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Encyclopedia > Recidivism
Criminology and Penology
Differential Association Theory
Labeling Theory
Rational Choice Theory
Social Control Theory
Social Disorganization Theory
Social Learning Theory
Strain Theory
Subcultural Theory
Symbolic Interactionism · Victimology
Types of crimes
Blue-collar crime · Corporate crime
Juvenile crime
Organized crime
Political crime · Public order crime
Public order case law in the U.S.
State crime · State-corporate crime
White-collar crime · Victimless crime
Plaid-collar crime
Deterrence · Prison
Prison reform · Prisoner abuse
Prisoners' rights · Rehabilitation
Recidivism · Retribution
Criminal justice portal
See also: Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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Recidivism (IPA: [ɹɪˈsɪdɪvɪzm̩]; from recidive + ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring", from re- "back" + cadō "I fall") is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. The term is most frequently used in conjunction with substance abuse and criminal behavior. For example, scientific literature may refer to the recidivism of sexual offenders, meaning the frequency with which they are detected or apprehended committing additional sexual crimes after being released from prison for similar crimes. (If to be counted as recidivism the re-offending requires voluntary disclosure or arrest and conviction, the real recidivism rate may differ substantially from reported rates.) As another example, alcoholic recidivism might refer to the proportion of people who, after successful treatment by Alcoholics Anonymous, report having, or are determined to have, returned to the abuse of alcohol. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. ... Deviant redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Labelling be merged into this article or section. ... In criminology, the Rational Choice Theory adopts a Utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. ... In criminology, Social Control Theory as represented in the work of Travis Hirschi fits into the Positivist School, Neo-Classical School, and, later, Right Realism. ... In criminology, the Social Disorganization Theory was one of the most important theories developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. ... For the article on social learning theory in psychology and education see social cognitivism. ... In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ... In criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. ... Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ... Victimology is the study of why certain people are victims of crime and how lifestyles affect the chances that a certain person will fall victim to a crime. ... In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. ... In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes either committed by a corporation, i. ... Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ... In criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as ...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently, i. ... In criminology, public order crime case law in the United States is essential to understanding how the courts interpret the policy of laws where the moral and social order of the state appears to be threatened by clearly identified behavior. ... In criminology, state crime is activity or failures to act that break the states own criminal law or public international law. ... In criminology, the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercial corporations. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime or incorporated governance has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ... Victimless crime has the following applications: A victimless crime is one in which the victim is the accused. ... Although plaid-collar crime (Rural Commodity Theft) isnt a recognised criminal exercise, it has become increasingly evident in the farming communities of the United States. ... Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... The movement for Prisoners rights is based on the principle that prisoners, even though they are deprived of liberty, are still entitled to basic human rights. ... This theory of punishment is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on a offender so as to reform him, or rehabilitate him so as to make his re-integration into society easier. ... Retributive justice maintains that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to crime, regardless of whether the punishment causes any tangible benefits. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... In medicine, recidivism is the characteristic of many diseases to reoccur, with a period inbetween of regression (medicine). ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal society for recovering alcoholics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

As reported on BBC Radio 4 on 2 September 2005, the recidivism rates for released prisoners in the United States of America is 60% compared with 50% in the United Kingdom but cross-country statistical comparisons are often questionable. The report attributed the lower recidivism rate in the UK to a focus on rehabilitation and education of prisoners compared with the US focus on punishment, deterrence and keeping potentially dangerous individuals away from society. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ...

Some observers now view the treatment of recidivism, especially for criminal offenders who are at risk of re-incarceration, as being a mental health issue rather than a "crime" issue for which choice theory based programs may be highly effective. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... The term choice theory is closely associated with the work of Dr. William Glasser, MD, author of the book so named, and is the culmination of some 50 years of theory and practice in psychology and counseling. ...

The United States Department of Justice tracked the rearrest, re-conviction, and re-incarceration of former inmates for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994.[1] Key findings include: The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...

  • Released prisoners with the highest rearrest rates were robbers (70.2%), burglars (74.0%), larcenists (74.6%), motor vehicle thieves (78.8%), those in prison for possessing or selling stolen property (77.4%), and those in prison for possessing, using, or selling illegal weapons (70.2%).
  • Within 3 years, 2.5% of released rapists were arrested for another rape, and 1.2% of those who had served time for homicide were arrested for homicide.
  • The 272,111 offenders discharged in 1994 had accumulated 4.1 million arrest charges before their most recent imprisonment and another 744,000 charges within 3 years of release.

Positive recidivism

Since the word effectively means 'continued rebellion against authority', the ethics and morals of recidivism are dependent on who defines 'undesirable behavior'. Positive examples of recidivism would include several notable individuals of the French Resistance, who continued exhibiting behavior not desired by the de-facto rulers of France at the time, many activists in the American Civil Rights Movement, and the characters from Brave New World.

Michael Maltz wrote an extensive monograph (2 MB) on the subject of recidivism in the US in 1994. Michael D. Maltz (born in Brooklyn, New York on December 18, 1938) is an emeritus professor at University of Illinois at Chicago in criminal justice, and adjunct professor and researcher at Ohio State University. ...

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