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Encyclopedia > Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language (specifically British English) which has long been perceived as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents. About two percent of Britons speak with the RP accent in its pure form. [1] Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The earlier mentions of the term can be found in H. C. Wyld's A Short History of English (1914) and in Daniel Jones's An Outline of English Phonetics, although the latter stated that he only used the term "for want of a better".[2] According to Fowler's Modern English Usage (1965), the term is "the Received Pronunciation". The word received conveys its original meaning of accepted or approved — as in "received wisdom".[3] Daniel Jones (1881 - 1967) was a British phonetician. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Received Pronunciation may be referred to as the Queen's (or King's) English, on the grounds that it is spoken by the monarch. It is also sometimes referred to as BBC English, because it was traditionally used by the BBC, yet nowadays these notions are slightly misleading. Queen Elizabeth II uses one specific form of English, whilst BBC presenters and staff are no longer bound by one type of accent. There have also long been certain words that have had more than one RP pronunciation, such as again, either, and moor.[4] This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


It is sometimes referred to as Oxford English.[5] This was not because it was traditionally the common speech of the city of Oxford, but specifically of Oxford University; the production of dictionaries gave Oxford University prestige in matters of language. The extended versions of the Oxford Dictionary give Received Pronunciation guidelines for each word.


RP is an accent (a form of pronunciation), not a dialect (a form of vocabulary and grammar). It may show a great deal about the social and educational background of a person who uses English. A person using the RP will typically speak Standard English although the reverse is not necessarily true (e.g. the standard language may be spoken by one in a regional accent, such as a Yorkshire accent; but it is very unlikely that one speaking in RP would use it to speak Scots or Geordie). This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. ...


In recent decades, many people have asserted the value of other regional and class accents. Many members (particularly the younger) of the groups that traditionally used Received Pronunciation have, to varying degrees, begun to use it less. Many regional accents are now heard on the BBC.


RP is often believed to be based on Southern accents, but in fact it has most in common with the dialects of the south-east Midlands: Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire.[6][7] Migration to London in the 14th and 15th centuries was mostly from the counties directly north of London rather than those directly south. There are differences both within and among the three counties mentioned, but a conglomeration emerged in London, and also mixed with some elements of Essex and Middlesex speech. By the end of the 15th century, Standard English was established in the City of London.[8] Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds. ... Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a part of England around Huntingdon, which is currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. ...

Contents

Usage

Researchers generally distinguish between three different forms of RP: Conservative, General, and Advanced. Conservative RP refers to a traditional accent associated with older speakers with certain social backgrounds; General RP is often considered neutral regarding age, occupation, or lifestyle of the speaker; and Advanced RP refers to speech of a younger generation of speakers.[9]


The modern style of RP is the usual accent taught to non-native speakers learning British English[dubious ]. Non-RP Britons abroad may modify their pronunciation to something closer to Received Pronunciation in order to be understood better by people who themselves learned RP in school. They may also modify their vocabulary and grammar to be closer to Standard English, for the same reason. RP is used as the standard for English in most books on general phonology and phonetics and is represented in the pronunciation schemes of most dictionaries. The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...


Status

Traditionally, Received Pronunciation was a manufactured accent of English published as the "everyday speech in the families of Southern English persons whose men-folk have been educated at the great public boarding-schools"[10] and which conveys no information about that speaker's region of origin prior to attending the school. However, this form of Received Pronunciation is a construct of its period of creation during the 19th Century, its pronunciation based upon Court English, and aimed at a rising educated middle class.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

It is the business of educated people to speak so that no-one may be able to tell in what county their childhood was passed.
A. Burrell, Recitation. A Handbook for Teachers in Public Elementary School, 1891.

In the 19th century, there were still Prime Ministers who spoke with some dialectal features, such as William Gladstone.[11] It was not until the end of the century that the use of Received Pronunciation was considered to be a trait of education. As a result, at a time when only around five percent of the population attended universities, elitist notions sprang up around it and those who used it may have considered those who did not to be less educated than themselves. Historically the most prestigious British educational institutions (Oxford, Cambridge, many other privately funded public schools) were located in England, so those who were educated there would pick up the accents of their peers. (There have always been exceptions: for example, Leeds University in Leeds using an RP accent; Morningside, Edinburgh, Broughty Ferry, Dundee and Kelvinside in Glasgow had Scottish "pan loaf" variations of the RP accent aspiring to a similar prestige). Gladstone redirects here. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite — a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below) — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... A public school, in current English, Welsh and Northern Ireland usage, is a (usually) prestigious independent school, for children usually between the ages of 11 or 13 and 18, which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... University Tower, University of Leeds The University of Leeds (United Kingdom) is amongst the largest of British universities and the most popular by applicants, with 52,444 applicants in 2003 for 7,228 places (UCAS). ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... Morningside is a famously genteel area in the south-west of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Broughty Ferry (Brochtie in Scots) is a suburb on the eastern edge of the City of Dundee, situated on the shore of the Firth of Tay in eastern Scotland. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... Kelvinside is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... A pan loaf is a traditional style of loaf made in Scotland. ...


From the 1970s onwards, attitudes towards Received Pronunciation have been slowly changing. One of the catalysts for this was the influence in the 1960s of Labour prime minister Harold Wilson. Unusually for a prime minister, he spoke with elements of a Yorkshire accent. The BBC's use of announcers with strong regional accents during and after World War II (in order to distinguish BBC broadcasts from German propaganda) is an earlier example of the use of non-RP accents.[citation needed] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


An April 2008 survey suggested that RP is no longer the most respected accent, and that Yorkshire accents are more commonly associated with positive character traits.[12] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Phonology

Consonants

When consonants appear in pairs, fortis consonants (i.e. aspirated or voiceless) appear on the left and lenis consonants (i.e. lightly voiced or voiced) appear on the right In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ...

Consonant phonemes of Received Pronunciation[13]
  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal1 m n ŋ
Plosive p  b t  d k  g
Affricate tʃ  dʒ
Fricative f  v θ  ð2 s  z ʃ  ʒ h3   
Approximant ɹ1, 4 j w
Lateral l1, 5
  1. Nasals and liquids may be syllabic in unstressed syllables.
  2. /ð/ is more often a weak dental plosive; the sequence /nð/ is often realized as [n̪n̪].
  3. /h/ becomes [ɦ] between voiced sounds.
  4. /ɹ/ is postalveolar unless devoicing results in a voiceless fricative articulation (see below).
  5. /l/ is velarized in the syllable coda.

Unless preceded by /s/, fortis plosives (/p/, /t/, and /k/) are aspirated before stressed vowels; when a sonorant /l/, /ɹ/, /w/, or /j/ follows, this aspiration is indicated by partial devoicing of the sonorant.[14] In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... A syllabic consonant is a consonant which either forms a syllable of its own, or is the nucleus of a syllable. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


Syllable final /p/, /t/, /tʃ/, and /k/ are preceded by a glottal stop (see Glottal reinforcement); /t/ may be fully replaced by a glottal stop, especially before a syllabic nasal (button [bɐʔn̩]).[15][16] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See also Glottalic consonant Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound. ...


Vowels

monophthongs of RP. From Roach (2004:242)
diphthongs of RP. From Roach (2004:242)
diphthongs of RP. From Roach (2004:242)
Monophthongs
Front Central Back
long short long short long short
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ɜː ə ɔː
Open æ ʌ ɑː ɒ

Examples of short vowels: /ɪ/ in kit and mirror, /ʊ/ in put, /e/ in dress and merry, /ʌ/ in strut and curry, /æ/ in trap and marry, /ɒ/ in lot and orange, /ə/ in ago and sofa. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


Examples of long vowels: /iː/ in fleece, /uː/ in goose, /ɜː/ in nurse, /ɔː/ in north and thought, /ɑː/ in father and start.


RP's long vowels are slightly diphthongised. Especially the high vowels /iː/ and /uː/ which are often narrowly transcribed in phonetic literature as diphthongs [ɪi] and [ʊu].[citation needed]


"Long" and "short" are relative to each other. Because of phonological process affecting vowel length, short vowels in one context can be longer than long vowels in another context.[17] For example, a long vowel following a fortis consonant sound (/p/, /k/, /s/, etc.) is shorter; reed is thus pronounced [ɹiːd̥] while heat is [hiʔt].[citation needed] Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


Conversely, the short vowel /æ/ becomes longer if it is followed by a lenis consonant. Thus, bat is pronounced [b̥æʔt] and bad is [b̥æːd̥]. In natural speech, the plosives /t/ and /d/ may be unreleased utterance-finally, thus distinction between these words would rest mostly on vowel length.[16] Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


In addition to such length distinctions, unstressed vowels are both shorter and more centralized than stressed ones. In unstressed syllables occurring before vowels and in final position, contrasts between long and short high vowels are neutralized and short [i] and [u] occur.[18]

Diphthong Example
Closing
/eɪ/ /beɪ/ bay
/aɪ/ /baɪ/ buy
/ɔɪ/ /bɔɪ/ boy
/əʊ/ /bəʊ/ beau
/aʊ/ /baʊ/ bough
Centring
/ɪə/ /bɪə/ beer
/eə/ /beə/ bear
/ʊə/ /bʊə/ boor

Before World War II, /ɔə/ appeared in words like door but this has largely disappeared, having merged with /ɔː/; there are a number of words where /ʊə/ has merged with /ɔː/,[19] although the Oxford Dictionary still lists poor as being pronounced with the former diphthong. In the closing diphthongs, the glide is often so small as to be undetectable so that day and dare can be narrowly transcribed as [d̥e̞ː] and [d̥ɛː] respectively.[20] In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


RP also possesses the triphthongs /aɪə/ as in ire and /aʊə/ as in hour. The realizations sketched in the following table are not phonemically distinctive, though the difference between /aʊə/, /aɪə/, and /ɑː/ may be neutralised to become [ɑː] or [äː]. In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

Triphthongs[16]
As two syllables Triphthong Loss of mid-element Further simplified as
[aɪ.ə] [aɪə] [aːə] [aː]
[ɑʊ.ə] [ɑʊə] [ɑːə] [ɑː]

Not all reference sources use the same system of transcription. In particular:[citation needed] In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...

  • /æ/ as in trap is often written /a/.
  • /e/ as in dress is sometimes written /ɛ/.[21]
  • /ɜː/ as in nurse is sometimes written /əː/.
  • /aɪ/ as in price is sometimes written /ʌɪ/.
  • /aʊ/ as in mouse is sometimes written /ɑʊ/
  • /eə/ as in square is sometimes written /ɛə/, and is also sometimes treated as a long monophthong /ɛː/.

Most of these variants are used in the transcription devised by Clive Upton for the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993) and now used in many other Oxford University Press dictionaries. Clive Upton From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, often abbreviated to SOED, is a scaled-down version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


Historical variation

Like all accents, RP has changed over time. For example, sound recordings and films from the first half of the 20th century demonstrate that it was standard to pronounce the /æ/ sound, as in land, with a vowel close to [ɛ], so that land would sound similar to lend. RP is sometimes known as the Queen's English, but recordings show that even the Queen has changed her pronunciation over the past 50 years, no longer using an [ɛ]-like vowel in words like land.[22]

A comparison of the formant values of /iː æ ɑː ɔː ʊ uː/ for older (black) and younger (light blue) RP speakers. From de Jong et al. (2007:1814)
A comparison of the formant values of /iː æ ɑː ɔː ʊ uː/ for older (black) and younger (light blue) RP speakers. From de Jong et al. (2007:1814)

The 1993 Oxford Dictionary changed three main things in its description of modern RP, although these features can still be heard amongst old speakers of RP. Firstly, words such as cloth, gone, off, often were pronounced with /ɔː/ instead of /ɒ/ so that often sounded close to orphan (See lot-cloth split). The Queen still uses the older pronunciations[23], but it is rare to hear them on the BBC anymore. Secondly, there was a distinction between horse and hoarse with an extra diphthong /ɔə/ appearing in words like hoarse, force, and pour.[24] Thirdly, final y on a word was pronounced as an /ɪ/ in Standard English, but this is now a more open /i/ sound, as has been common in the south of England for some time.[25] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... // Father-bother merger The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels and that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English (exceptions are accents in Eastern New England (such as the Boston accent) and New York-New Jersey English. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ...


Before World War II, the vowel of cup was a back vowel close to cardinal [ʌ] but has since shifted forward to a central position so that [ɐ] is more accurate; phonetic transcription of this vowel as <ʌ> is common partly for historical reasons.[26]


In very early forms of RP, the vowel /oʊ/ was used instead of the modern /əʊ/ in words such as goat, no, cold, etc.;[27] the /oʊ/ was used throughout Daniel Jones's work on RP.Joseph Wright's work suggests that, during the early 20th century, words such as cure, fewer, pure, etc. were pronounced with a tripthong /iuə/ rather than the more modern /juə/.[28] The older pronunciation is still common in speech across the North of England and Scotland. Daniel Jones (1881 - 1967) was a British phonetician. ... Joseph Wright FBA (1855-1930) rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University. ...


The change in RP may even be observed in the home of "BBC English". The BBC accent from the 1950s was distinctly different from today's: a news report from the 1950s is recognisable as such, and a mock-1950s BBC voice is used for comic effect in programmes wishing to satirize 1950s social attitudes such as the Harry Enfield Show and its "Mr Cholmondley-Warner" sketches. Harry Enfield (born 30 May 1961 in Sussex, England) is an English comedian. ...


Comparison to other varieties

  • RP is a broad A accent, so words like bath and chance appear with /ɑː/ and not /æ/.
  • RP is a non-rhotic accent, meaning /r/ does not occur unless followed immediately by a vowel.
  • RP has undergone the wine-whine merger so the phoneme /ʍ/ is not present except among those who have acquired this distinction as the result of speech training. R.A.D.A. (the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art), based in London, still teaches these two sounds as distinct phonemes. They are pronounced differently in most of Scotland and in the north-east of England.
  • Unlike many other varieties of English English, there is no h-dropping in words like head or herb.
  • RP does not have yod dropping after /n/, /t/ and /d/. Hence, for example, new, tune and dune are pronounced /njuː/, /tjuːn/ and /djuːn/ rather than /nuː/, /tuːn/ and /duːn/. This contrasts with many East Anglian and East Midland varieties of English English and with many forms of American English, including General American.
  • The flapped variant of /t/ and /d/ (as in much of the West Country, most American varieties including General American and the Cape Coloured dialect of South Africa) is not used. In traditional RP [ɾ] is an allophone of /r/ (used only intervocalically).[29]

// Trap-bath split The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The hole-whole merger is the replacement of with before the vowels and which occurred in Old English resulting in the following pronunciations: who - whom - whole - whore - hole and whole became homophonous. ... RADAs theatre in London The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in Bloomsbury, London, is considered to be one of the most prestigious drama schools in the world. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... // H-dropping is a colloquial term used to describe the omission of initial in words like house, heat, and hangover in many dialects of English, such as Cockney and Estuary English. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the history of English involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... Traditionally, East Midlands English was spoken in those parts of Mercia lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This page discusses a phonological phenomenon. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A prestige dialect is the dialect spoken by the most prestigious people in a speech community large enough to sustain multiple dialects. ... The Queens English Society was founded in 1972 by Joe Clifton, an Oxford graduate and schoolteacher. ... English is a West Germanic language originating in England. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language. ...

Audio Files

  • Blagdon Hall, Northumberland
  • Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk
  • Harrow
  • Hexham, Northumberland
  • London
  • Newport, Pembrokeshire
  • Teddington

References

  1. ^ Learning: Language & Literature: Sounds Familiar?: Case studies: Received Pronunciation British Library
  2. ^ Crystal (2003:365)
  3. ^ British Library website, "Sounds Familiar?" section
  4. ^ Pronunciations from any Oxford Dictionary where pronunciations are given:
    • Again - /əgen/, /əgein/
    • Either - /aɪðə(ɹ)/, /iːðə(ɹ)/
    • Moor - /mɔː(ɹ)/, /mʊə(ɹ)/
  5. ^ Received Pronunciation
  6. ^ Elmes (2005:114)
  7. ^ bbc.co.uk
  8. ^ Crystal (2003:54-55)
  9. ^ Schmitt (2007:323)
  10. ^ Jones (1917:viii)
  11. ^ Gladstone's speech was the subject of a book The Best English. A claim for the superiority of Received Standard English, together with notes on Mr. Gladstone's pronunciation, H.C. Kennedy, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934
  12. ^ Yorkshire named top twang as Brummie brogue comes bottom | UK news | guardian.co.uk
  13. ^ Roach (2004:240-241)
  14. ^ Roach (2004:240)
  15. ^ Roach (2004:240)
  16. ^ a b c GIMSON, A. C. ‘An Introduction to the pronunciation of English,' London : Edward Arnold, 1970.
  17. ^ Roach (2004:241)
  18. ^ Roach (2004:240)
  19. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:200)
  20. ^ Roach (2004:240)
  21. ^ Schmitt (2007:322-323)
  22. ^ Language Log. Happy-tensing and coal in sex.
  23. ^ The Queen's speech to President Sarkozy "often" pronounced at 4:44
  24. ^ Joseph Wright, English Dialect Grammer, p.5, section 12. The symbols used are slightly different. Wright classifies the sound in fall, law, saw' as /o:/ and that in more, soar, etc. as /oə/
  25. ^ The Dialects of England, Peter Trudgill, Blackwell, Oxford, 2000. p.62
  26. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:135, 186)
  27. ^ http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/rphappened.htm Point 3
  28. ^ Joseph Wright, English Dialect Grammer, p.5, section 10
  29. ^ Wise, Claude Merton. Introduction to phonetics. Englewood- Cliffs, 1957.

British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Language Log is a popular collaborative language blog maintained by University of Pennsylvania phonetician Mark Liberman. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Bibliography

  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (2 ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521530334
  • Elmes, Simon (2005), Talking for Britain: A journey through the voices of our nation, Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0140515623
  • Jones, Daniel (1917), written at London, English Pronouncing Dictionary
  • de Jong, Gea; Kirsty McDougall & Toby Hudson et al. (2007), "The speaker discriminating power of sounds undergoing historical change: A formant-based study", the Proceedings of ICPhS Saarbrücken, 1813-1816
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239-245
  • Roca, Iggy & Wyn Johnson (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Schmitt, Holger (2007), "The case for the epsilon symbol (ɛ) in RP DRESS", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 321-328

Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Daniel Jones (1881 - 1967) was a British phonetician. ...

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John Christopher Wells, MA (Cantab), Ph. ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English language skills of European Union citizens The English language in Europe, as a native language, is mainly spoken in the two countries of the British Isles: the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) and the Republic of Ireland. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... East Anglia - the easternmost area of England - was probably home to the first-ever form of language which can be called English. ... 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Not to be confused with the Celtic Cumbric language Cumbria, in the extreme North West of England, is by no means unique in having a traditional local dialect, but the isolation of the area and its rich history mean that this is perhaps one of the most interesting rural dialects... Look up Mackem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Glasgow patter or Glaswegian is a dialect shouted in and around Glasgow, Scotland. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... 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Plain English focuses on being a flexible and efficient writing style that readers can understand in one reading. ... Disambiguation: see also simple English Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. ... Special English is a simplified version of the English language first used on October 19, 1959 and presently employed by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America in daily broadcasts. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Dr. David Bourland coined the term E-Prime, short for English Prime, in the 1965 work A Linguistic Note: Writing in E-Prime to refer to the English language modified by prohibiting the use of the verb to be. E-Prime arose from Alfred Korzybskis General Semantics and his...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Received Pronunciation (1041 words)
Received Pronunciation, or RP for short, is the instantly recognisable accent often described as ‘typically British’.
The phrase Received Pronunciation was coined in 1869 by the linguist, A J Ellis, but it only became a widely used term used to describe the accent of the social elite after the phonetician, Daniel Jones, adopted it for the second edition of the
Such terms are inadequate when applied to Received Pronunciation, although as with any variety of English, RP encompasses a wide variety of speakers and should not be confused with the notion of ‘posh’ speech.
Received Pronunciation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1570 words)
Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language which has been the prestige British accent (see prestige dialect).
According to Fowler's Modern English Usage (1965), the term is "the Received Pronunciation".
Received Pronunciation was also sometimes referred to as the Queen's English, because it is spoken by the Queen, or BBC English because it was traditionally used by the BBC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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