not always be achieved and may result in the formation of unusable plasmids. Initially, the plasmid structure is linearised[1] to allow the addition by bonding of complementary foreign DNA strands to single-stranded "overhangs"[1] or "sticky ends" present at the ends of the DNA molecule from staggered, or "S-shaped" cleavages produced by restriction endonucleases.[1] A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases. ...


A common vector used for the donation of plasmids originally was the bacterium Escherichia coli and, later, the EcoRI derivative[3], which was used for its versatility[3] with addition of new DNA by "relaxed" replication when inhibited by chloramphenicol and spectinomycin, later being replaced by the pBR322 plasmid.[3]In the case of EcoRI, the plasmid can anneal with the presence of foreign DNA via the route of sticky-end ligation, or with "blunt ends" via blunt-end ligation, in the presence of the phage T4 ligase [3], which forms covalent links between 3-carbon OH and 5-carbon PO4 groups present on blunt ends.[3] Both sticky-end, or overhang ligation and blunt-end ligation can occur between foreign DNA segments, and cleaved ends of the original plasmid depending upon the restriction endonuclease used for cleavage.[3] E. coli redirects here. ... In molecular biology, EcoRI (pronounced Eco R One) is a commonly used restriction enzyme. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Spectinomycin hydrochloride (Trobicin®) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic produced by the bacteria Streptomyces spectabilis. ... PBR322 is a plasmid frequently vectors used in cloning E. coli. ...


Synthetic insulin production using DNA

Until the 1920s, there was no known way to produce insulin because the hormone was not officially identified until 1921. Once identified, the production problem was quickly solved when it was found that insulin from the pancreas of a cow, pig or even some species of fish could be used successfully in humans. This method was the primary solution for type 1 diabetes mellitus for decades, and manufacturing methods had steadily improved the purity of the hormone which was made from animal pancreases. However, proponents of the genetic engineering technology continued to raise what they claimed was a looming problem with traditional methods of insulin production: a supposed shortage of supply in the not-too-distant future. But in the 1987 book "Invisible Frontiers: The Race to Synthesize a Human Gene"[4], author Stephen S. Hall wrote that the supposed shortage is now known to be an assumption based on mistaken facts. He wrote: Not to be confused with inulin. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...

To hear some tell it, there was never a supply problem with pig pancreases in the first place. "The whole thing was rubbish," insists Paul Haycook, research director at Squibb-Novo. "There was never a shortage of pig pancreases, and there never will be." Haycook blames the scare on a miscalculation by an official who had prepared projections for the Food and Drug Administration — a mistake based, ironically, on a mistake in an Eli Lilly training brochure which confused kilograms with pounds. Instead of projecting an insulin shortage by 1982, a revised FDA report predicted adequate insulin supplies through the year 2006. In any event, there is never likely to be a shortage caused by a scarcity of pancreases.[4] Novo Nordisk (OMX: NOVO B, NYSE: NVO) manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. ... FDA redirects here. ...

Scientists and entrepreneurs were very eager to prove they could devise another way to synthesize the hormone, in part, because of competition from other researchers and also because of the promise for the fame and fortune that its so-called "discovery" could bring them. Insulin was part of a wider vision to introduce biotechnology medicines, and was chosen specifically because it is a simple hormone and was therefore relatively easy to copy. However, the motive was never to improve the lives of people with diabetes, but to prove that the technology worked. Insulin was chosen as the ideal candidate because it is a relatively simple protein, it was so widely used that if researchers could prove that synthetic insulin was safe and effective, then the technology would be accepted as such, and it would open the flood gates for many other products to be made this way, along with millions of dollars.


That was exactly what happened. One of the biggest breakthroughs in recombinant DNA technology happened in the manufacture of synthetic "human" insulin, which was the first medicine made via recombinant DNA technology ever to be approved by the FDA.


The specific gene sequence, or oligonucleotide, that codes for insulin production in humans was introduced to a sample colony of E. coli. Only about 1 out of 106 bacteria picks up the sequence. This is not really a problem, however, because the life cycle is only about 30 minutes for E. coli. In a 24-hour period, there may be billions of E. coli that are coded with the DNA sequences needed to induce insulin production.[5] Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. ...


However, a sampling of initial reaction showed that Humulin was greeted more as a technological rather than a medical breakthrough, and that this sentiment was building even before the drug reached pharmacies. As early as 1980, the British magazine New Scientist reported, "Other big chemical manufacturers predict that Eli Lilly's massive $40 million investment in two plants to make insulin - may be a classic example of backing a loser."[citation needed] New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...


The Economist concluded: "The first bug-built drug for human use may turn out to be a commercial flop. But the way has now been cleared-and remarkably quickly, too - for biotechnologists with interesting new products to clear the regulatory hurdles and run away with the prizes."[citation needed] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


Ultimately, widespread consumer adoption of synthetic "human" insulin did not occur until the manufacturers removed highly-purified animal insulin from the market.


See also

Convened by Paul Berg, the Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA was an influential conference discussing the regulation of biotechnology held in February 1975 at a conference center Asilomar State Beach. ... A Vector DNA is a small piece of DNA containing regulatory and coding sequences of interest. ... Since human recombinants have replaced the animal version in human therapeutics, the prefix of rh for human recombinant appears less and less in the literature // Human growth hormone (rhGH) Humatrope® from Lilly; and Serostim® from Serono replaced cadaver harvested human growth hormone Human insulin (rhI) Humulin® from Lilly replaced bovine... Transgenic bacteria, refers to bacteria which have been genetically engineered. ... Ice-minus bacteria is a nickname given to a variant of the common bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (). This strain of lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type ice-plus . This protein found on the outer bacterial cell wall acts as the nucleating centers for...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer,. Biochemistry. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8724-5. 
  2. ^ Plasmids in eukaryotic microbes: an example. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Nathan P. Kaplan, Nathan P. Colowick, Ray Wu (1980). Recombinant DNA, Volume 68: Volume 68: Recombinant Dna Part F (Methods in Enzymology). Academic Press. ISBN 0-1218-1968-X. 
  4. ^ a b Invisible Frontiers: The Race to Synthesize a Human Gene"(1987, Tempus Books of Microsoft Press)
  5. ^ Human insulin from recombinant DNA technology - Johnson 219 (4585): 632 - Science

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Press is the publishing arm of Microsoft, usually releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies. ...

References

  • Garret, R. H. & Grisham, C. M. (2000), Biochemistry, Saunders College Publishers, ISBN 0030758173 .
  • Colowick, S. P. & Kapian, O. N. (1980), Methods in Enzymology - Volume 68; Recombinant DNA, Academic Press, ISBN 012181968X .

External links

  • Fact Sheet Describing Recombinant DNA and Elements Utilizing Recombinant DNA Such as Plasmids and Viral Vectors, and the Application of Recombinant DNA Techniques in Molecular Biology
  • Plasmids in Yeasts
  • A 3D animation illustrating the process by which a protein is mass-produced using spliced DNA and bacterial replication

  Results from FactBites:
 
Recombinant DNA Experiments Questionnaire (1146 words)
Recombinant DNA molecules that are not in organisms or viruses.
Recombinant DNA molecules that consist entirely of DNA segments from a single non-chromosomal or viral DNA source though one or more of the segments may be a synthetic equivalent.
Recombinant DNA molecules that consist entirely of DNA from a prokaryotic host including its indigenous plasmids or viruses when propagated only in that host (or a closely related strain of the same species) or when transferred to another host cell by well established physiological means.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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